The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b
Constanța is a county of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the Dobruja region. Its capital city is named Constanța. In 2011, it had a population of 684,082 and the population density was 96/km²; the degree of urbanization is much higher than the Romanian average. In recent years the population trend is: The majority of the population are Romanians. There are important communities of remnants of the time of Ottoman rule; the region is the centre of the Muslim minority in Romania. A great number of Aromanians have migrated to Dobruja in the last century, they consider themselves a cultural minority rather than an ethnic minority. There are Romani. Călărași County and Ialomița County are to the west. Tulcea County and Brăila County are to the north. Bulgaria are to the south; the predominant industries in the county are: Chemicals and petrochemicals Food and beverages Textiles Shipbuilding Construction materials Mechanical components PaperAgriculture is an important part in the county's economy, with Constanța being the county with the largest irrigation systems in the country, cereals being the most important products.
The county is famous for its wines from the Murfatlar region. At Cernavodă there is a nuclear power plant with two reactors, each of the CANDU type of Canadian design; the plant covers over 15% of the country's power demand. The Port of Constanța is one of the most important on the Black Sea, it is linked with the Danube by the Danube-Black Sea Canal – the widest and deepest navigable channel in Europe, although it is not used to its full potential. The Romanian Riviera along the coast of the Black Sea is the preferred destination for the summer holidays in Romania; the resorts are, from North to South: Năvodari Mamaia Eforie Costinești Olimp Neptun Jupiter Cap Aurora Venus Saturn Mangalia 2 Mai Vama VecheAlso worth visiting are: The city of Constanța The mausoleum at Adamclisi The Portița area The current president of Constanța County Council is Horia Țuțuianu. The Constanța County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 37 counselors, with the following party composition: Constanța County has 3 municipalities, 9 towns and 58 communes: Municipalities Constanța – capital city.
The county neighboured the Black Sea to the east, the counties of Tulcea and Brăila to the north, Ialomița to the west, Durostor to the south-west and Caliacra to the south. The county consisted of four districts: Plasa Dunărea Plasa Mangalia Plasa Ovidiu Plasa TraianSubsequently, the territory of the county was reorganized into seven districts: Plasa Cernavodă, headquartered in Cernavodă Plasa Dunărea, headquartered in Hârșova Plasa Ferdinand, headquartered in Constanța Plasa Mangalia, headquartered in Mangalia Plasa Negru-Vodă, headquartered in Negru Vodă Plasa Traian, headquartered in Traian Plasa Medgidia, headquartered in MedgidiaOn the territory of Constanta County there were seven urban localities: Constanţa and the urban communes of Carmen-Sylva, Mangalia, Cernavodă and Hârșova. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Ialomița, Durostor and Caliacra to form Ținutul Mării, it was re-established in 1940 after the fall of Carol II's regime.
Ten years it was abolished by the Communist regime. According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 253,093 inhabitants, of which 66.2% were Romanians, 8.9% Bulgarians, 6.8% Turks, 6.0% Tatars, 3.8% Germans, 1.8% Greeks, 1.5% Russians, 1.3% Armenians, as well as other minorities. In religion, the population consisted of 78.9% Eastern Orthodox, 13.1% Islam, 2.5% Lutheran, 1.8% Roman Catholics, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the urban population of the county was 81,631 inhabitants, 68.7% Romanians, 7.3% Turks, 5.2% Greeks, 3.9% Armenians, 2.5% Germans, 2.2% Jews, 2.0% Tatars, 2.0% Bulgarians, 1.7% Russians, 1.7% Hungarians, as well as other minorities. Among the urban population, mother tongues were reported to be Romanian, Greek, German, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was composed of Eastern Orthodox, followed by Muslim, Armenian Apostolic, Roman Catholic, Lutheran, as well as other minorities. Memoria.ro, Interwar Constanța County
Sălaj County is a county of Romania, located in the north-west of the country, in the historical regions of Crișana and Transylvania. It is bordered to the north by Satu Mare and Maramureș counties, to the west and south-west by Bihor County, to the south-east by Cluj County. Zalău is the county seat as well as its largest city. In Hungarian, it is known as Szilágy megye, in Slovak as Salašská župa, in German as Kreis Zillenmarkt; the county is named after the Sălaj River, which gets its name from Hungarian Szilágy "elm creek", composed from szil, "elm" and ágy "riverbed". On 28 July 1978, a team of speleologists discovered in the cave of Cuciulat Paleolithic paintings about 12,000 years old, unique in Romania. Called the "Romanian Altamira", this cave features several red paintings of animals, including horses and felines; these are the first manifestations of this kind known in Southeastern Europe. The first villages in the current territory of Sălaj County are 7,500 years old; the first ceramic pots in Sălaj area are about the same age.
The first houses with several rooms were built in this county about 6,000 years ago. The only studied Bronze Age settlement in the Romanian territory is located in Sălaj County, in Recea. So far, 63 bronze artifacts have been discovered dating as far back as 17th–9th centuries BC. Bronze items from this period discovered in the Sălaj County are exhibited today in renowned museums in Germany, United States, but Bucharest. Six defense citadels were dated to the first Iron Age, 11th–4th centuries BC. Between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD, the current territory of Sălaj was occupied by Dacians. There was a Dacian tribal union between Crasna and Barcău rivers that controlled the access roads to the north-west, to and from Transylvania, as well as the commerce the salt trade. From the Dacian period come no less than 23 Dacian thesauri, made of silver ornaments; the 3,000 coins and 70 silver ornaments weigh in total about 13 kg. The largest fortified Dacian settlement in Romania was discovered in Sălaj County, dating from the 1st century AD.
In total, in Sălaj County were discovered sites of 30 Dacian villages and 15 Dacian citadels defending the tribal union in the west of current county. These citadels were located on hills and were fortified with ditches and earth walls, on which were erected wooden palisades; the center of the tribal union was on Măgura Șimleului, in a complex of settlements and fortifications. In the western half of the county, under Roman military control, subsequently settled the Vandals, that entered into alliance with Dacians, supported by the Romans to fight other barbarians; the Vandals arrived in the area during the 1st century AD, coming from the current territory of Denmark. After conquering Dacia, Romans built on the place of a Dacian settlement the capital of Dacia Porolissensis, at Porolissum; the capital Porolissum had about 20,000 inhabitants, defended by the militaries in the local castra. As a work of art should be mentioned the amphitheater, scale replica of the one in Rome, with a capacity of 6,000 seats.
In 214 AD, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antonius visited Porolissum. At Porolissum was quartered for a period Cohors III Dacorum, made of ethnic Dacians, who fought as infantry. In the Sălaj County area were identified nine Roman castra and the limes of the province. In 275 AD, Roman authorities leave the province, but indigenous people continue to live the same territories, their presence is attested archaeologically after leaving the region by the Roman imperial authorities. There followed the Gepids. Two Gepid gold thesauri discovered in Șimleu Silvaniei, weighing in total about 10 kg of gold and dating from the 5th century AD, are now exhibited in museums in Vienna and Budapest. In 6th -- 7th centuries AD arrive in the area Slavic tribes. In early Middle Ages, in the 10th century AD, boundary between the voivodeship of Menumorut and that of Gelu was on Meseș Mountains. From early medieval period come more than 100 settlements identified in the Sălaj County. Among the first counties organized in Transylvania was Crasna County, in 1090, part of the current Sălaj County.
Byzantine chronicles and Anonymus' Gesta Hungarorum make the first mentions about Romanians in these places, about their forms of organization, as well as first documentary attestation of Zalău. Starting with the second half of the 11th century, Hungarians conquer systematically Transylvania which organize as autonomous Voivodate within the Kingdom of Hungary. During the Middle Ages, Transylvania politics was monopolized by Unio Trium Nationum. From 1526, Transylvania is included to the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom that will become under Ottoman suzerainty, in 1570 it transfoms to the Principality of Transylvania. After 1691, the Principality is subjected to the direct rule of the Habsburgs governors. In 1765, it transformed to the Grand Principality of Transylvania. After the formation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Transylvania disappears as state, being incorporated again to the Kingdom of Hungary. A county with an identical name was created in 1876. In Salaj County are medieval castles which belonged to noble families.
Among them is Almașu Citadel, built in the 13th c
Covasna County is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe. In 2011, it had a population of 210,177, making it the second least populous of Romania's 41 counties and the population density was 55.6/km². In 2002 the ethnic composition of the county was as follows: Hungarians – 73.58% Romanians – 23.28% Romani – 2.68% According to the 2011 census, the composition of the county was: Hungarians – 73.74% Romanians – 22.02% Romani – 4.05% Others - 0.19%Covasna County has the second-greatest percentage of Hungarian population in Romania, just behind the neighboring county of Harghita. The Hungarians of Covasna are Székelys. Covasna county has a total area of 3,710 km²; the main part of the relief consists of mountains from the Eastern Carpathians group. Most localities can be found in the valleys and depressions located along the different rivers crossing the county; the main river is the Olt River. Vrancea County and Bacău County in the east Brașov County in the west Harghita County in the north Buzău County in the south Covasna County's industry's main sectors are food industry, ready-made garment and textile and wooden products, metals and automotive suppliers, building materials.
Other sectors of industry are chemicals, water, energy and other industrial activities. Industry represents 42.53% of Covasna County's economy. The other main sectors are trade with 30.98%, services 11.38%, agriculture 9.71%, construction 5.78%, R&D and high-tech 2.63%. Companies from Covasna County's industry produced in 2014 half a billion EUR turnover, with a staggering 10.78% increase in volume compared to the preceding year's income. One of Covasna County's main industrial sectors is the ready-made garment industry, where processing companies are owned by German investors, who started to establish first brown-field investments in 1992, since they operate nine factories producing yearly 5 million trousers for brands like Bosch, Wegener. Other owned companies in the field of textiles, producing different articles. In 2015 the Schweighoffer Holzindustrie started, after investing 150 million EUR in a new plant for primary wood processing. With the rich forested areas, Covasna has a long tradition of sawn timber export and production of furniture and other finished wooden products.
Created the ProWood Cluster in the interest of the industry. A few years ago automotive industry suppliers were established, with two new plants producing steering wheels and electric circuits for vehicles; the automotive industry suppliers from Covasna and neighboring Braşov are offers a vast pallet of competitive products, from boards for Mercedes cars to Airbus helicopters, while having a good potential for growth. Is important to mention Poliprod, the French owned family business of Champrenaut Group involved in steel work, welding, machining or the major producer of electric ceramic heaters in Eastern Europe, member of the Canadian Delta Group; this industry can build up its workforce with new students from the large technical university in Brasov. Covalact is a nationwide well-known dairy product brand, now owned by Dutch investors. Another milk processing plant is under brand Olympus, with Greek investors, establishing its HQ in the county. Meat processing companies are the Bertis and Toro Impex, who are regionally active players, while the Norvegian Orkla food producing network has a meat canning plant in Covasna.
Dunapack, a member of the Austrian Prizhorn, supplies corrugated cardboard boxes to all industry branches, from FMCG to fruit and electronics. While IT&C as an industry sector is in emerging state, Covasna County's strategy for development plans to use this field of activity as one pillar for development. Many new start-ups are in the area successful deploying large projects for sound international companies. A large number of young technicians arrive from universities. Agriculture represents 4.83% of Covasna County's economy producing varieties of potatoes, several companies being able to supply selected and packaged crops for hyper-markets. Other agricultural products are rapeseed and cabbage. Covasna County, with a large number of mineral water springs, has developed during history a network of spas for treating different health problems cardio-vascular. There is a good potential for development of this field of spa tourism; the main tourist destinations in the county are: The city of Sfântu Gheorghe The resorts in the mountains around: Covasna Balványos Malnaş-Băi Vâlcele Șugaș-Băi Baile Fortyogo Biborțeni Ozunca-Bai The mountains: Baraolt Mountains Bodoc Mountains Nemira Mountains Întorsurii Mountains The Covasna County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Covasna County has two municipalities, three towns and 40 communes.
Municipalities Sfântu Gheorghe – capital city.
The Ceahlău Massif is one of the most famous mountains of Romania. It is part of the Bistriţa Mountains range of the Eastern Carpathians division, in Neamţ County, in the Moldavia region; the two most important peaks are Ocolaşul Mare. It is bounded to the east to the south by the Bicaz River. From the south, the main access point is the village of Izvorul Muntelui, located 12 km north from the town of Bicaz. To the north, Mount Ceahlău is accessible from Durău. Ceahlău National Park shelters a large variety of fauna. Mount Ceahlău is a popular hiking destination in Romania. There are seven main marked trails built for tourists. There are entering fees for visiting Ceahlău National Park, and fines for non respecting park's regulations. The park is monitored by local rangers and there is a mountain rescue service. There are ski slopes located at Durău. Camping is permitted only in a few designated places: in Durău, near Dochia Chalet and in Izvorul Muntelui. Izvorul Muntelui Chalet, near Bicaz Dochia Chalet Fântânele Chalet Ceahlău - Toaca weather station Duruitoarea waterfall Panaghia rock Piatra Lată din Ghedeon rock formation Ocolaşul Mic Peak Dochia Rock Turnul lui Butu Stone Poiana Maicilor Poiana Stănile Poliţa cu crini protected area Gardul Stănilelor Ceahlăul Stadium, in Piatra Neamţ FC Ceahlăul Piatra Neamţ, a Romanian soccer team Seven Natural Wonders of Romania Ceahlău National Park official website Ceahlău National Park on Romania tourism official website Ceahlău on Visit Neamt page Picture gallery Website with information about the Carpathians Mountains Photos of Ceahlău Massif
Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An independent and autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; the region of Pokuttya was part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine; the original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River. Dragoș was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; the dog's name would have been extended to the country. The old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine" the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt", referring to the river. A Slavic etymology, marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns.
A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych. In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia. Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Boğdan. See names in other languages; the name of the region in other languages include French: Moldavie, German: Moldau, Hungarian: Moldva, Russian: Молдавия, Turkish: Boğdan Prensliği, Greek: Μολδαβία. The inhabitants of Moldova were Christians. Archaeological works revealed the remains of a Christian necropolis at Mihălășeni, Botoșani county, from the 5th century; the place of worship, the tombs had Christian characteristics. The place of worship had a rectangular form with sides of seven meters. Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in IașiThe Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century; the chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev.
Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Their ethnic identity is uncertain. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs in the area of what will become Moldavia. In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain.
Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In the 14th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1353, Dragoș, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureș, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces of Mongols on the Siret River; this expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia. Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control.
His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by t