The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Marbach am Neckar
Marbach am Neckar is a town on the river Neckar in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The nearest larger cities are Stuttgart. Marbach is known as the birthplace of Friedrich Schiller. Although Schiller moved away as a child, he is commemorated in Marbach by the Schiller-Nationalmuseum und Deutsches Literaturarchiv, one of the main archives of literature history in the country. In 2006, the Literaturmuseum der Moderne was opened for public just next to the existing museum; the iconic and modern building was planned by British architect David Chipperfield. It archives 20th-century literature. Notable original manuscripts include The Trial by Franz Kafka and Berlin Alexanderplatz by Alfred Döblin; the town has a picturesque centre with several churches and many historical houses, including the house in which Schiller was born. Marbach station is on the Backnang–Ludwigsburg railway and it used to be the terminus of line S 4 of the Stuttgart S-Bahn, extended to Backnang in 2013. Marbach am Neckar is twinned with: L'Isle-Adam, Val-d'Oise, France Tongling City, People's Republic of China Washington, United States Numbers are according to the text in dewiki 1634: 1.765 1639: 863 1692: 1.478 1695: 609 1846: 2.450 1861: 2.200 World War I: 132 fallen 1919: 2.900 1933: 3.500 1980: 12.000 2005: more than 15.000 2015: 15.612 1539–1539: Michael Hunn 1903–1907: Johannes Härtner 1907–1925: Theodor Forstner 1925–1945: Wilhelm Kopf 1945–1948: Wilhelm Schenk 1948–1973: Hermann Zanker 1973–1997: Heinz Georg Keppler 1997–2013: Herbert Pötzsch since 2013: Jan Trost Museum of Modern Literature Tobias Mayer, mathematician and astronomer Friedrich Schiller, poet Iring Fetscher, political scientist and author Rolf Geiger, footballer Fritz Aldinger, materials scientist Media related to Marbach am Neckar at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Plochingen is a town in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located at the confluence of Fils and Neckar, 19 km southeast of Stuttgart and the Neckar is navigable from here on. For the first time Plochingen was mentioned in 1146 as "Blochingen" in a document of Conrad III of Germany. In Plochingen were two castles. Plochingen was 1698 post station on the imperial post road from Antwerp to Venice; the Fils Valley Railway came 1846 up to Plochingen, only a year after in Württemberg the line between Cannstatt and Untertürkheim had been opened. The Swabian Jura Association was founded in 1888 in the still existing restaurant Waldhorn. On 1 June 1913 a tornado destroyed numerous buildings in Plochingen. On April 13, 1948, the municipality of Plochingen became a town. On 12 July 1968, was the inauguration of the Neckar harbor Plochingen. Since the beginning of the S-Bahn Stuttgart traffic on 1 October 1978, the vehicles are technically maintained and cleaned in the depot Plochingen.
1998 Plochingen hosted the Landesgartenschau of Baden-Württemberg. Until 1969: Emil Hartung 1969–2008: Eugen Beck Since 2008: Frank Buß Plochingen is one of the main stations on line one of the Stuttgart S-Bahn; the Fils Valley Railway, part of the connection from Stuttgart to Munich, runs through Plochingen, with the Neckar-Alb Railway to Tübingen starting here. The public transport here is good, so that on weekends bus and train connections are frequent. Close to the railway station is a Hundertwasserhaus, designed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser and built in 1992; as this house should "not disturb the traditional skyline of the town", the house is rather conventional on the outside, unlike other Hundertwasserhauses. However, there is a single, significant tower in a style typical of Hundertwasser visible from outside the complex; the interior court evokes a typical Hundertwasser style. The courtyard features a cafe. Close to the Railway station is located the office of the Automotive giant BOSCH.
Many people travel to Plochingen every morning for their work. Near the Railway station, there is another company, Ceramtec. Plochingen is twinned with: Landskrona, Sweden Zwettl, Austria Oroszlány, Hungary Christian Friedrich Löw, Schultheiß in Beuren, Member of Landtag Ferdinand Huttenlocher and painter Heinz Mauser and professor Gotthilf Fischer, head of choir, known for founding the Fischer-Chöre Werner Niefer, manager in car industry Mercedes-Benz Gerhard Mahler and politician, former Member of Landtag Egon Eigenthaler, advertising graphic designer, Member of Landtag Siegfried K. Wiedmann, electrical engineer Herbert Henzler, former manager of McKinsey Thomas Franz, major general of German Luftwaffe Jürgen Resch, business executive of Deutschen Umwelthilfe Official website
A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, petrified wood, coal, DNA remnants; the totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, evolutionary significance. Specimens are considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old; the oldest fossils are around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils; the development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host. There are many processes that lead to fossilization, including permineralization and molds, authigenic mineralization and recrystallization, adpression and bioimmuration.
Fossils vary in size from one-micrometre bacteria to dinosaurs and trees, many meters long and weighing many tons. A fossil preserves only a portion of the deceased organism that portion, mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Fossils may consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces; these types of fossil are called trace ichnofossils, as opposed to body fossils. Some fossils are called chemofossils or biosignatures; the process of fossilization varies according to external conditions. Permineralization is a process of fossilization; the empty spaces within an organism become filled with mineral-rich groundwater. Minerals precipitate from the groundwater; this process can occur in small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce detailed fossils. For permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death, otherwise decay commences.
The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the details of the fossil. Some fossils consist only of skeletal teeth; this is a form of diagenesis. In some cases, the original remains of the organism dissolve or are otherwise destroyed; the remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold. If this hole is filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast, or internal mold, is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail or the hollow of a skull; this is a special form of mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, resulting in a nodule forming around it. If this happens before significant decay to the organic tissue fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved. Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization.
Replacement occurs. In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material. A shell is said to be recrystallized when the original skeletal compounds are still present but in a different crystal form, as from aragonite to calcite. Compression fossils, such as those of fossil ferns, are the result of chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules composing the organism's tissues. In this case the fossil consists of original material, albeit in a geochemically altered state; this chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. What remains is a carbonaceous film known as a phytoleim, in which case the fossil is known as a compression. However, the phytoleim is lost and all that remains is an impression of the organism in the rock—an impression fossil. In many cases, however and impressions occur together. For instance, when the rock is broken open, the phytoleim will be attached to one part, whereas the counterpart will just be an impression.
For this reason, one term covers the two modes of preservation: adpression. Because of their antiquity, an unexpected exception to the alteration of an organism's tissues by chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules during fossilization has been the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, including blood vessels, the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments. In 2014, Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues reported the presence of iron particles associated with soft tissues recovered from dinosaur fossils. Based on various experiments that studied the interaction of iron in haemoglobin with blood vessel tissue they proposed that solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances the stability and preservation of soft tissue and provides the basis for an explanation for the unforeseen preservation of fossil soft tissues. However, a older study based on eight taxa ranging in time from the Devonian to the Jurassic found that reasonably well-preserved fibrils that represent collagen were preser
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation, headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. Daimler-Benz was formed with the merger of Benz & Cie and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft in 1926; the company was renamed DaimlerChrysler upon acquiring the American automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation in 1998, was again renamed Daimler upon divesting of Chrysler in 2007. As of 2014, Daimler owned or had shares in a number of car, bus and motorcycle brands including Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-AMG, Smart Automobile, Detroit Diesel, Western Star, Thomas Built Buses, BharatBenz, Mitsubishi Fuso, MV Agusta as well as shares in Denza, KAMAZ and Beijing Automotive Group; the luxury Maybach brand was terminated at the end of 2012, but revived in April 2015 as "Mercedes-Maybach" versions of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class and G-Class. In 2017, Daimler sold 3.3 million vehicles. By unit sales, Daimler is the thirteenth-largest car manufacturer and is the largest truck manufacturer in the world. Daimler provides financial services through its Daimler Financial Services arm.
The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Daimler AG complex in Stuttgart include central company headquarters, Mercedes-Benz and Daimler car plants, Mercedes-Benz museum and stadium Mercedes-Benz Arena. Daimler AG's origin is in an Agreement of Mutual Interest signed on 1 May 1924 between Benz & Cie and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine marques until 28 June 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft formally merged - becoming Daimler-Benz AG - and agreed that thereafter, all of the factories would use the brand name of "Mercedes-Benz" on their automobiles. The inclusion of the name Mercedes in the new brand name honored the most important model series of DMG automobiles, the Mercedes series, which were designed and built by Wilhelm Maybach, they derived their name from a 1900 engine named after the daughter of Emil Jellinek. Jellinek became one of DMG's directors in 1900, ordered a small number of motor racing cars built to his specifications by Maybach, stipulated that the engine must be named Daimler-Mercedes, made the new automobile famous through motorsports.
That race car became known as the Mercedes 35 hp. The first of the series of production models bearing the name Mercedes had been produced by DMG in 1902. Jellinek left the DMG board of directors in 1909; the name of Daimler as a marque of automobiles had been sold by DMG - following his death in 1900 - for use by other companies. Since the new company, Daimler-Benz, would have created confusion and legal problems by including Daimler in its new brand name, it therefore used the name Mercedes to represent the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft interest. Karl Benz remained as a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz AG until his death in 1929. Although Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz automobile brand, during World War II, it created a notable series of aircraft and submarine engines. Daimler produced parts for German arms, most notably barrels for the Mauser rifle. During World War II, Daimler-Benz employed slave labour. In 1966, Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH merged with Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau Friedrichshafen GmbH to form Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH, under partial ownership by Daimler-Benz.
The company is renamed Motoren und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH in 1969. In 1989, Daimler-Benz InterServices AG was created to handle data processing and insurance services, real estate management for the Daimler group. In 1995, MTU Friedrichshafen became a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler-Benz. In a so-called "Merger of Equals," or "Marriage made in Heaven", according to its CEO and architect Jürgen E. Schrempp, Daimler-Benz AG and United States-based automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation, the smallest of the main three American automakers, merged in 1998 in an exchange of shares and formed DaimlerChrysler AG. Valued at US$38 billion, it was the world's largest cross-border deal; the terms of the merger allowed Daimler-Benz's non-automotive businesses such as Daimler-Benz InterServices AG, "debis AG" for short, to continue to pursue their respective strategies of expansion. Debis AG reported revenues of $8.6 bn in 1997. The merger was contentious with investors launching lawsuits over whether the transaction was the'merger of equals' that senior management claimed or amounted to a Daimler-Benz takeover of Chrysler.
A class action investor lawsuit was settled in August 2003 for US$300 million while a suit by billionaire investor activist Kirk Kerkorian was dismissed on 7 April 2005. The transaction claimed the job of its architect, Chairman Jürgen E. Schrempp, who resigned at the end of 2005 in response to the fall of the company's share price following the transaction; the merger was the subject of a book Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off With Chrysler, by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz. Another issue of contention is whether the merger delivered promised synergies and integrated the two businesses. Martin H. Wiggers' concept of a platform strategy like the VW Group, was implemented only for a few models, so the synergy effects in development and production were too low; as late as 2002, DaimlerChrysler appeared to run two independent product lines. That year
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres