Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine", from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin; the name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry". Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include: Rubus crataegifolius Rubus gunnianus Rubus idaeus Rubus leucodermis Rubus occidentalis Rubus parvifolius Rubus phoenicolasius Rubus rosifolius Rubus strigosus Rubus ellipticus Several species of Rubus called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including: Rubus deliciosus Rubus odoratus Rubus nivalis Rubus arcticus Rubus sieboldii Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common.
A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are dug and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they flower and produce a early season crop. Plants are planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil. All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots; the flowers can be a major nectar source for other pollinators. Raspberries can be locally invasive, they propagate using basal shoots, extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are propagated using cuttings, will root in moist soil conditions.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are sweetest. High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing prior to tunnel construction. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.
Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor. Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, have been found in the wild in a few places where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare. Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Canada for the cultivar'Columbian', a hybrid of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis. Fruits from such plants are called yellow raspberries. Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens. Red raspberries have been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of, the loganberry.
Notable hybrids include boysenberry, tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has been achieved. Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Two types of raspberry are available for domestic cultivation.
Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from dairy milk or cream, or soy, coconut or almondmilk, is flavored with a sweetener, either sugar or an alternative, any spice, such as cocoa or vanilla. Colourings are added, in addition to stabilizers; the mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam, solid at low temperatures, it becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. The meaning of the name "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Terms such as "frozen custard," "frozen yogurt," "sorbet," "gelato," and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the United States, "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients, notably the amount of cream.
Products that do not meet the criteria to be called ice cream are sometimes labelled "frozen dessert" instead. In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein, or vegan. Ice cream may be licked from edible cones. Ice cream may be served with other desserts, such as apple pie, or as an ingredient in ice cream floats, milkshakes, ice cream cakes and baked items, such as Baked Alaska. History of ice creams began around 500 BC in the Achaemenid Empire with ice combined with flavors to produce summertime treats. In 400 BC, the Persians invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli, served to royalty during summers; the ice was mixed with saffron and various other flavours. During the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks ate snow mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens.
Hippocrates encouraged his Ancient Greek patients to eat ice "as it livens the life-juices and increases the well-being." A frozen mixture of milk and rice was used in China around 200 BC. "They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the same way as salt raises the boiling point of water, it lowers the freezing point to below zero." The Roman Emperor Nero had ice brought from the mountains and combined it with fruit toppings to create chilled delicacies. In the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperors from the Indian subcontinent used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi, where it was used in fruit sorbets. Kulfi is a popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian subcontinent and is described as "traditional Indian ice cream." It originated in the sixteenth century in the Mughal Empire. When Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici married the Duke of Orléans in 1533, she is said to have brought with her to France some Italian chefs who had recipes for flavoured ices or sorbets.
One hundred years Charles I of England was so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative. There is no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century; the first recipe in French for flavoured ices appears in 1674, in Nicholas Lemery's Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature. Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini's Lo Scalco alla Moderna. Recipes for flavoured ices begin to appear in François Massialot's Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures, les Liqueurs, et les Fruits, starting with the 1692 edition. Massialot's recipes result in a pebbly texture. Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of snow. Ice cream recipes first appeared in England in the 18th century; the recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in London in 1718.
To ice cream. Take Tin Ice-Pots, fill them with any Sort of Cream you like, either plain or sweeten’d, or Fruit in it; when you wou’d freeze any Sort of Fruit, either Cherries, Currants, or Strawberries, fill your Tin-Pots with the Fruit, but as hollow as you can. An early reference to ice cream given by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1744, reprinted in a magazine in 1877. "1744 in Pennsylvania Mag. Hist. & Biogr. I. 126 Among the rarities..was some fine ice cream, with the strawberries and milk, eat most deliciously."The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse features a recipe for ice cream. O
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The damson or damson plum archaically called the "damascene" is an edible drupaceous fruit, a subspecies of the plum tree. Varieties of insititia are found across Europe, but the name "damson" is derived from and most applied to forms which are native to Great Britain. Damsons are small plum-like fruit with a distinctive, somewhat astringent taste, are used for culinary purposes in fruit preserves or jam. In South and Southeast Asia, the term "damson plum" sometimes refers to jambul, the fruit from a tree in the Myrtaceae family; the name "mountain damson" or "bitter damson" was formerly applied in Jamaica to the tree Simarouba amara. The name damson comes from Middle English damascene, damasin and from the Latin damascenum, "plum of Damascus". One stated theory is that damsons were first cultivated in antiquity in the area around the ancient city of Damascus, capital of modern-day Syria, were introduced into England by the Romans; the historical link between the Roman-era damascenum and the north and west European damson is rather tenuous despite the adoption of the older name.
The damascenum described by Roman and Greek authors of late antiquity has more of the character of a sweet dessert plum, not fitting well to the damson plum. Remnants of damsons are sometimes found during archaeological digs of ancient Roman camps across England, they have been cultivated, consumed, for centuries. Damson stones have been found in an excavation in Hungate and dated to the late period of Anglo-Saxon England; the exact origin of Prunus domestica subsp. Insititia is still debatable: it is thought to have arisen in wild crosses in Asia Minor, between the sloe, Prunus spinosa, the cherry plum, Prunus cerasifera. Despite this, tests on cherry plums and damsons have indicated that it is possible that the damson developed directly from forms of sloe via the round-fruited varieties known as bullaces, that the cherry plum did not play a role in its parentage. Insititia plums of various sorts, such as the German Kriechenpflaume or French quetsche, occur across Europe and the word "damson" is sometimes used to refer to them in English, but many of the English varieties from which the name "damson" was taken have both a different typical flavour and pear-shaped appearance compared with continental forms.
Robert Hogg commented. We do not meet with it abroad, nor is any mention of it made in any of the pomological works or nurseryman's catalogues on the Continent"; as time progressed, a distinction developed between the varieties known as "damascenes" and the types called "damsons", to the degree that by 1891 they were the subject of a lawsuit when a Nottinghamshire grocer complained about being supplied one when he had ordered the other. In addition to providing fruit, the damson makes a tough hedge or windbreak, it became the favoured hedging tree in certain parts of the country such as Shropshire and Kent. Elsewhere damsons were used in orchards to protect less hardy trees, though orchards composed of damson trees were a feature of some areas, notably the Lyth Valley of Westmorland and the Teme Valley in the Malverns, indeed damsons were the only plum planted commercially north of Norfolk. There is a body of anecdotal evidence that damsons were used in the British dye and cloth manufacturing industries in the 18th and 19th centuries, with examples occurring in every major damson-growing area.
Stories that damsons were used to dye khaki army uniforms are common. However, a 2005 report for conservancy body English Nature could find no documentary evidence within the dyeing industry that damsons were a source of dye, noting that use of natural dyes declined after the 1850s, concluded that "there seems no evidence that damsons were used extensively or techniques developed"; the main recorded use of damsons in the industrial era was in commercial jam-making, orchards were widespread until the Second World War, after which changing tastes, the effect of wartime sugar rationing, the high cost of British-grown fruit caused a steep decline. The damson was introduced into the American colonies by English settlers before the American Revolution, it was regarded as thriving better in the continental United States than other European plum varieties. A favourite of early colonists, the tree has escaped from gardens and can be found growing wild in states such as Idaho; the main characteristic of the damson is its distinctive rich flavour.
The fruit of the damson can be identified by its shape, ovoid and pointed at one end, or pyriform. Most damsons are of the "clingstone" type; the damson is broadly similar to the semi-wild bullace classified as ssp. insititia, a smaller but invariably round plum with purple or yellowish-green skin. Damsons have a furrowed stone, unlike bullaces, unlike prunes cannot be dried. Most individual damson varieties can be conclusively identified by examining the fruit's stone, which varies in shape and texture; the tree blossoms with sma
Strawberry ice cream
Strawberry ice cream is a flavor of ice cream made with strawberry or strawberry flavoring. It is made by blending in fresh strawberries or strawberry flavoring with the eggs, cream and sugar used to make ice cream. Most strawberry ice cream is colored light red. Strawberry ice cream dates back at least to 1813, when it was served at the second inauguration of James Madison. Along with vanilla and chocolate ice cream, strawberry is one of the three flavors in Neapolitan ice cream. Variations of strawberry ice cream include strawberry cheesecake ice cream and strawberry ripple ice cream, vanilla ice cream with a ribbon of strawberry jam or syrup; some ice cream sandwiches are prepared neapolitan-style, include strawberry ice cream. Chocolate ice cream Neapolitan ice cream Vanilla ice cream List of strawberry dishes BibliographyClarke, The Science of Ice Cream, Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN 978-0-85404-629-4 Funderburg, Anne Cooper, Chocolate and Vanilla: A History of American Ice Cream, Popular Press, ISBN 978-0-87972-692-8 Goff, H Douglas.
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv