click links in text for more info

Nawab of Junagarh

Nawab of Junagarh or Junagadh refers to the now defunct ex-lineage of rulers of the princely Junagarh State in British Raj, nowadays Junagadh district in the state of Gujarat in India. There are still several forts and palaces in India which were owned by princely Junagarh family but after Partition of India property claimed by the Indian Government. Given below is the list of Nawabs who ruled in the princely Junagarh State before the Partition of India. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, the title of Nawab of Junagarh has no official status, it still is used as a courtesy title. The Partition of India in 1947 resulted in the exile of Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, the last ruling Nawab of Junagarh; the Nawab, being Muslim, was in favor of declaring the state as part of newly created Muslim majority Pakistan. For this purpose he signed the documents for incorporation of its state in Pakistan, but soon the state was surrounded and occupied by Indian forces and the nawab and his family fled to Pakistan.

After his exile, he settled down in Pakistan and the Junagarh family resides at the'Junagarh House' in Karachi, Pakistan. After one year of occupation the Indian Government held a referendum asking the people of state to agree to be part of India. Pathans of Gujarat List of Sunni dynasties Babi dynasty Babai List of Pashtun empires and dynasties Official Website of State of Junagadh

Mason Peck

Mason Peck is an associate professor at Cornell University and former NASA Chief Technologist. His immediate predecessor in the NASA position was Bobby Braun. Peck has published in various aerospace sub-disciplines including. Peck was awarded $75,000 in 2007 by NASA's Institute for Advanced Concepts to study how a large fleet of microchip-size space probes in Earth orbit might propel themselves into the Interplanetary Transport Network; this was to be achieved by exploiting the Lorentz Force, enabled by using photovoltaics to maintain an electrostatic charge while orbiting in Earth's magnetic field. Peck has served on the advisory board of Mars One since February 2014. Space Systems Design Studio Mason Peck, MAE, Ralph S. Watts'72 Award Tau Beta Pi-award.cfm Tau Beta Pi Professor of the Year Award Boyle, Alan. "NASA's top techie speaks out". Cosmic Log. MSNBC. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-04. Dr. Mason Peck - Advisers - About Mars One Mason Peck on Twitter

German submarine U-323

German submarine U-323 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She sank or damaged no ships; the boat was scuttled in May 1945 in northern Germany. Like all Type VIIC/41 U-boats, U-323 had a displacement of 759 tonnes when at the surface and 860 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam length of 6.20 m, a draught length of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 supercharged six-cylinder four-stroke diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower and two Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co. RP 137/c double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged; the boat was capable of operating at a depth of 250 metres. The submarine had a submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-323 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, one 3.7 cm Flak M42 and two 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns.

Its complement was between sixty. The submarine was laid down on 12 March 1942 by the Flender Werke yard at Lübeck as yard number 323, launched on 12 January 1944 and commissioned on 2 March under the command of Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Pregel, she served with the 4th U-boat Flotilla for training, from 2 March 1944 to 3 May 1945. The boat was scuttled on 3 May 1945 near Nordenham. Battle of the Atlantic Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VII/C41 boat U-323". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 6 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 323". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - Retrieved 6 December 2014

Beyond the Purple Hills

Beyond the Purple Hills is a 1950 American Western film directed by John English and written by Norman S. Hall; the film stars Gene Autry, Jo-Carroll Dennison, Don Beddoe, James Millican, Don Reynolds and Hugh O'Brian. The film was released on July 1950, by Columbia Pictures. Gene Autry as Gene Autry Jo-Carroll Dennison as Mollie Rayburn Don Beddoe as Amos Rayburn James Millican as Rocky Morgan Don Reynolds as Chip Beaumont Hugh O'Brian as Jack Beaumont Roy Gordon as Judge Beaumont Harry Harvey Sr. as Sheriff Whiteside Pat Buttram as Mike Rawley Gregg Barton as Ross Pardee Robert J. Wilke as Jim Connors Ralph Peters as Tim Frank Ellis as Corey John Cliff as Dave Miller Sandy Sanders as Doghouse Frankie Marvin as Marty Boyd Stockman as Ed Maudie Prickett as Aggie Champion as Champ Beyond the Purple Hills on IMDb

2019 Heritage Classic

The 2019 NHL Heritage Classic was an outdoor regular season National Hockey League game. The game, the fifth Heritage Classic, was held on October 26, 2019; the Winnipeg Jets defeated the Calgary Flames, 2–1, at Mosaic Stadium in Regina, Saskatchewan—the home field of the Canadian Football League's Saskatchewan Roughriders. This was the first NHL regular season outdoor game, held in a neutral site territory, not formally part of an NHL market, the first regular season game held in Regina, the first regular season game held in Saskatchewan since 1994. Regina is located half-way between Calgary and Winnipeg; the Jets were designated as the home team. This was the second outdoor game for each team. To accommodate the game, the CFL scheduled a three week road trip for the Riders near the end of the 2019 CFL season. Saskatchewan played its penultimate home game on October 5, followed by three road games while its stadium was converted to an outdoor hockey rink and back again; the Riders returned to Mosaic Stadium on November 2 for their final 2019 regular season game.

Bryan Little scored at 3:04 of overtime to give the Jets the 2–1 win. The Flames' Elias Lindholm opened the scoring on a power play at 14:47 of the second period. Winnipeg's Josh Morrissey tied the game on a power play at 15:49 of the third period. At 19:58 of the second period, the Jets' Adam Lowry was given a minor penalty for boarding the Flames' Oliver Kylington; the league would give Lowry a two-game suspension as a repeat offender. Number in parenthesis represents the player's total in goals or assists to that point of the season Scratches – Did not playCalgary Flames: Michael Stone, Mark Jankowski Winnipeg Jets: Luca Sbisa, Ville Heinola, Mason Appleton The Hunter Brothers sang the national anthem, The Sheepdogs performed during the first intermission, Jess Moskaluke sang during the second intermission; this aired as the late 10:00 p.m. EDT game on Hockey Night in Canada. In the U. S. NBCSN simulcast the HNIC feed; the Western Hockey League's Regina Pats hosted a "Prairie Classic" outdoor game against the Calgary Hitmen on October 27.

Calgary won the game 5-4 in overtime. Official website


Cyanopolyynes are a group of chemicals with the chemical formula HCnN. Structurally, they are polyynes with a cyano group covalently bonded to one of the terminal acetylene units. A seen group of molecules both due to the difficulty in production and the unstable nature of the paired groups, the cyanopolyynes have been observed as a major organic component in interstellar clouds; this is believed to be due to the hydrogen scarcity of some of these clouds. Interference with hydrogen is one of the reason for the molecule's instability due to the energetically favorable dissociation back into hydrogen cyanide and acetylene. Cyanopolyynes were first discovered in interstellar molecular clouds in 1971 using millimeter wave and microwave telescopes. Since many higher weight cyanopolyynes such as HC7N and HC11N have been discovered, although some of these identifications have been disputed. Other derivatives such as methylcyanoacetylene CH3C3N and ethylcyanoacetylene CH3CH2C3N have been observed as well.

The simplest example is cyanoacetylene, H−C≡C−C≡N. Cyanoacetylene is more common on Earth and it is believed to be the initial reagent for most of the photocatalyzed formation of the interstellar cyanopolyynes. Cyanoacetylene is one of the molecules, produced in the Miller–Urey experiment and is expected to be found in carbon-rich environments. Identification is made through comparison of experimental spectrum with spectrum gathered from the telescope; this is done with measurement of the rotational constant, the energy of the rotational transitions, or a measurement of the dissociation energy. These spectra can either be generated ab initio from a computational chemistry program or, such as with the more stable cyanoacetylene, by direct measurement of the spectra in an experiment. Once the spectra are generated, the telescope can scan within certain frequencies for the desired molecules. Quantification can be accomplished as well to determine the density of the compounds in the cloud; the formation of cyanopolyynes in interstellar clouds is time-dependent.

The formation of cyanopolyyne was studied and the abundances calculated in the dark cloud TMC-1. In the early days of the TMC-1, the governing reactions were ion–molecule reactions. During this time cyanoacetylene, HC3N, formed through a series of ion-neutral reactions, with the final chemical reaction being: C3H2 + N → HC3N + HHowever, for time after 10,000 years the dominant reactions were neutral–neutral reactions and two reaction mechanisms for the formation of cyanopolyynes became possible. HCN + C2H2 → HC3N CnH2 + CN → HCn+1N + H for n = 4, 6, 8The reaction mechanism that occurs in the present day depends on the environment of the cloud. For the first reaction mechanism to take place, the cloud must contain an abundance of C2H; the second reaction mechanism occurs if there is an abundance of C2H2. C2H and C2H2 exist in different conditions, so the formation of cyanopolyynes relies on high accessibility to either molecule; the calculations by Winstanley show that photoionization and dissociation reactions play a profound role in the abundances of cyanopolyynes after about 1 million years.

However, the fractional abundances of cyanopolyyne are less affected by changes in radiation field intensity past time 1 million years because the prevailing neutral-neutral reactions surpass the effects of photoreactions. Cyanopolyynes are common in interstellar clouds, where they were first detected in 1971; as with many other molecules the cyanopolyynes are detected with a spectrometer which records the quantum energy levels of the electrons within the atoms. This measurement is done with a source of light; the light interacts with the molecule and can either absorb the light or reflect it, as not all light behaves the same way. This separates the light into a spectrum with alterations due to the molecule in question; this spectrum is recorded by a computer, able to determine which wavelengths of the spectrum have been altered in some way. With the wide range of light affected the wavelengths can be determined by looking for spikes in the spectrum; the detection process happens within the outer ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum in infrared or radio waves.

The spectrum is able to show the energy of the rotational state due to the wavelengths that are absorbed by the molecule. Rotational transitions can be determined by this equation: V = 2B0 J − 4D0 J3where B0 is the rotational distortion constant for the vibrational ground state D0 is the centrifugal distortion constant for the vibrational ground state J is the total angular momentum quantum numberThis shows that the rotational distortion of an atom is related to the vibrational frequency of the molecule in question. With this ability to detect the cyanopolyynes these molecules have been recorded in several places around the galaxy; such places include the atmosphere on Titan and the gas clouds that are within nebulae and the confines of dying stars. Species as large as HC9N were detected in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1, where they are believed to be formed by reaction of atomic nitrogen with hydrocarbons. For a while, HC11N held the record as the largest molecule detected in interstellar space, but its identification was challenged.

Diacetylene, H−C≡C−C≡C−H