Khan Sahib - a compound of khan and sahib - was a formal title of respect and honour, which was conferred exclusively on Muslim and Jewish subjects of the British Indian Empire. It was a one degree higher than the title of Khan. The title was conferred along with a medal and a citation, the title was conferred on behalf of the British Indian Government by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India. The title Khan Sahib was originally conferred by the Mughal Empire on Muslim subjects in recognition of services rendered and was adopted by the British Indian Empire for the same purpose. Hindu subjects of the British Indian Empire were conferred the title of Rai Sahib, since there were no separate titles foár Parsi and Jewish subjects, the British Indian Empire conferred the Muslim title of Khan Sahib to Parsi and Jewish subjects as well. The chronological list of recipients below is not exhaustive,1918, Pir Syed Karam Shah of Shorkot via letter from Viceroy Barnes Court Simla. Original letter and Parchment document still available,1919, Munshi Farzad Ali 1920, Rana Talia Muhammad Khan for meritorious services 1921, Mohammad wali jaun 1922, Ghias-ud-din Saiyid Abdul Karim Sahib inspector general awarded title of Khan shahib.
1926, shah muhammad abdul hakeem faridi superitendent kotadowar awarded title of Khan shahib, the Deputy Commissioner/Collector of District Bannu/Edwardabad at that time Major A. E. D. Parton had to send his medal and Sanad through a messenger as he declined to attend the awarding ceremony at Deputy Commissioners Office in Bannu. 1935, Zaildar Mian Noor Ahmad Bhatti for his loyalty, services, letter was sent by his majesty to Mian Sahib 1939, Jalal ud din Jalal Baba for his services in Hazara district and displaying leadership qualities. 1940, To Sahibzada Khurshid Ali Khan in recognition of services for the British Indian government and he served in the British foreign service in the 1940s. He was from wayanwali sharif, gujranwala, Pakistan. He resigned from British foreign service in 1947 on the request of Mohammad Ali Jinnah conveyed to him by Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan. 1941, Maulvi Mahammad Roufique, Nowgaon local board, Assam recipient of award KHAN SAHIB,1941, Muhammad Hassan Khan, 1st DG Survey of Pakistan later, belongs to Domeli near Jhelum.
He served in Royal Army as well as a Lt Col, one of the most courageous and generous officers, he fought in. Later he was given the title of Khan Bahadur. Because of him Pakistan Occupied 3871 sq km more in separation through the red cliff award, Father of Lt Col Qurban Hassan Khan, Chief Instructor ISI. 1946, Choudhary Daswandi Khan Virk, World War Warrior, Superintendent of Police, Resident of Village Virk, Distt. Sialkot, Father of Ch Zafar Iqbal Virk, Ch Khizer Iqbal Virk, Ch Mehmood Iqbal Virk and Ch Javed Iqbal Virk 1946, Pallonji Nusserwanji Panthaky, for work in Karauli
Chhatrapati is an Indian royal title equivalent to an King used by the Marathas. The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is from Sanskrit chhatra and pati, Chhatrapati thus indicates a person who gives shelter to his followers and protects them. In contrast, the Indian Maharaja or Raja, Rajkumar or Kumar and Sardar most closely equate to the European titles King, Crown Prince, Prince and Count, respectively. Shivaji adopted this title due to the fact that a lot of the titles were bestowed on rulers by other powers like Adilshahi or Mughals. Chhatrapti is the adopted by Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, founder of the Maratha Empire when he was crowned. As described below, Shivajis lineal successors in the royal House of Bhonsle held the title of Chhatrapati, chhatrapatis after 1848 did not have any land under their rule. However, the important fort of Pratapgad is owned by Udayanraje Bhosale. Shahu Ramraja -Grandson of Rajaram and his wife, Tarabai. Sambhaji II - son of Rajaram and his wife, Rajasbai. S. Maratha Confederacy, A Study in its Origin and Development, Rigveda to Rajgarh – Making of Shivaji the Great
A scimitar is a backsword or sabre with a curved blade, originating in the Middle East. The curved sword or scimitar was widespread throughout the Middle East from at least the Ottoman period, the type harks back to the makhaira type of antiquity, but the Arabic term saif is probably from the same source as Greek xiphos. The Persian sword now called shamshir appears by the 12th century and was popularized in Persia by the early 16th century, the name is thought to be derived from the Persian word shamshēr which literally means “paw claw, ” due to its long, curved design. The word has been translated through many languages to end at scimitar, in the Early Middle Ages, the Turkic people of Central Asia came into contact with Middle Eastern civilizations through their shared Islamic faith. Turkic Ghilman slave-soldiers serving under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates introduced kilij type sabers to all of the other Middle Eastern cultures, previously and Persians used straight-bladed swords such as the earlier types of the Arab saif and kaskara.
During Islamization of the Turks, the became more and more popular in the İslamic armies. When the Seljuk Empire invaded Persia and became the first Turkic Muslim political power in Western Asia, the Iranian shamshir was created during the Turkic Seljuk Empire period of Iran. The term saif in Arabic can refer to any Middle Eastern curved sword, richard F. Burton derives both words from the Egyptian sfet. The English term scimitar is attested from the century, derives from either the Middle French cimeterre or from the Italian scimitarra. The ultimate source of terms is unknown. Perhaps they are corruptions of the Persian shamshir, but the OED finds this explanation unsatisfactory, the word shamshir is Persian and refers to a straight-edged sword as well as to a curved-edged sword, depending on the era of usage. The Indian talwar is a similar to the shamshir, with the exception of a broader blade, mild curve. The sword is made very hard wootz steel. The word tulwar literally means sword in Urdu/Hindi, the tulwar is unusual in that it can be used for thrusting as well as cutting.
The kilij is a used by the Turks and the Ottoman Empire. The kilij is a kind of scimitar that has a slight taper down the straight of the blade until the last third of the sword. This created a variety of nimcha, and almost no two are the same. The Afghan pulwar is similar in design to the tulwar
The Mughal emperors were a branch of the Timurid dynasty. From the early 16th century to the early 18th they built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the countries of Bangladesh, India. Their power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last of the emperors was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. The dynasty was of Asian Turco-Mongol origin from a now part of modern-day Uzbekistan. Timur is generally known in the West as Tamerlane the Great and its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million, over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres. Ousted from his domains in Central Asia by Uzbek Khan. He established himself in Kabul and pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.
Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun’s triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. Humayuns son, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions, and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the aristocracy of Indias social groups, implemented a modern government. At the same time Akbar intensified trade with European trading companies and he left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. Akbars son, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques.
During the reign of Jahangirs son, Shah Jahan, the culture, the maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue. Shah Jahans eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, however, a younger son, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim religion and culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed, although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzebs reign, the empire gained political strength once more, Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt. Aurangzebs son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds
Khagan or Qagan is a title in the Mongolian language equal to the status of emperor and used to refer to someone who rules a khaganate or empire. The title was adopted by Ögedei Khan from the Turkic title kaɣan and it may be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Mongolian, the title became Khaan with the g sound becoming almost silent or non-existent, since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title. Kağan and Kaan are common Turkish names in Turkey, the common western rendering as Great Khan, notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan. In the speech one of the Murongs general named Yinalou addressed him as kehan, the Rouran Khaganate was the first people to use the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic. However, many believe the Rouran were proto-Mongols.
The Avar Khaganate, who may have included Rouran elements after the Göktürks crushed the Rouran ruling Mongolia, the Avars invaded Europe, and for over a century ruled the Carpathian region. Westerners Latinized the title Khagan into Gaganus or Cagan, Khagan or Khaan refers to Emperor or King in the Mongolian language, Yekhe Khagan means Great Khagan or Grand Emperor. Thus, the Yuan is sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan, coexisting with the independent Mongol khanates in the west, including the Chagatai Khanate, only the Ilkhanate truly recognized the Yuans overlordship as allies. Later Yuan emperors made peace with the three khanates of the Mongol Empire and were considered as their nominal suzerain. The nominal supremacy, while based on nothing like the foundations as that of the earlier Khagans, did last for a few decades. After the breakdown of Mongol Empire and the fall of the Yuan dynasty in the mid-14th century, dayan Khan once revived Emperors authority and recovered its reputation in Mongolia, but with the distribution of his empire among his sons and relatives as fiefs it again caused decentralized rule.
The last Khagan of the Chahars, Ligdan Khan, died in 1634 while fighting the Qing dynasty founded by the Manchu people, in contemporary Mongolian language the word Khaan and Khan have different meanings, while English language usually does not differentiate between them. The title is used as a generic term for a king or emperor. Minor rulers were rather relegated to the title of khan. Khagan is the title of Safavid and Qajar shahs of Iran. For example, Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar, Fath Ali Shah, the nickname of Shah Ismail and other Safavid shahs is Kagan-i Suleyman shan. Emperor Taizong of Tang was crowned Tian Kehan, or heavenly Khagan after defeating the Tujue, a letter sent by the Tang court to the Yenisei Kirghiz Qaghan explained that the peoples of the northwest had requested Tang Taizong to become the Heavenly Qaghan
Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings and lords of Iran. In Iran the title was used, rather than King in the European sense. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān and this word is commonly confused with the unrelated and distinct Indian surname Shah, which is derived from the Sanskrit Sadhu or Sahu, meaning gentleman. Šāh, or Šāhanšāh to use the term, was the title of the Persian emperors. While the Ottoman Sultans never styled themselves as Shah, but rather Sultan, their male offspring received the title of Şehzade, or prince. The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām, literally King of Kings in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, in Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, King of Kings, equivalent to Emperor. Both terms were often shortened to their roots shah and basileus, in Western languages, Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh.
The term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia, for a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages and he styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu. Iran no longer had a shah after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, from the reign of Ashot III, the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning king of kings. The title padishah was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by other monarchs claiming imperial rank. Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning King, the Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman. Georgian title mepetmepe was inspired by the shahanshah title, however the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shahs kingdom.
This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire and was used by the princes of the Mughal Empire in India. Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur were by birth-right styled Shahzada Mirza Bahadur, though this style could be extended to individual grandsons, other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were merely styled Mirza or Mirza. This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties, for example, the younger sons of the ruling Sikh maharaja of Punjab were styled Shahzada Singh Bahadur. Shahbanu, Persian term using the word shah and the Persian suffix -banu, Empress, in modern times, shahdokht is another term derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -dokht daughter, female descendant, to address the Princess of the imperial households. Shahpur been derived from using the archaic Persian suffix -pur son, male descendant
Third Battle of Panipat
The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle lasted for days and involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with losses and gains on both sides, the forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. According to the single best eyewitness chronicle--the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daulahs Diwan Kashi Raj--about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle, grant Duff includes an interview of a survivor of these massacres in his History of the Marathas and generally corroborates this number. Shejwalkar, whose monograph Panipat 1761 is often regarded as the single best secondary source on the battle, says that not less than 100,000 Marathas perished during and after the battle. The result of the battle was the halting of further Maratha advances in the north, and this period is marked by the rule of Peshwa Madhavrao, who is credited with the revival of Maratha domination following the defeat at Panipat.
The success of this campaign can be seen as the last saga of the story of Panipat. The decline of the Mughal Empire following the 27-year Mughal-Maratha war led to territorial gains for the Maratha Empire. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujarat and Rajputana came under Maratha control, finally, in 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Delhi under Maratha control. Baji Raos son Balaji Baji Rao further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab in 1758 and this brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1759 he raised an army from the Pashtun and Baloch tribes and he joined with his Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Gangetic Doab—forming a broad coalition against the Marathas. The Marathas started their journey from Patdur on 14 March 1760. Both sides tried to get the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daulah, by late July Shuja-ud-Daulah made the decision to join the Afghan-Rohilla coalition, preferring to join what was perceived as the army of Islam.
This was strategically a major loss for the Marathas, since Shuja provided much-needed finances for the long Afghan stay in North India and it is doubtful whether the Afghan-Rohilla coalition would have the means to continue their conflict with the Marathas without Shujas support. The Marathas had gained control of a part of India in the intervening period. In 1758 they occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani and this territory was ruled through the Peshwa, who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. However, Delhi still remained under the control of Mughals, key Muslim intellectuals including Shah Waliullah. In desperation they appealed to Ahmad Shah Abdali, the ruler of Afghanistan, in the final phase the Marathas, under Scindia, attacked Najib
Agha, Aga, as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, was placed after the name of certain military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire. At the same time some court functionaries were entitled to the agha title, the word agha entered English from Turkish, and the Turkish word comes from the Old Turkic aqa, meaning elder brother. It is an equivalent of Mongolian word aka, in Kurdistan, within the tribal Kurdish society, agha is the title given to tribal chieftains, either supreme chieftains, or to village heads. It is given to landlords and owners of major real estates in the urban Kurdish centers. The common tribesmen would honor the chieftains or the heads by calling them agha or agha so and so. The agha and his guests would listen at times for local or visiting singers and story tellers, one of the best studies on aghas in the Kurdish society is the important book of Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and their tribal chieftains in Kurdistan. State organisation of the Ottoman Empire Agaluk Kapi Agha Kizlar Agha Silahdar Agha
Its Arabized pronunciation as Badishah was used by Mughal emperors. The rulers on the following thrones – the first two effectively commanding major West Asian empires – were styled Padishah, The Shāhanshāh of Iran, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire The emperors of the Mughal Empire, who used the Arabic version of the title, Badshah. Miangul Golshahzada Abdul Wadud of the tiny Pakistani North West Frontier state of Swat called himself badshah from November 1918 to March 1926, ahmed Shah Durrani founded the Durrani Empire in 1747 with the title Pādshah-i Afghanistan in Persian and Badcha Da Afghanistan in the Pashto language. The Sadozai were overthrown in 1823 but there was a restoration by Shah Shujah in 1839 with the help of Ranjit Singh and the Sikh Empire. The last Basha bey of Tunisia, Muhammad VIII al-Amin, adopted the sovereign style padshah 20 March 1956 –25 July 1957, the paramount prestige of this title, in Islam and even beyond, is clearly apparent from the Ottoman Empires dealings with the European powers.
The compound Pādshah-i-Ghazi is only recorded for two individual rulers, H. H, there is a large family of Turkish origin using the surname Badi in modern-day Libya. In 2008, a cricket team, the Lahore Badshahs, was founded. In India, Padishah is often a Muslim surname, from the trend of adopting titles as names by both royalty and commoners. In Frank Herberts 1965 novel Dune, the head of human space is styled Padishah Emperor of the Known Universe. In the Pathfinder role-playing game, the ruler of the Empire of Kelesh is styled Padishah Emperor, baig Emir Rana Shah Sultan RoyalArk — Select present country, choose dynasty from its menu WorldStatesmen idem, more cases but less thorough Bartbleby. com Dictionary & Etymology
Mirza or Mirzā is a historical title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a high nobleman or Prince. It is usually defined in English as a royal or imperial Prince of the Blood, Mirza is used as a name to identify patriarchal lineage to royal aristocracies of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent. Historically, it was used as a title by and signified patriarchal lineage to the families of the Turkish Empire, Circassia, Mughals. It was a title bestowed upon members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. In return, the Mirzas financed her Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire, abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, and his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia, the only niece of Tsar Nicholas II. The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means child of the ‘Amīr or child of the ruler in Persian, ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr, meaning commander and Prince, and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning birth or lineage.
Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza is used, the word Mirza means royalty in almost every old version of Persian, Caucasian and Indian languages. Variant spellings in English include mirzya, mirize, morsey, murse, mirzey, murze, the titles themselves were given by the Kings and Emperors to their sons and grandsons, or even distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings received this Title, although their usage differed, the title itself came from the title emir. Emir, meaning commander or Prince, -derived from the Semitic root Amr, originally simply meaning commander or leader, usually in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, the word entered English in 1595, from the French émir. Gasim Mirza Kavus Mirza Abu Bakr Mirza In the Indian Subcontinent and it was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal Dynasty. In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza.
Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur, son of Emperor Jahangir, Emperor Akbar Shah II was known as Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the title of Padishah on 6 March 1508. Mirza Zahiruddin 1523–1530, first Mughal Emperor, Mirza Nasiruddin 1530–1539 & 1554–1555, second Mughal Emperor. Mirza Jalaluddin 1555–1605, third Mughal Emperor, Mirza Nuruddin 1605–1627, fourth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Khurram 1627–1658, fifth Mughal Emperor, Mirza Muhiuddin 1658–1707, sixth Mughal Emperor
A princely state, called native state or Indian state, was a nominally sovereign monarchy under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with a greater power. At the time of the British withdrawal,565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of zamindaris. Rulers of salute states entitled to a gun salute of eleven guns and above received from the British the style of Highness, while the Nizam of Hyderabad had the unique style of Exalted Highness. At the other end of the scale, the principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, or smaller than Bermuda. Some two hundred of the states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states effectively ended with Indian independence in 1947, by 1950, almost all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan – thirteen to Pakistan and the rest to India. During this time, the princely states were merged into unions, each of which was headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh.
In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. The widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably the Delhi Sultanate, in the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century, among its tributaries was the future Mysore Kingdom. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century. The advent of Sikhism resulted in the creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, at the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states, India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory, British India and the Native states or Princely states.
In general the term British India had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the East India Company in India from 1774 to 1858, the term has been used to refer to the British in India. More prestigious Hindu rulers often used the title Raja, Raje or a variant such as Rana, Rao, in this class were several Thakurs or Thakores and a few particular titles, such as Sardar, Deshmukh, Sar Desai, Raja Inamdar, Saranjamdar. The most prestigious Hindu rulers usually had the prefix maha in their titles, as in Maharaja, Maharao, etc. The states of Travancore and Cochin had queens regnant styled Maharani, generally the female forms applied only to sisters and widows, there were compound titles, such as rajadhiraj, Raj-i-rajgan, often relics from an elaborate system of hierarchical titles under the Mughal emperors. For example, the addition of the adjective Bahadur raised the status of the one level. Furthermore, most dynasties used a variety of titles, such as Varma in South India