North Circular Road
The North Circular Road is a 25. 7-mile-long ring road around Central London in England. It runs from Chiswick in the west to Woolwich in the east, together with its counterpart, the South Circular Road, it forms a ring road through the Outer London suburbs. This ring road does not make a circuit of the city. The road was designed to connect local industrial communities together in addition to bypassing London. In the early 1990s, the road was extended to bypass Barking, the uncertainty of development has caused urban decay and property blight along its route, and led to criticism over its poor pollution record. Several London Borough Councils have set up regeneration projects to improve the environment for communities surrounding the North Circular, the North Circular Road forms the northern part of a ring-road around Central London. Although the route has alternative names at some points, it is referred to as the North Circular throughout for route planning purposes. In areas where improvements made slowest progress and upgrades are unlikely, the road begins in Gunnersbury at the Chiswick flyover, from which the South Circular Road heads south over Kew Bridge.
The first section runs along Gunnersbury Avenue through Gunnersbury Park to Ealing Common, the road crosses the railway west of Paddington to the Hanger Lane gyratory system, a large roundabout on top of the Western Avenue with Hanger Lane tube station. This is one of the busiest junctions in London, incorporating 10,000 vehicles an hour, the A406 runs on purpose-built road to the north of Hanger Lane Gyratory, and is referred to as North Circular Road on street signs. The road is a dual carriageway that connects the industrial estates in the area. Beyond this, there is a junction with IKEA and the Neasden temple to the southeast, and this section of the North Circular was used for filming the car chasing sequences in Withnail And I. Northeast of Brent Cross, at Henlys Corner, the North Circular briefly shares carriageways with the A1 which joins it from the left, the junction complex serves a local road from Hampstead and pedestrian traffic, and consequently is a major bottleneck on the route.
Transport for London have invested in the junction, including a special hands free crossing for the local Jewish community, the road passes north of St Pancras and Islington Cemetery towards Friern Barnet and Muswell Hill. The road narrows to two lane carriageway to pass under a railway bridge, and continues as Telford Road towards Bounds Green. Traffic on the North Circular Road must turn right from Telford Road into Bowes Road, the road continues past densely packed housing and business areas before widening at Green Lanes and assuming the North Circular Road name again. At Great Cambridge Interchange, its most northerly point, the A406 crosses Great Cambridge Road, Angel Road railway station is partially located beneath the flyover at Angel Road, in an area marked for redevelopment known as Meridian Water. This leads onto the Lea Valley Viaduct that provides a crossing of the River Leas flood plain
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
The River Brent is a river in west and northwest London, and a tributary of the River Thames. 17.9 miles in length, it rises in the Borough of Barnet, at this time the river system headwaters lay in the English West Midlands and may, at times, have received drainage from the North Wales Berwyn Mountains. Progressively in this Ice Age, the channel was pushed south to form a lake, now the St Albans depression. Here it entered a substantial freshwater lake in the southern North Sea basin, a torrent produced by the rupture of this lake was a major cause of the formation of the Dover Straits or Pas-de-Calais gap between Britain and France. Subsequent development led to the continuation of the course which the river follows at the present day, the last advance from that Scandinavian ice flow to have reached this far south covered much of north west Greater London and finally forced the proto-Thames to take roughly its present course. At the height of the last ice age, around 10,000 BCE and this forced flow southwards from the eastern Essex coast where it met the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt flowing from what are now the Netherlands and Belgium.
These rivers formed a single river—the Channel River that passed through the Dover Strait, the ice sheet which stopped near Finchley deposited Boulder clay to form Dollis Hill and Hanger Hill. Its torrent of meltwater gushed through the Finchley Gap and south towards the new course of the Thames, upon the valley sides there can be seen other terraces of Brickearth, laid over and sometimes interlayered with the clays. These deposits were brought in by the winds during the periods, suggesting that wide flat marshes were part of the landscape. The original land surface was some 350 to 350 to 400 ft above the current sea level, the surface had sandy deposits from an ancient sea, laid over sedimentary clay. All the erosion down from this higher land surface and sorting action by these changes of flow and direction. Thus, along much of the Brents present day one can make out the water meadows of rich alluvium. Likewise, evidence of occupation, even since the arrival of the Romans, the most prominent pre-Roman settlement on the River Brent was apparently at Brentford.
This Bronze Age site pre-dates the Roman occupation of Britain, many pre-Roman artifacts have been excavated in and around the area in Brentford known as Old England. The quality and quantity of the artefacts suggests that Brentford was a point for pre-Romanic tribes. However, can the river Brent be considered a border in the sense that the quality it possessed of dividing the land was notable enough to be such a descriptive title. The Brent river valley in AD705 would have looked different to today. Before modern day dredging, the river was wider and shallower, before the construction of its weirs, the Brent reservoir and Grand Union Canal the river would have flooded more frequently than it does today
London Ambulance Service
It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police.
This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold and bronze.
Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze control
Marylebone is an affluent inner-city area of central London, located within the City of Westminster and part of the West End. It is sometimes written as St. Marylebone, Marylebone is roughly bounded by Oxford Street to the south, Marylebone Road to the north, Edgware Road to the west and Great Portland Street to the east. The area east of Great Portland Street up to Cleveland Street and this stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the area became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form. It is a common misunderstanding that the name is a corruption of Marie la Bonne, the manor of Tyburn is mentioned in the Domesday Book as a possession of Barking Abbey valued at 52 shillings, with a population no greater than 50. Early in the 13th century it was held by Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford. Tyburn manor remained with the Crown until the part was sold in 1611 by James I, who retained the deer park, to Edward Forest.
Forests manor of Marylebone passed by marriage to the Austen family, the deer park, Marylebone Park Fields, was let out in small holdings for hay and dairy produce. The Harley heiress Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley married William, 2nd Duke of Portland, such place names in the neighbourhood as Cavendish Square and Portland Place reflect the Dukes of Portland landholdings and Georgian-era developments there. In 1879 the fifth Duke died without issue and the estate passed through the line to his sister, Lucy Joan Bentinck. A large part of the area directly to the west was constructed by the Portman family and is known as the Portman Estate, both estates have aristocratic antecedents and are still run by members of the aforementioned families. The Crown repurchased the northern part of the estate in 1813, mansfield Street is a short continuation of Chandos Street built by the Adam brothers in 1770, on a plot of ground which had been underwater. Most of its houses are fine buildings with exquisite interiors, which if put on the market now would have a price in excess of £10 million.
Immediately across the road at 61 New Cavendish Street lived Natural History Museum creator Alfred Waterhouse, Queen Anne Street is an elegant cross-street which unites the northern end of Chandos Street with Welbeck Street. The painter JMW Turner moved to 47 Queen Anne Street in 1812 from 64 Harley Street, now divided into numbers 22 and 23, the building is one of the finest surviving Adam houses in London, and now lets rooms. Wimpole Street runs from Henrietta Place north to Devonshire Street, becoming Upper Wimpole en route – the latter where Arthur Conan Doyle opened his practice at number 2 in 1891. Today, at the end of Wimpole at Wigmore can be found a sandwich shop named Barretts. Bentinck Street leaves Welbeck Street and touches the middle of winding Marylebone Lane, more recently, Cambridge spies Anthony Blunt and Guy Burgess lived at 5 Bentinck Street during the Second World War
Great Central Railway
The Great Central Railway in England came into being when the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway changed its name in 1897 in anticipation of the opening in 1899 of its London Extension. On 1 January 1923, the company was grouped into the London, on assuming its new title, the Great Central Railway had a main line from Manchester London Road Station via Penistone, Sheffield Victoria and Grimsby to Cleethorpes. A second line left the line at Penistone and served Barnsley, other lines linked Sheffield to Barnsley and Doncaster and Lincoln and Wrawby Junction. Branch lines in north Lincolnshire ran to Barton-upon-Humber and New Holland, in the Manchester area, lines ran to Stalybridge and Glossop. In the 1890s the MS&LR began construction of its Derbyshire lines, a loop line was built to serve its station in Chesterfield. The Great Central Railway was the first railway to be granted a coat of arms, the design included elements representing Manchester, Lincoln and London. It was used on locomotives and coaches, the London and North Eastern Railway and the British Transport Commission, successors of the GCR, were granted Arms of their own incorporating the GCR motto Forward.
The Great Central Railway Company Limited applied to the College of Arms as the successors to British Transport Commission for permission to utilise the Coat of Arms of the GCR. A new design incorporating the same components, updated in the modern style was proposed. The MS&LR obtained Parliamentary approval in 1893 for its extension to London, on 1 August 1897, the railways name was changed to Great Central Railway. Building work started in 1895, the new line,92 miles in length, opened for traffic on 25 July 1898, for passenger traffic on 15 March 1899. It was designed for high-speed running throughout, as a Sheffield company, it retained its nomenclature when the London extension opened. Trains to London were still down trains, the opposite of standard practice on every other line to the capital. In 1903, new rails were laid parallel to the Metropolitan Railway from Harrow to the north of Finchley Road. In 1902 the company introduced a service from Bournemouth and Southampton to York. The route from Banbury to Reading was over Great Western track and from there it traversed South Eastern Railway track via Aldershot and Guildford to Redhill and on to Folkestone, at the same time the Great Central was gaining a reputation for fast services to and from London.
Slip coaches were provided for passengers for Leicester and Nottingham, on 2 April 1906, an alternative main line route from Grendon Underwood Junction to Neasden opened. The line was joint GCR/GWR between Ashendon Junction and Northolt Junction, by the time the line was built, the companies had settled their differences
The Brent Reservoir is a reservoir between Hendon and Wembley Park in London. It straddles the boundary between the boroughs of Brent and Barnet and is owned by the Canal & River Trust, the reservoir takes its informal name from a public house called The Welsh Harp, which stood nearby until the early 1970s. It is a 68.6 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest, the reservoir is fed by the Silk Stream and the River Brent, and its outflow is the River Brent. It is said to contain water to fill 3 million baths. The reservoir has a centre, home to Welsh Harp Sailing Club, Wembley Sailing Club, the Sea Cadets. In 1960, it hosted the Womens European Rowing Championships. Plans for the construction laid in 1803 were abandoned because of cost, however canals continued to develop in the early 19th century and there were water supply problems. The reservoir was constructed by William Hoof between 1834 and 1835, the water flooded much of Cockman’s Farm, to supply the Regents Canal at Paddington.
It was called Kingsbury Reservoir and its 69 acres spread between Old Kingsbury Church and Edgware Road, who was awarded the tender for the work received the sum of £2,740 and six shillings. Construction did not proceed without problems, in August 1835, a few months before completion, additional building was completed in December 1837 to extend the reservoir. In 1841 after seven days of rain the dam head collapsed. It was after this that a supervisor was employed for the first time, at its greatest extent it covered 400 acres in 1853, but was reduced to 195 acres in the 1890s, and subsequently reduced to 110 acres. During the second half of the 19th century the area became a destination for recreation and evening entertainment, who in 1858 became licensee of the Old Welsh Harp Tavern. The tavern stood on the Edgware Road, near where it crossed the Brent, who fought with distinction in the Crimean War, created the tavern along the lines of the London Pleasure gardens. For 40 years, Warner made the Old Welsh Harp Tavern one of Londons most popular places, the amusements were focused not just on the inn, but around the reservoir.
Warner operated a track until an Act of Parliament made it illegal. The first greyhound races with mechanical hares took place here in 1876, in 1891, there was an attempt by Capazza to launch his Patent Parachute Balloon, which failed to leave the ground. Accounts record nasty incidents among the 5000 spectators and these activities attracted a mixed clientele and crime and violence were not uncommon
Neasden tube station
Neasden is a London Underground station in Neasden. It is on the Jubilee line, between Wembley Park and Dollis Hill, Metropolitan line trains pass through the station but do not stop, except on rare occasions. The Chiltern Main Line/London to Aylesbury Line runs to the west of the station, the station opened on 2 August 1880 as part of the ongoing extensions to the Metropolitan Railway, with the name Kingsbury and Neasden. The name was changed to Neasden and Kingsbury in 1910, and changed again to its current name Neasden in 1932, in 1979, the main service was transferred to the Jubilee line. The stations surface building is located in Neasden Lane, as well as the ticket office there are three ticket collection barriers and a single luggage gate, and the station has a shop. The stairs from the building lead to four platforms. Platforms 1 and 4 are on the Metropolitan line, served on a few days a year for local events, platforms 2 and 3 were the northbound and southbound platforms for the Bakerloo line and since 1979 are now used by the Jubilee line.
The platforms are constructed to transition height to allow use by tube trains of the Jubilee line. Platforms 1,2 and 3 were built originally in 1880, Neasden had three platforms, which was unusual for a small station. The reason for three platforms was that Neasden was a terminus for many local Metropolitan trains from London and which would be stabled in the nearby depot, platforms 4 and 5 were built in 1914 as a result of the quadrupling of the Metropolitan between Finchley Road and Harrow-on-the-Hill. Platform 5 was used as a bay platform for terminating at Neasden from stations north on the Met such as Stanmore. This platform was removed on and the track is now used as a siding for the depot. Baker Street and Willesden Green are the stations to have their platform buildings intact. The line between Finchley Road and Harrow-on-the-Hill was quadrupled between 1914 and 1916, and many stations had to be rebuilt to enable the fast lines to be built. Jubilee line trains terminate at Neasden. It was proposed in 2008 that the North and West London Light Railway could serve the station, Neasden Temple Wembley Stadium London Buses route 297 serve the station
Its first line connected the main-line railway termini at Paddington and Kings Cross to the City. It opened to the public on 10 January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, the line was soon extended from both ends, and northwards via a branch from Baker Street. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the line extended to Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street. Electric traction was introduced in 1905 and by 1907 electric multiple units operated most of the services, unlike other railway companies in the London area, the Met developed land for housing, and after World War I promoted housing estates near the railway using the Metro-land brand. On 1 July 1933, the Met was amalgamated with the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, former Met tracks and stations are used by the London Undergrounds Metropolitan, District, Hammersmith & City and Jubilee lines, and by Chiltern Railways. In the first half of the 19th century the population and physical extent of London grew greatly, only Fenchurch Street station was within the City.
The congested streets and the distance to the City from the stations to the north, none were successful, and the 1846 Royal Commission investigation into Metropolitan Railway Termini banned construction of new lines or stations in the built-up central area. The concept of a railway linking the City with the mainline termini was first proposed in the 1830s. Charles Pearson, Solicitor to the City, was a promoter of several schemes. The scheme was rejected by the 1846 commission, but Pearson returned to the idea in 1852 when he helped set up the City Terminus Company to build a railway from Farringdon to Kings Cross. Although the plan was supported by the City, the companies were not interested. The Bayswater and Holborn Bridge Railway Company was established to connect the Great Western Railways Paddington station to Pearsons route at Kings Cross, a bill was published in November 1852 and in January 1853 the directors held their first meeting and appointed John Fowler as its engineer. After successful lobbying, the company secured parliamentary approval under the name of the North Metropolitan Railway in the summer of 1853 and this dropped the City terminus and extended the route south from Farringdon to the General Post Office in St.
Martins Le Grand. The route at the end was altered so that it connected more directly to the GWR station. Permission was sought to connect to the London and North Western Railway at Euston and to the Great Northern Railway at Kings Cross, the companys name was to be changed again, to Metropolitan Railway. Royal assent was granted to the North Metropolitan Railway Act on 7 August 1854, construction of the railway was estimated to cost £1 million. Initially, with the Crimean War under way, the Met found it hard to raise the capital, while it attempted to raise the funds it presented new bills to Parliament seeking an extension of time to carry out the works. In July 1855, an Act to make a connection to the GNR at Kings Cross received royal assent
London Borough of Brent
The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London, and forms part of Outer London. The major areas are Kilburn and Harlesden, most of the eastern border is formed by the Roman road Watling Street, which is now the modern A5. Brent has a mixture of residential and commercial land, Brent is home to Wembley Stadium, one of the countrys biggest landmarks, as well as Wembley Arena. The local authority is Brent London Borough Council, the borough has seen illegal dumping on the borough’s streets between 2013/14 and 2014/15 surge by 84 per cent, the most recorded by a local authority in England. Brent has the highest proportion of housing benefit claims by private tenants in the country as a percentage of all according to the Financial Times. Brent was formed in 1965 from the area of the former Municipal Borough of Wembley and its name derives from the River Brent which runs through the borough. Brent is divided into 21 Electoral Wards, some wards share a name with the traditional areas above, others include Barnhill, Dudden Hill, Fryent and Welsh Harp.
The Brent borough includes three parliamentary constituencies, Brent North, Brent Central, and Hampstead and Kilburn, which part of the London Borough of Camden. Before the 2010 United Kingdom general election it was divided into three constituencies contained wholly within the borough - Brent South, Brent East and Brent North, Brent London Borough Council is elected every four years, with currently 63 councillors being elected at each election. Labour regained control in 2010 and increased their majority at the 2014 election, as of the 2014 election the council is composed of the following councillors, - The leader of the Council is Labour Councillor Muhammed Butt. In 1801, the parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 2,022. This rose slowly throughout the 19th century, as the district built up. When the railways arrived the rate of growth increased. The population peaked in the 1960s, when began to relocate from London. Brent is among the most diverse localities in the country, with large Asian and Indian, Black African, Black Caribbean and Eastern European minority communities.
In the 2001 Census, the borough had a population of 263,464 – of whom 127,806 were male, and 135,658 female. Of those stating a choice,47. 71% described themselves as Christian,17. 71% as Hindu,12. 26% as Muslim and 10% as having no religion. Of the population,39. 96% were in employment and 7. 86% in part-time employment – compared to a London average of 42. 64% and 8. 62%
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area