Sant’Isidoro a Capo le Case
Sant’Isidoro a Capo le Case is a Roman Catholic church, monastic complex and college of the Franciscan Order, in the Ludovisi district on the Pincian Hill in Rome. It contains the Cappella Da Sylva, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who designed the funerary monument of his son Paolo Valentino Bernini in it. Since the giving of San Patrizio a Villa Ludovizi to the United States of America for use as their national church, Sant'Isidoro has become the National Church of Ireland in Rome; the monastery was founded by a gift from the nobleman Ottaviano Vestri di Barbiano, as shown in a bull of pope Urban VIII of 1625. Its construction was begun in response to pope Gregory XV's 1622 canonisation of Isidore of Madrid and four other saints - in that year, some Spanish Discalced Franciscans arrived in Rome wanting to found a convent for Spaniards and build a church dedicated to Isidore. After two years, the church and monastery passed to Irish Franciscans, who had fled Ireland due to English persecution and who still own the complex.
They were led by Luke Wadding, who founded a school of studies, recognised by Urban VIII's 1625 bull. Saint Patrick was added to the monastery church's dedication; the monastery was dissolved for a time by Napoleon I and from 1810 to 1820 its monastic buildings housed the artistic colony known as the Nazarenes. It became a monastery again after his defeat and it remains so to this day
Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Johann Friedrich Overbeck was a German painter and member of the Nazarene movement. He made four etchings. Born in Lübeck, his ancestors for three generations had been Protestant pastors. Within a stone's throw of the family mansion in the Konigstrasse stood the Gymnasium, where the uncle, doctor of theology and a voluminous writer, was the master; the young artist left Lübeck in March 1806, entered as student the academy of Vienna under the direction of Heinrich Füger. While Overbeck accrued some of the polished technical aspects of the neoclassic painters, he was alienated by lack of religious spirituality in the themes chosen by his masters. Overbeck wrote to a friend that he had fallen among a vulgar set, that every noble thought was suppressed within the academy and that losing all faith in humanity, he had turned inward to his faith for inspiration. In Overbeck's view, the nature of earlier European art had been corrupted throughout contemporary Europe, starting centuries before the French Revolution, the process of discarding its Christian orientation was proceeding further now.
He sought to express Christian art before the corrupting influence of the late Renaissance, casting aside his contemporary influences, taking as a guide early Italian Renaissance painters, up to and including Raphael. After four years, their differences between his group and others in the academy had grown so irreconcilable, that Overbeck and his followers were expelled, he left for Rome, where he arrived in 1810, carrying his half-finished canvas of Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. Rome became for 59 years the centre of his labor, he was joined by a company of like-minded artists, including Peter von Cornelius, Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and Philipp Veit, who jointly housed in the old Franciscan convent of San Isidoro, became known among friends and enemies by the descriptive epithet of Nazarenes. Their precept was holy living; the characteristics of the style thus educed were nobility of idea and hardness of outline, scholastic composition, with the addition of light and colour, not for allurement, but chiefly for perspicuity and completion of motive.
Overbeck in 1813 joined the Roman Catholic Church, thereby he believed that his art received Christian baptism. Timely commissions followed; the Prussian consul, Jakob Salomon Bartholdy, had a house on the brow of the Pincian Hill, called Palazzo Zuccari or Casa Bartholdy, he engaged the quartet of Overbeck, Cornelius and Schadow to fresco a room 7 m square with episodes from the story of Joseph and his Brethren. The subjects which fell to the lot of Overbeck were the Seven Years of Famine and Joseph sold by his Brethren, finished in 1818. In the same year Prince Massimo commissioned Overbeck, Cornelius and Schnorr to cover the walls and ceilings of his garden pavilion, near St. John Lateran, with frescoes illustrative of Tasso and Ariosto. To Overbeck was assigned, in a room 5 m square, the illustration of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered. After ten years delay, the overtaxed and enfeebled painter delegated the completion of the frescoes to his friend Joseph von Führich; the leisure thus gained was devoted to a congenial theme, the Vision of St Francis, a wall-painting 6.5 m long, finished in 1830, for the Porziuncola in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli near Assisi.
Overbeck was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1864. He died in Rome in 1869, he was interred in the church of San Bernardo alle Terme. Portrait of the Painter Franz Pforra Vittoria Caldoni Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, in the Marienkirche.. Christus am Ölberg Germany Christ's Agony in the Garden, in the great hospital, Hamburg. Lo Sposalizio, Muzeum Narodowe, Poznań, Poland; the Triumph of Religion in the Arts, in the Städel Institute, Frankfurt. Pietà, in the Marienkirche, Lübeck. Lamentation of Christ The Incredulity of St. Thomas, first in the possession of Beresford Hope, now in the Schäfer collection, Germany; the Assumption of the Madonna, in Cologne Cathedral. The Ascension of the Virgin Mary Christ Delivered from the Jews, tempera on a ceiling in the Quirinal Palace, it is a commission from Pius IX, a direct attack on the Italian temporal government, therefore covered by a canvas adorned with Cupids, now hanging in front of the Aula delle Benedizione in the Vatican.
The Seven Sacraments Baptism 1862–64, Neue Pinakothek, Munich Drawings for the frescoes for the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul in Đakovo, his nephew Johannes Overbeck, a professor of archaeology at the University of Leipzig, was noted for his work in art history. In 1843 the Church of St. John the Baptist, North Wales was built by the Glynne Family of Hawarden, Flintshire; the first vicar, Rev. John Ellis Troughton spent the first 20 years of the life of the church painting the interior with Overbeck murals, including the Palm Sunday one – of which the original was destroyed in an Allied B
Johann Gebhard Flatz was an Austrian painter of the Nazarene movement. He was the eleventh child of a baker and, spent his childhood in poverty, his talent was recognized at school and he was able to obtain a painting apprenticeship, which he completed at age fifteen. The following year, he travelled to Vienna to become a journeyman painter. During this time, he had to support himself as a waiter and house-painter and was only able to attend art classes on Sunday. After four years of struggle, he was accepted by the Academy of Fine Arts, but had to go hungry to pay his fees. In 1827 he left Vienna, working in Bregenz and Innsbruck, where he produced and sold over 150 portraits in 1829, he saved enough money to take a trip to Rome, where he soon became involved with the Nazarene movement. When he became financially stable, he began moving between Rome and Innsbruck taking students. In 1838, he married Marie Felicitas Freiin von Foullon-Norbeck. Both of their children died shortly after birth. Marie died a few weeks after the second delivery, in 1840.
Flatz never recovered from this triple blow and began painting only hesitantly after a year had passed. He had an epitaph to his wife placed on the grounds of the Campo Santo Teutonico, of which he was a member. Following the Capture of Rome in 1870, he moved to Vorarlberg, his last years were spent in a retirement home near the parish church of Bregenz, where he was honored as "the Catholic painter of his time" and was awarded the Order of Franz Joseph in 1879. "Flatz Gebhard". In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Vol. 1, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1957, p. 327. Bernhard von Poten, "Flatz, Gebhard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 48, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 575 Helmut Swozilek, et al.: Gebhard Flatz und Nazarener in Vorarlberg. Exhibition catalog, April 1–24, 2000, in Wolfurt. Vorarlberger Landesmuseum, Bregenz, 2000 Media related to Gebhard Flatz at Wikimedia Commons
Johann Michael Wittmer
Johann Michael Wittmer was a German painter who came from a family of painters and sculptors and was associated with the "Deutschrömer". He is referred to as "Johann Michael Wittmer II", to distinguish him from an earlier family member of the same name, his father died before his birth and he was raised by a step-father, not sympathetic to the family profession. In 1820, he used some hard-earned money to attend the Academy of Fine Arts, where he studied until 1828; these jobs enabled him to save enough money to go to Rome, although he had to walk there, by way of Venice and Florence. Once there, he joined his fellow Catholic Germans as a member of the Collegio Teutonico. Work was hard to come by, his situation didn't improve until 1832 when, through the mediation of Count Franz Pocci, he was introduced to Crown Prince Maximilian of Bavaria. One of his first assignments was to accompany the Prince on a trip to Naples and copy the frescoes there; the following year, he accompanied the Prince on a grand tour of the "Orient", visiting and painting numerous historical sites throughout Greece following a visit with Maximilian's brother Otto, on to Constantinople where the Prince's influence enabled them to see parts of the Hagia Sophia that were not open to the public.
Upon their return to Italy late in 1833, Wittmer was kept busy completing various projects for the Prince and his family, including a fresco at the Prince's castle in Hohenschwangau. Tragedy struck in 1835 when most of Murnau was destroyed by a fire, leaving his family's extensive collection of paintings and drawings lying in ashes; the year 1839 saw the death of his father-in-law, Joseph Anton Koch, a major influence on his painting style. After that, he became more involved in his work, devoting himself entirely to paintings with Christian motifs in the style of the Nazarene movement; when Maximilian returned to Rome, he planned to have Wittmer accompany him on another trip, but it never materialized. The King's patronage continued and Wittmer made trips to Bavaria every year after 1857, but turned down the offer of a professorship in Munich, preferring not to make his wife and children relocate, he died peacefully there shortly after his arrival. Georg Kaspar Nagler: Wittmer, Johann Michael.
In: Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon. 1866 Brigitte Salmen: Johann Michael Wittmer. Studien zu Leben und Werk. Dissertation, University of Passau 2007 Literature by and about Johann Michael Wittmer in the German National Library catalogue ArtNet: More works by Wittmer Kunstmarkt: Exhibition in Murnau, 2006
Matthias Goebbels was a German Catholic Priest and artist. Goebbels served as a Roman Catholic priest at the Church of Sankt Maria im Kapitol in Cologne and became a noted painter of church interiors, he was born in Baesweiler and his father was from Aldenhoven, Germany. Goebbels painted in the historicist style of the Nazarene movement and decorated the walls of more than 20 churches in the Rhineland region; the interiors of Rolduc Abbey near Kerkrade, Netherlands are considered his masterpiece. Many of his paintings are no longer extant today, however well-preserved examples can be found near Rolduc, in particular at St. Briktius in Oekoven-Rommerskirchen and at the former Marienborn Monastery in the village of Hoven near Zülpich, Germany, he was commissioned to paint the wings on the late Gothic altarpiece at Antwerp Cathedral with pictures from the life of Jesus. In appreciation of his services, in 1892 he was appointed Canon at Aachen Minster. Although a tomb in Aachen was built for him, his wishes were to be buried in his birthplace, so he is instead buried in Baesweiler cemetery.
In the spring of 2007, a town square in front of the cemetery was named after him. Klaus Hardering: Die Abteikirche von Klosterrath: Baugeschichte und Bedeutung = De Abdijkerk te Rolduc. Utrecht: Clavis, 1998. ISBN 90-75616-06-6 Anke Twachtmann-Schlichter: Matthias Goebbels: Dekorationsmalerei und Kirchenrestaurierung im 19. Jahrhundert in Köln. Hildesheim. Diss. 1992 ISBN 3-487-09889-X Literature by and about Matthias Goebbels in the German National Library catalogue
The avant-garde are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer; the avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo in the cultural realm. The avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets around 1981; the avant-garde promotes radical social reforms. It was this meaning, evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel", which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as avant-garde", insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social and economic reform.
Several writers have attempted to map the parameters of avant-garde activity. The Italian essayist Renato Poggioli provides one of the earliest analyses of vanguardism as a cultural phenomenon in his 1962 book Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia. Surveying the historical, social and philosophical aspects of vanguardism, Poggioli reaches beyond individual instances of art and music to show that vanguardists may share certain ideals or values which manifest themselves in the non-conformist lifestyles they adopt: He sees vanguard culture as a variety or subcategory of Bohemianism. Other authors have attempted both to extend Poggioli's study; the German literary critic Peter Bürger's Theory of the Avant-Garde looks at the Establishment's embrace of critical works of art and suggests that in complicity with capitalism, "art as an institution neutralizes the political content of the individual work". Bürger's essay greatly influenced the work of contemporary American art-historians such as the German Benjamin H. D. Buchloh.
Buchloh, in the collection of essays Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry critically argues for a dialectical approach to these positions. Subsequent criticism theorized the limitations of these approaches, noting their circumscribed areas of analysis, including Eurocentric and genre-specific definitions; the concept of avant-garde refers to artists, writers and thinkers whose work is opposed to mainstream cultural values and has a trenchant social or political edge. Many writers and theorists made assertions about vanguard culture during the formative years of modernism, although the initial definitive statement on the avant-garde was the essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch by New York art critic Clement Greenberg, published in Partisan Review in 1939. Greenberg argued that vanguard culture has been opposed to "high" or "mainstream" culture, that it has rejected the artificially synthesized mass culture, produced by industrialization; each of these media is a direct product of Capitalism—they are all now substantial industries—and as such they are driven by the same profit-fixated motives of other sectors of manufacturing, not the ideals of true art.
For Greenberg, these forms were therefore kitsch: phony, faked or mechanical culture, which pretended to be more than they were by using formal devices stolen from vanguard culture. For instance, during the 1930s the advertising industry was quick to take visual mannerisms from surrealism, but this does not mean that 1930s advertising photographs are surreal. Various members of the Frankfurt School argued similar views: thus Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in their essay The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass-Deception, Walter Benjamin in his influential "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". Where Greenberg used the German word kitsch to describe the antithesis of avant-garde culture, members of the Frankfurt School coined the term "mass culture" to indicate that this bogus culture is being manufactured by a newly emerged culture industry, they pointed out that the rise of this industry meant that artistic excellence was displaced by sales figures as a measure of worth: a novel, for example, was judged meritorious on whether it became a best-seller, music succumbed to ratings charts and to the blunt commercial logic of the Gold disc.
In this way the autonomous artistic merit so dear to the vanguardist was abandoned and sales became the measure, justification, of everything. Consumer culture now ruled; the avant-garde's co-option by the global capitalist market, by neoliberal economies, by what Guy Debord called The Society of the Spectacle, have made contemporary critics speculate on the possibility of a meaningful avant-garde today. Paul Mann's Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde demonstrates how the avant-garde is embedded within institutional structures today, a thought pursued by Richard Schechner in his analyses of avant-garde performance. Despite the central arguments of Greenberg and others, various sectors of the mainstream culture industry have co-opted and misapplied the term "avant-garde" since the 1960s, chiefly as a marketing tool to publicise popular music and commercial
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late