Nebraska is a state that lies both in the Great Plains and in the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million. Its capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing. Nebraska has two major climatic zones; the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate. The western half of the state has a semi-arid climate.
The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south within the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook wind tends to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is the result of anglicization of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River which flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples.
After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720. The party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied with the French; the massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U. S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
The Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood. Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln; the battle of Massacre Canyon, on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux.
During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population had soared to more than 450,000 people; the Arbor Day holiday was founded in Nebraska City by territorial governor J. Sterling Morton; the National Arbor Day Foundation is still hea
Patton is a 1970 American epic biographical war film about U. S. General George S. Patton during World War II, it stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates and Karl Michael Vogler, it was directed by Franklin J. Schaffner from a script by Francis Ford Coppola and Edmund H. North, who based their screenplay on the biography Patton: Ordeal and Triumph by Ladislas Farago and Omar Bradley's memoir A Soldier's Story; the film was shot in 65 mm Dimension 150 by cinematographer Fred J. Koenekamp and has a music score by Jerry Goldsmith. Patton won seven Academy Awards, including Best Director and Best Original Screenplay. Scott declined to accept the award; the opening monologue, delivered by George C. Scott as General Patton with an enormous American flag behind him, remains an iconic and quoted image in film; the film was successful, in 2003, Patton was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
The Academy Film Archive preserved Patton in 2003. General George S. Patton addresses an unseen audience of American troops to raise their morale, focusing in particular on the value placed on winning by American society. Following the humiliating American defeat at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass in 1943, Patton is placed in charge of the American II Corps in North Africa. Upon his arrival, he starts enforcing discipline among his troops. At a meeting with Air Marshal Coningham of the Royal Air Force, he claims that the American defeat was caused by lack of air cover. Coningham promises Patton that he will see no more German aircraft – but seconds the compound is strafed by them. Patton defeats a German attack at the Battle of El Guettar. Patton is bitterly disappointed to learn that Erwin Rommel, commander of the German-Italian Panzer Army, was on medical leave, but Codman suggests that: "If you've defeated Rommel's plan, you've defeated Rommel." After success in the North Africa campaign and Bernard Montgomery come up with competing plans for the Allied invasion of Sicily.
Patton's proposal to land his Seventh Army in the northwest of the island with Montgomery in the southeast impresses their superior General Alexander, but General Eisenhower rejects it in favor of Montgomery's more cautious plan, which places Patton's army in the southeast, covering Montgomery's flank. While the landing is successful, the Allied forces become bogged down, causing Patton to defy orders and advance northwest to Palermo, to the port of Messina in the northeast, narrowly beating Montgomery to the prize, although several thousand German and Italian troops are able to flee the island. Patton insists that his feud with Montgomery is due to the latter's determination to monopolize the war glory. However, Patton's actions do not sit well with his subordinates Lucian Truscott. While on a visit to a field hospital, Patton notices a shell-shocked soldier crying. Calling him a coward, Patton slaps the soldier and threatens to shoot him, before demanding his immediate return to the front line.
By Eisenhower's order, Patton is relieved of command and required to apologize to the soldier, to others present, to his entire command. As a further punishment, he is sidelined during the D-Day landings in 1944, being placed in command of the decoy phantom First United States Army Group in southeast England – which makes the decoy army more convincing, as German General Alfred Jodl is convinced that Patton will lead the invasion of Europe. After Patton begs his former subordinate Bradley for a command before the war ends, Eisenhower places Patton under Bradley in command of the Third Army, he performs brilliantly by advancing through France, but his tanks are brought to a standstill when they run out of fuel as, much to his fury, the supplies were allocated to Montgomery's bold Operation Market Garden. During the Battle of the Bulge, Patton brilliantly relieves the town of Bastogne and smashes through the Siegfried Line and into Germany. At a war drive in Knutsford, General Patton remarks that the United States and the United Kingdom would dominate the post-war world, but this is viewed as an insult to the Soviet Union.
After Germany capitulates, Patton directly insults a Russian general at a dinner. Patton makes an offhand remark comparing the Nazi Party to American political parties. Patton's outspokenness loses him his command once again, though he is kept on to see to the rebuilding of Germany, where a runaway oxcart narrowly misses him. Patton is seen walking Willie, his bull terrier, across the German countryside. Patton's voice is heard relating that a returning hero of ancient Rome was honored with a triumph, a victory parade in which "a slave stood behind the conqueror, holding a golden crown, whispering in his ear a warning: that all glory... is fleeting." Attempts to make a film about the life of Patton had been ongoing for over fifteen years, commencing in 1953. The Patton family was approached by the producers for help in making the film; the filmmakers desired access to Patton's diaries, as well as input from family members. However, the producers contacted the family the day after Beatrice Ayer Patton, the general's widow, was buried, the family refused to provide any assistance to the film's producers.
Sky News Today is a live news programme on Sky News which runs between 11:00am and 1:30pm on weekdays and is presented by Colin Brazier and Jayne Secker from Monday to Thursday. Tom Macleod and Samantha Washington present the Friday edition. Sky News Today was launched in September 2002, presented by Martin Stanford and Julie Etchingham, broadcast on weekdays between 10:00am and 1:00pm. In contrast to the rest of Sky News' coverage at that time, Sky News Today was presented from the heart of the newsroom, with frequent use being made of a large videowall at the back of the newsroom; when Sky News underwent a major relaunch in October 2005, Sky News Today relaunched with it. The programme was now presented by three presenters at a time: the morning edition by Martin Stanford, Anna Botting and former BBC News presenter Anna Jones, the afternoon edition by Mark Longhurst, Stephen Dixon and new signing Ginny Buckley; the three-presenter format was axed in early 2006, with the strand returning to a more traditional two-presenter format.
In October 2007, Sky made the move to single headed presentation with Julie Etchingham becoming the anchor of Sky News Today between 9am and 1pm on weekdays. From Tuesday 8 January 2008, former BBC Breakfast anchor Dermot Murnaghan replaced Julie Etchingham as main presenter of the show. Etchingham moved to ITV News to present the relaunched News at Ten with Sir Trevor McDonald. Emma Crosby took over the news summaries from Colin Brazier who moved to Afternoon Live to work alongside Kay Burley. However, shortly after taking up the headline post, Crosby moved to Sky's business news department, onto GMTV. In February 2009, Sky News Today was reduced by one hour, broadcasting from 10am to 1pm, with The Live Desk running from 9am to 10am. From January 2011, the strand started airing on Saturdays, no longer featured a news summary presenter. Dermot now presented Monday to Wednesday with Colin Brazier presenting from Thursday - Saturday. In September 2014, as part of a schedule revamp at Sky News, double-headed presentation was reinstated.
Dermot Murnaghan now presents a lunchtime slot from Monday to Wednesday. From 26 September 2016, the slot moved to start as part of a new schedule. During the summer of 2017, the program had a different format. Seeing as All Out Politics was on a summer break, one presenter presented from 10–12, it was double headed from 12–1, the presenter who started at noon took over from 1–3; as of April 2019, on Mondays to Thursdays the program runs from 11am until 1.30pm, with Ian King Live following from 1.30pm until 2pm. On Fridays, the program runs from 11am until 2pm as there is no Ian King Live