Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany became a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law.
The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Using deficit spending, the regime undertook extensive public works, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central ideological feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and all of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads inside the occupied territories conducted mass killings of millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state. Many others were imprisoned, worked to death, or murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps; this genocide is known as the Holocaust. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the United States into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war.
The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich"; the latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck. The book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.
The government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots. When the government defaulted on their repara
P. Scott Lipps is the state representative for the 62nd District of the Ohio House of Representatives, he is a Republican. The district consists of Franklin and Springboro as well as the eastern and southern townships of Warren County. Lipps was born in Miamisburg, graduating from Miamisburg High School before attending the College of Wooster and DePaul University for his masters, he is married with two daughters. A small businessman, Lipps opened Sleep Tite Mattress Factory & Showroom, in Franklin, in 1990. In 2000, Lipps was elected to the Franklin City Council, where he would serve for sixteen years, including two terms as Mayor of Franklin, he is involved in a number of philanthropic and local organizations, including the Rotary and Chamber of Commerce. After serving in local office for over sixteen years, Lipps decided to seek an open seat in the Ohio House of Representatives in 2016; the seat became vacant. However, he had a competitive Republican primary, winning by just 398 votes over Steve Muterspaw.
In a safely Republican district, Lipps won the 2016 general election over Democrat Samuel Ronan 79% to 21%. In a safely Republican district, Lipps won the 2018 general election over Democrat Jim Stanton 74% to 26% Ohio State Representative Scott Lipps official site campaign site
Sulaiman S. M. Y. Addonia is an author residing in Brussels, he was born to an Ethiopian father in Eritrea. He spent his early life in a refugee camp in Sudan, following the Om Hajer massacre in 1975. In his early teens, he studied in Saudi Arabia, he sought asylum with his brother in London in 1990, studied at the University College London. Addonia's first novel, entitled The Consequences of Love, is a love story set in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Naser, a 20 year old refugee from Eritrea, falls in love when a veiled woman, who drops a note at his feet, she identifies herself by a pair of pink shoes, the two embark on an epistolary romance, hoping to meet face to face. They live in fear, his second novel, Silence is my Mother Tongue, is long-listed for the 2019 Orwell Prize for Political Fiction. - Times Online - The Independent - Marie Claire - Evening Standard Author's Facebook page Interview - YouTube Sulaiman Addonia and "The Consequences of Love": Veiled Longings for Romance