Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Sorbonne University is a public research university in Paris, established by the merger in 2018 of Paris-Sorbonne University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, other smaller institutions. The date 1257 on its emblem refers to the historical University of Paris, whose Collège de Sorbonne was founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, became the current Faculty of Humanities of Sorbonne University. In 2010, some of the direct successors of the faculties of the University of Paris created the Sorbonne Universities Association; the following universities, members of the group, have decided to merge into Sorbonne University in 2018: Paris-Sorbonne University a constituent part of the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris. Pierre et Marie Curie University a constituent part of the faculty of science and of the faculty of medicine of the University of Paris. At the same time, Sorbonne Universities Association was renamed to Sorbonne University Association and groups the following institutions for academic cooperation: University of Technology of Compiègne.
As part of the reforms of French Higher Education, on 19 March 2018, the international jury called by the French Government for the "Initiative d’Excellence" confirmed the definite win of Sorbonne University. Sorbonne University won an endowment of 900 Mio euros with no limit of time; this is the first higher education institution in Paris region to win such an endowment. The university was established by a decree of 21 April 2017 and took place on 1 January 2018. Sorbonne University has 3 faculties. Letters are the more ancient teachings of the Sorbonne University. History, Languages, Philosophy are part of this faculty; the Faculty of Science of Sorbonne University is a major research institution in France. It can be considered the successor in direct line to the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris, it has more than 125 laboratories, most of them in association with the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Some of its most notable institutes and laboratories include the Institut Henri Poincaré, Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, LIP6, Institut des systèmes intelligents et de robotique, Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu and the Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel.
The faculty of Medicine is located in the teaching hospitals Saint-Antoine. There is no Law school as such in Sorbonne University. In 1971, most of the law professors from the Faculty of Law and Economics of the University of Paris decided to restructure it as a university, called Panthéon-Assas University.. Panthéon-Assas now provides Law teachings for Sorbonne University as an independent university. Sorbonne University's historical campus is in the historic central Sorbonne building, located at 47 rue des Écoles, in the Latin Quarter; the building is the undivided property of the 13 successor universities of the University of Paris, managed by the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris. Besides the monuments of the Cour d'honneur, the Sorbonne Chapel and the Grand amphitéâtre, the building houses the Academy of Paris Rectorat, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, part of the Universities Panthéon Sorbonne, New Sorbonne, Sorbonne University, Paris Descartes, the Ecole Nationale des Chartes and the Ecole Pratique de Hautes Etudes.
Before the 19th century, the Sorbonne occupied several buildings. The chapel was built in 1622 by the then-Provisor of the University of Paris, Cardinal Richelieu, during the reign of Louis XIII. In 1881, politician Jules Ferry decided to convert the Sorbonne into one single building. Under the supervision of Pierre Greard, Chief Officer of the Education Authority of Paris, Henri-Paul Nénot constructed the current building from 1883 to 1901 that reflects a basic architectural uniformity; the integration of the chapel into the whole was Nénot’s work with the construction of a cour d'honneur. The Sorbonne building is reserved for undergraduate students in their third year and graduate students in certain academic disciplines. Only students in Semitic studies, regardless of level, take all their classes at the Sorbonne campus; the Library of the Sorbonne is an inter-university library of the Universities Panthéon Sorbonne, New Sorbonne, Sorbonne University, Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot, under the administration of Panthéon Sorbonne.
It is open to undergraduate students in their third year and graduate students. With the former archives of the now-defunct University of Paris, 2,500,000 books, 400,000 of them ancient, 2,500 historical manuscripts, 18,000 doctoral dissertation papers, 17,750 past and current French and international periodicals and 7,100 historical printing plates, the Library of the Sorbonne is the largest university library in Paris and was refurbished in 2013; the largest of Sorbonne University's campuses is Jussieu Campus named “Pierre and Marie Curie campus”. It houses the Faculty of Science; the first buildings are from 1957. The main part of the campus, the “Gril d'Albe
Special Tribunal for Lebanon
The Special Tribunal for Lebanon referred to as the Lebanon Tribunal or the Hariri Tribunal, is a tribunal of international character applying Lebanese criminal law to carry out the investigation and prosecution of those responsible for the 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese prime minister, the deaths of 21 others, as well as those responsible for connected attacks. The Tribunal opened on 1 March 2009 and has primacy over the national courts of Lebanon; the Tribunal has its seat in Leidschendam, on the outskirts of The Hague, a field office in the Lebanese capital, Beirut. Its official languages are Arabic and English; the Tribunal is unique among international criminal tribunals in that it may hold trials in absentia, it is the first to deal with terrorism as a distinct crime. It is the only international tribunal to require the establishment of a dedicated Outreach Programme Unit in its Statute or Rules of Procedure and Evidence, indicating the importance placed on the STL's obligation to provide accurate and timely information to the public in Lebanon.
The Tribunal's eleven judges, a combination of Lebanese and international judges, are appointed by the UN Secretary-General for a renewable term of three years. The Tribunal's mandate was three years. However, there is no fixed timeline for the judicial work to be completed; the mandate has subsequently been extended to allow the Tribunal to complete its work. In March 2006, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1664, the Security Council requested the Secretary-General consult with the Lebanese government on the establishment of an international tribunal to try those responsible for the February 14th, 2005 attack; the Lebanese government and United Nations signed an agreement for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon on 23 January 2007 and 6 February 2007 respectively. However, the Lebanese Prime Minister wrote to the UN Secretary-General in May 2007 stating that the Speaker refused to convene Parliament, therefore the agreement could not be ratified, despite the support of a majority of parliamentarians.
Due to this political impasse, the Security Council implemented the agreement through United Nations Security Council Resolution 1757 on May 30, 2007, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. According to the resolution, the agreement would enter into force on June 10, 2007, unless Lebanon informed the United Nations that it complied with the legal requirements for its entry into force before that date; the political stalemate did not resolve itself, the Agreement therefore came into force on 10 June 2007. Following its legal establishment, the Secretary-General of the United Nations announced on August 17, 2007 that the Netherlands had agreed to host the Tribunal; the UN and the Netherlands signed a headquarters agreement to formalize the agreement on December 21, 2007. The Tribunal opened its doors on March 1, 2009, taking over jurisdiction from the United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission, whose mandate ended on February 28, 2009; the Tribunal was established to "try all those who are found responsible for the terrorist crime which killed the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and others."
Its jurisdiction could be extended beyond that event to other attacks in Lebanon between October 1, 2004 and December 12, 2005, if there was sufficient evidence showing they were connected and of a similar nature and gravity to the February 14th attack. Human Rights Watch had argued that the tribunal should have been given jurisdiction over 14 other attacks perpetrated in Lebanon since 1 October 2004; the Tribunal is the first of the UN-based international criminal court to try a terrorist crime committed against a specific person. The Tribunal's mandate was set for three years, but has been extended by the UN Secretary-General to allow the Tribunal to complete its work. Most in 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon "reaffirmed the commitment of the UN to support the work of the Tribunal to bring those responsible to justice and to ensure that impunity for such major crimes will not be tolerated," and extended the Tribunal's mandate until 2018; the mandate may be further extended. The Tribunal applies Lebanese criminal law, with judges guided by both the Lebanese Code of Criminal Procedure and other materials reflecting the highest standards of international criminal procedure.
Accordingly, it is similar to the Section I for War Crimes and Section II for Organized Crime, Economic Crime and Corruption of the Criminal and Appellate Divisions of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina which has such "hybrid" chambers, as well as to the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. The STL is composed of four organs: Chambers, which consists of a Pre-Trial Judge, a Trial Chamber, an Appeals Chamber; the STL Statute allows for victims to participate in the proceedings, through legal representatives. In the administrative structure of the Tribunal, victim participation falls under the Registry; the Chambers are composed of an international Pre-Trial Judge, three Trial Chamber judges, five Appeals Chamber judges, two alternate judges. The alternate judges may be assigned by the Tribunal President to be present at each stage of the trial, replace a judge, unable to continue
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
United Nations Economic and Social Council
The United Nations Economic and Social Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organisation in regards to the 15 specialised agencies, the eight functional commissions and the five regional commissions under its jurisdiction. The Council serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system. A number of non-governmental organisations have been granted consultative status to the Council to participate in the work of the United Nations, it holds one four-week session each year in July, since 1998, it has held an annual meeting in April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The president of the Council is elected for a one-year term and chosen from the small- or mid-sized powers represented on the Council at the beginning pf each new session.
The presidency rotates among the United Nations Regional Groups to ensure equal representation. Ambassador Inga Rhonda King of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was elected as the seventy-fourth President of the Economic and Social Council on 26 July 2018; the Council consists of 54 Members States, which are elected yearly by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allocated ensuring equitable geographic rotation among the United Nations regional groups, with 14 being allocated to the African Group, 11 to the Asia-Pacific Group, 6 to the Eastern European Group, 10 to the Latin American and Caribbean Group and 13 to the Western European and Others Group; the following are the current Member States of the Council: Participation on a continuing basis: Participation on an ad hoc basis: The following are the active functional commission of the Council: UN Commission for Social Development Commission on Narcotic Drugs Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission on Science and Technology for Development UN Commission on the Status of Women Commission on Population and Development UN Statistical Commission United Nations Forum on Forests The following commissions were disbanded by the Council and replaced by other bodies: Commission on Human Rights Disbanded in 2006 and replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council, a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly.
Commission on Sustainable Development Disbanded in 2013 and replaced by the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, a joint subsidiary body of the General Assembly and ECOSOC. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia The specialised agencies of the United Nations are autonomous organisations working within the United Nations System, meaning that while they report their activities to the Economic and Social Council, they are free to their own devices; each individual agency must negotiate with the Council as to what their relationship will look and work like. This leads to a system where different organisations maintain different types of relationships with the Council; some were created before the United Nations existed and were integrated into the system, others were created by the League of Nations and were integrated by its successor, while others were created by the United Nations itself to meet a emerging needs.
The following is a list of the specialized agencies reporting to the Council: Food and Agriculture Organization International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Maritime Organization International Telecommunication Union United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations World Tourism Organization Universal Postal Union World Bank Group International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization Financing for Development, the Monterrey Consensus and Doha Declaration Development Cooperation Forum United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Sessional and Standing Committees Expert, ad hoc and related bodies United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund United Nations Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of NCDs International Federation for Family Development has general consultative status In a report issued in early July 2011, the UN called for spending nearly US$2 trillion on green technologies to prevent what it termed "a major planetary catastrophe", warning that "It is expanding energy use driven by fossil fuels, that explains why humanity is on the verge of breaching planetary sustainability boundaries through global warming, biodiversity loss, disturbance of the nitrogen-cycle balance and other measures of the sustainability of the earth's ecosystem".
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon added: "Rather than viewing growth and sustainability as competing goals on a collision course, we must see them as complementary and mutually supportive imperatives". The report conclud
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Saeb Salam was a Lebanese politician, who served as Prime Minister six times between 1952 and 1973. Following his death, the Lebanese daily As-Safir described Salam as "most successful in dealing with the media and in presenting a particular image of himself to people on a daily basis through wearing his customary carnation... and expounding unforgettable slogans," and that he was Lebanon's most popular prime minister after independence leader Riad Al Solh. A significant aspect of Salam was that, unlike other Lebanese leaders, he did not act as a chief over a particular area in the country. Salam fiercely advocated the unity of Lebanon. Salam was the son of Salim Ali Salam, the scion of a prominent Sunni Muslim family, a prominent politician both under Ottoman rule and during the French Mandate, being a member of the Ottoman parliament, an import-export businessman, he was born on 17 January 1905. He held a bachelor's degree in economics, his family was liberal in regard to religion and his sister, Anbara Salam Khalidy, was the first Lebanese Muslim woman, who did not wear the veil in public.
The younger Salam got his first taste of politics in 1941, when he started campaigning against French and British mandates in the Levant and Palestine. He joined in this endeavour by a legislator from Tripoli. In 1943, Salam was elected to the National Assembly from a Beirut constituency. After founding Middle East Airlines in 1945, Salam was appointed Minister of the Interior in 1946 - his first cabinet position. Six years he became Prime Minister for the first time, on 14 September 1952, his administration lasted only four days. Salam's government resigned too, he was recalled on 1 May 1953 by Camille Chamoun. The cabinet was formed to oversee the general elections. Salam was appointed oil minister by prime minister Abdallah Yafi in 1956, negotiated deals the Aramco and Tapeline companies to connect the Zahrani and Baddawi refineries with oilfields in Saudi Arabia and Iraq. President Chamoun's support for the British and Israeli invasion of Egypt during the Suez Crisis, led both Yafi and Salam to resign in protest.
He participated in demonstrations in 1958 that followed, was wounded, was subsequently placed under arrest while recovering in hospital. He was released after a five-day hunger strike, however. In the parliamentary election of 1957, Salam lost his seat, as did Yafi, Rashid Karami and Kamal Jumblatt. Allegations of vote rigging were never proven, but that the allegation that the constituencies were gerrymandered was little disputed. Yafi and Salam led a strike upon these events. On 25 September 1957, Salam and Hussein Oweini, former prime minister, were indicted due to their alleged involvement in organizing an armed coup and rioting. Salam, Karami and Jumblatt subsequently formed an opposition bloc espousing Arab nationalism and sympathetic to the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser, the president of the newly formed United Arab Republic, a union between Egypt and Syria; the opposition's consternation at President Chamoun's reported plans to seek a second term in office and to join the pro-Western Baghdad Pact led to the outbreak of five months of civil strife in 1958 between the opposition's Muslim supporters and Chamoun's Christian supporters.
The crisis only ended with an agreement by Chamoun not to seek another term and the election of General Fuad Chehab, perceived as a moderate, as President in September. His attitude at that time made him a communal hero. Salam became prime minister again on 2 August 1960, remained in office until 31 October 1961, he broke with President Chehab, over what he saw as the granting of undue powers to the police. Throughout the 1960s he opposed the "police state" that he accused Chehab and his chosen successor, Charles Helou, of trying to establish, in 1968 he spoke out against political interference by military intelligence, his opposition to Chehabist rule intensified, in 1970, he helped to assemble a parliamentary coalition that elected Suleiman Frangieh to the presidency, by one vote, over the Chehabist candidate Elias Sarkis. Frangieh appointed Salam prime minister for the fourth time on 13 October 1970; this administration, which lasted until 25 April 1973, was his longest. He fell out with Frangieh and resigned as prime minister in the wake of an Israeli commando raid in Beirut, which killed three Palestinian leaders, in protest against Frangieh's refusal to dismiss the army commander, General Iskandar Ghanem, for negligence.
Salam declared. During the civil war Salam's motto was "One Lebanon, not two."Out of office, Salam remained influential. In the wake of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, he mediated between the United States envoy, Philip Habib and the PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, securing the removal of the Palestinian military presence in Lebanon, he opposed the election to the Presidency of Bachir Gemayel, but was reconciled to him after the election and began working with him on a number of reform proposals. When Gemayel was assassinated on 14 September of that year, without having taken office, Salam supported his brother, Amine Gemayel, for the Presidency and persuaded most Muslim National Assembly members to vote for him. Salam retired from politics in 1992. In 1985, Salam went into exile in Geneva, after surviving two assassination attempts, he had