Order of Saint John (chartered 1888)
The orders approximately 25,000 members, known as confrères, are mostly of the Protestant faith, though those of other Christian denominations or other religions are accepted into the order. Except via appointment to government or ecclesiastical offices in some realms, membership is by invitation only. It is a constituent member of the Alliance of the Orders of St John of Jerusalem and its headquarters are in London and it is a registered charity under English law. This was to be achieved by issuing bonds in London to form an army of demobilized British soldiers using readily available. The council was reorganised and the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head, scotsman Donald Currie was in 1827 given the authority to raise £240,000. Anyone who subscribed to the project and all commissioned officers of the army were offered the opportunity of being appointed knights of the order. Few donations were attracted and the Greek War of Independence was won without the help of the knights of the Council of the French Langues and it was headquartered at what Mortara called the Auberge of St.
John, St Johns Gate, Clerkenwell. The creation of the langue has been regarded either as a revival of the Knights Hospitaller or the establishment of a new order, on 29 January 1831, in the presence of Philip de Castellane and the Agent-General of the French Langues, Peat was elected Prior ad interim. Sir Robert Peat died in April 1837 and Sir Henry Dymoke was appointed grand prior and re-established contact with the knights in France and Germany, into which the group had by that time expanded. This new entity grew its membership over the three decades and, in 1861, the Duke of Manchester agreed to become its grand prior. Additionally, an associated national hospitaller organisation was formed with a corps of ambulances, Sir Edmund Lechmere purchased St Johns Gate as the orders headquarters two years later, the property was initially leased from Lechmere before the order acquired the freehold in 1887. The name given when first constituted in 1888 as the present order of chivalry by Queen Victorias royal charter was Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem in England.
Its most recent royal charter was granted in 1955, with a charter issued in 1974. In 1999, the order received special status from the United Nations Economic. The Grand Prior may appoint a secretary of the order, since the orders royal charter of 1888, the Grand Prior has been appointed by the Sovereign Head and has always been a member of the royal family. All Priors, should not already be in the grade or higher, are made a Knight or Dame of Justice upon their assignment. Knights and Dames receive the accolade from the grand prior when they are touched on the shoulder with a sword and are given their robes and Dames Grand Cross additionally have the right to be granted heraldic supporters for life. In 2013, the Priory of Kenya and in 2014 the Priory of Singapore were formed, each is governed by a prior and a priory chapter
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order in the 12th century in Acre. Purely religious since 1929, it still confers limited honorary knighthoods, the order was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Formed in the year 1190 in Acre, in the Levant, after Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Kipchaks. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians territory, the Order theoretically lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianization of Lithuania. However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic. The Teutonic Knights had an economic base, and so hired mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies.
In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was successfully defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse. In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I made an alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter, the empire did not support the Order against Poland, in 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost Livonia and its holdings in the Protestant areas of Germany, the Order did keep its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. However, the Order continued to exist as a charitable and ceremonial body and it was outlawed by Adolf Hitler in 1938, but re-established in 1945. Today it operates primarily with charitable aims in Central Europe, the Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross.
A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms, the motto of the Order was, Wehren, Heilen. The full name of the Order in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem or in Latin Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, the term Teutonic refers to the German origins of the order in Latin. It is commonly known in German as the Deutscher Orden, historically as Deutscher Ritterorden, Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden or Die Herren im weißen Mantel. However, based on the model of the Knights Templar, it was transformed into an order in 1198. It received papal orders for crusades to take and hold Jerusalem for Christianity, during the rule of Grand Master Hermann von Salza the Order changed from being a hospice brotherhood for pilgrims to primarily a military order. The Order was founded in Acre, and the Knights purchased Montfort, northeast of Acre, the Order had a castle at Amouda in Armenia Minor
A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material, typically cloth but plastic or sometimes metal, used primarily as decorative binding and tying. Cloth ribbons are made of materials such as silk, velvet and jute and of synthetic materials, such as polyester, nylon. Ribbon is used for innumerable useful and symbolic purposes, cultures around the world use ribbon in their hair, around the body, and as ornamentation on non-human animals and packaging. Some popular fabrics used to make ribbons are satin, sheer, velvet, the word ribbon comes from Middle English ribban or riban from Old French ruban, which is probably of Germanic origin. Along with that of tapes and other smallwares, the essential feature of a ribbon loom is the simultaneous weaving in one loom frame of two or more webs, going up to as many as forty narrow fabrics in modern looms. A loom in which several narrow webs could be woven at one time is mentioned as having working in Dantzig towards the end of the 16th century. Similar looms were at work in Leiden in 1620, where their use gave rise to so much discontent and rioting on the part of the weavers that the states-general had to prohibit their use.
The prohibition was renewed at intervals throughout the century. In 1676, under the name of the Dutch loom or engine loom, it was brought to London, in 1745, John Kay, the inventor of the fly-shuttle, conjointly with Joseph Stell, a patent for improvements in the ribbon loom. Since that period, it has benefited by the applied to weaving machinery generally. Ribbon-weaving is known to have been established near St. Etienne as early as the 11th century, and that town has remained the headquarters of the industry. During the Huguenot troubles, ribbon-weavers from St. Etienne settled at Basel, krefeld is the centre of the German ribbon industry, the manufacture of black velvet ribbon being there a specialty. In England Coventry is the most important seat of ribbon-making, which is prosecuted at Norwich and Leicester. While satin and other sorts of ribbon have always used in lingerie. This upsurge led to increased ribbon manufacturing as well as new, the North American continent remains the largest importer of ribbon and ribbon derivative products.
Inspired by European silk ribbons obtained through trade, Great Lakes and dot matrix printers use a cloth or plastic ribbon to hold the ink. Pieces of ribbon are used as symbols of support or awareness for social causes and are called awareness ribbons. Ribbons are used in ceremonies, such as in a ribbon cutting ceremony
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarchs family, the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the Sovereign of the order, its motto is Victoria, and its official day is 20 June. The orders chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London, the organisation was founded a year preceding Victorias Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The orders official day was made 20 June of each year, in 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order. It is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes, Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007.
Foreigners may be admitted as members, there are no limits to the number of any grade. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St, prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members, but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO. Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes. For Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Lieutenants, the orders ribbon is blue with red-white-red stripe edging, the only difference being that for foreigners appointed into the society, their ribbon bearing an additional central white stripe. For Knights Grand Cross, the ribbon is 82.5 millimetres wide, for Dames Grand Cross 57.1 millimetres, for Knights and Dames Commander 44.4 millimetres, and for all other members 31.7 millimetres.
Though after the death of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross their insignia may be retained by their family, the collar must be returned. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear a mantle of blue satin edged with red satin and lined with white satin. Since 1938, the chapel of the Royal Victorian Order has been the Queens Chapel of the Savoy, in central London, upon the occupants death, the plate is retained, leaving the stalls festooned with a record of the orders Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1938. There is insufficient space in the chapel for the display of knights and dames banners, founded by Michael Jackson, the group has, since 2008, gathered biennially. The practice of notifying the Prime Minister of Canada of nominees ended in 1982, in Canada, the order has come to be colloquially dubbed as the Royal Visit Order, as the majority of appointments are made by the sovereign during her tours of the country. Persons have been removed from the order at the monarchs command, anthony Blunt, a former surveyor of the Queens Pictures, was in 1979 stripped of his knighthood, after it was revealed that he had been a spy
Order of the Golden Fleece
It became one of the most prestigious orders in Europe. The chaplain of the Austrian branch is Cardinal Graf von Schönborn and it is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign. The Orders first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, so that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order. Should honor those who wear it, and be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds, the bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleeces reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. He was succeeded as king by Philip V, a Bourbon, in either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French. These, and other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813, napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and the new order was never awarded, in 1812 the acting government of Spain awarded the order to the Duke of Wellington, an act confirmed by Ferdinand on his resumption of power, with the approval of Pope Pius VII. Wellington therefore became the first Protestant to be awarded the Golden Fleece and it has subsequently been awarded to non-Christians, such as Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. There was another crisis in 1833 when Isabella II became Queen of Spain in defiance of Salic Law that did not allow women to become heads of state and her right to award the Fleece was challenged by Spanish Carlists. Sovereignty remained with the head of the Spanish house of Bourbon during the republican and Francoist periods and is today by the present King of Spain. Knights of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style His/Her Excellency in front of their name, King Juan Carlos I of Spain – Former Sovereign of the Order as King of Spain from 1975 to 2014.
The problem of inheritance was avoided on the accession of Maria Theresa in 1740 as sovereignty of the Order passed not to herself but to her husband. Sovereignty remains with the head of the House of Habsburg, which was handed over on 20 November 2000 by Otto von Habsburg to his elder son, die Schatzkammer in Wien, Symbole abendländischen Kaisertums. Der Schatz des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, ISBN 3-7017-0541-0 Boulton, DArcy Jonathan Dacre,1987
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
It was founded as the Knights Hospitaller circa 1099 in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, by the Blessed Gerard, making it the worlds oldest surviving chivalric order. It operated from Cyprus, Malta, over which it was sovereign until the French occupation, the order venerates as its patroness Mary, mother of Jesus, under the title Our Lady of Mount Philermos. The Order retains sovereignty under international law, including United Nations permanent observer status, issuing its own passports, the orders military corps, three brigades, are stationed throughout Italy, liaisoned with the Italian Armed Forces. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of disasters, epidemics. In several countries, including France and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of emergency services. In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Roman Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of two orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms.
The shield is surrounded with a rosary for professed knights. Members may display the Maltese cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon, in order to protect its heritage against frauds, the order has legally registered 16 versions of its names and emblems in some 100 countries. The birth of the dates back to around 1048. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem–the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land–became independent under the guidance of its founder, by virtue of the Papal Bull, the hospital became an order exempt from the control of the local church. All the Knights were religious, bound by the three vows of poverty and obedience. The order thus added the task of defending the faith to that of its hospitaller mission, as time went on, the order adopted the white eight-pointed Cross that is still its symbol today. The eight points represent the eight beatitudes that Jesus pronounced in his Sermon on the Mount, when the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell after the Siege of Acre in 1291, the order settled first in Cyprus.
In 1310, led by Grand Master Fra Foulques de Villaret, in the early 14th century, the institutions of the Order and the knights who came to Rhodes from every corner of Europe were grouped according to the languages they spoke. Each Langue included Priories or Grand Priories and Commanderies, the Order was governed by its Grand Master, the Prince of Rhodes, and its Council. The senior positions of the Order were given to representatives of different Langues, after six months of siege and fierce combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the Knights were forced to surrender in 1523 and left Rhodes with military honours. The Reformation which split Western Europe into Protestant and Roman Catholic states affected the knights as well, in several countries, including England and Sweden, the order was disestablished. In others, including the Netherlands and Germany, entire bailiwicks or commanderies experienced religious conversions and it was established that the order should remain neutral in any war between Christian nations
Presidential Medal of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States. The award is not limited to U. S. citizens and, while it is an award, it can be awarded to military personnel. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy, President John F. Kennedy established the current decoration in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, with unique and distinctive insignia, vastly expanded purpose, and far higher prestige. It was the first U. S. civilian neck decoration and, in the grade of Awarded With Distinction, is the only U. S. sash and star decoration. The Executive Order calls for the medal to be awarded annually on or around July 4, and at other convenient times as chosen by the president, Recipients are selected by the president, either on his own initiative or based on recommendations. The order establishing the medal expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a source of such recommendations.
The medal may be awarded to a more than once. It may be awarded posthumously, examples include John F, golden American bald eagles with spread wings stand between the points of the star. It is worn around the neck on a ribbon with white edge stripes. When the medal With Distinction is awarded, the star may be presented descending from a neck ribbon, the sash and medal of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction has never been worn in public since its inception. Andrew Presidential Medal of Freedom, an article from jfklibrary. org, Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients, a list of recipients from May 5,1993, through August 19,2009, from senate. gov, the U. S. Senates official website. Hosted on georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov, a section of the U. S. National Archives, Medal of Freedom Ceremony, a news release, August 12,2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse. gov, the White Houses official website. War Figures Honored With Medal of Freedom, The New York Times, December 15,2004
Order of the Holy Spirit
The Order of the Holy Spirit, known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, is a French dynastic order of chivalry under the House of France. It should not be confused with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost or with the religious Order of the Holy Ghost and it was the senior chivalric order of France by precedence, although not by age, since the Order of Saint Michael was established more than a century earlier. Although officially abolished by the government authorities of the French Republic along with the French Monarchy following the French Revolution and it is still recognised by the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry. Prior to the creation of the Order of the Holy Spirit in 1578 by Henri III and this order had originally been created to rival the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece, and to help ensure that leading French nobles remained loyal to the Crown. This Order was dedicated to the Holy Spirit to commemorate the fact that Henry was elected King of Poland, following the Restoration, the order was officially revived, only to be abolished again by the Orleanist Louis-Philippe following the July Revolution in 1830.
The King of France was the Sovereign and Grand Master, and this was relaxed so that all eight had to be either cardinals, archbishops or prelates. Members of the order had to be Roman Catholic, and had to be able to demonstrate three degrees of nobility. The minimum age for members was 35, although there were exceptions, Children of the king were members from birth. As such, they were known as Chevalier des Ordres du Roi. The order had its own officers and they were responsible for the ceremonies and the administration of the order. Officers of the order were as follows, Chancellor Provost and Master of Ceremonies Treasurer Clerk The symbol of the order is known as the Cross of the Holy Spirit. At the periphery, the eight points of the cross are rounded, imposed on the centre of the cross is a dove. The eight rounded corners represent the Beatitudes, the four fleur-de-lis represent the Gospels, the twelve petals represent the Apostles, the Cross of the Holy Spirit was worn hung from a blue riband.
Due to the blue riband from which the Cross of the Holy Spirit was hung, over time, this expression was extended to refer to other distinctions of the highest class – for example, Cordon Bleu cooking and Blue Riband sporting events. The badge of the Order is a gold Maltese cross with white borders, each of the eight points ending in a gold ball, at the center of the cross, was set a white dove descending surrounded by green flames. The back of this cross worn by the knights was the same as the front except with the medallion of the Order of Saint Michael at the rather than the dove. Each of these links was surrounded with red enamel flames forming a square around it, more generally, the cross was suspended from a large ribbon of color moirée blue sky, hence the nickname cordon bleu the knights wore. Both the mantle proper and the cape were lined with a yellowish orange satin
Order of Orange-Nassau
The Order of Orange-Nassau is a civil and military Dutch order of chivalry founded on 4 April 1892 by the Queen regent Emma, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina. The Order is a chivalric order open to everyone who has earned special merits for society and these are people who deserve appreciation and recognition from society for the special way in which they have carried out their activities. The lower grades of the order are comparable with the ranks of the Order of the British Empire in the UK, in 1841 William II of the Netherlands, as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, created the Order of the Oak Crown. Although this was not a Dutch order, honours were regularly conferred on Dutch people. After the death of William III, according to the House-treaty, in the modern age, the Orange-Nassau is still the most active civil and military decoration of the Netherlands, and ranks after the Order of the Netherlands Lion. The Order is typically awarded each year on the Monarchs official birthday with around 3500 appointments to the Order made public, the Order is used to honour foreign princes, ministers and diplomats.
In 1994, the Dutch honours system was revised after almost thirty years of discussion. This revision by law intended to create a more democratic system, disconnecting the level of the honours from rank. In principle, since everyone in Dutch society can be honoured. An honour is awarded on the basis of special, personal merits for society. Before this revision the Order consisted of five grades with additional Honorary Medals, the Honorary medals were only affiliated with the Order and bearers were not formally included in the Order. In 1996, the Honorary medals were abolished and replaced by the Member Class of the Order of Orange-Nassau, which is reserved only for Dutch citizens. The Order of Orange-Nassau has two divisions and military, the former denoted by a wreath of laurel on the badges, the King or Queen Regnant of the Netherlands is the Grand Master of the Order of Orange-Nassau. For the grades of Knight and Member, the badges are made of silver, for the other grades, the silver is gilded.
For the grades of Knight Grand Cross, Grand Officer and Commander, for the grades of Officer and Knight, they have a diameter of 46 mm. For the grade of Member, a diameter of 35 mm, until 1996, the Order of Orange-Nassau consisted of five grades. In addition, Honorary medals were issued in Gold and Bronze, but these were affiliated with the Order. Now no longer issued, these were replaced by the sixth grade, recipients wore the medal on a ribbon on the left chest
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso or trunk. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the arteries and jugular veins. In anatomy, the neck is called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck or to the uterine cervix, the neck contains vessels that links structures in the head to the body. In humans these structures include part of the esophagus, trachea and parathyroid glands, lymph nodes, major blood vessels present include the carotid arteries and the jugular veins. Cervical lymph nodes surround the blood vessels, the thyroid gland and parathyroid gland are endocrine glands involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism and growth, and blood calcium levels.
The shape of the neck in humans is formed from the part of the vertebral column at the back. Around these sit soft tissues, including muscles, and between and around these sit the other structures mentioned above, muscles of the neck attach to the base of the skull, the hyoid bone, the clavicles and the sternum. The large platysma, sternocleidomastoid muscles contribute to the shape at the front, a number of other muscles attach to and stem from the hyoid bone, facilitating speech and playing a role in swallowing. Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of nerves C2-4, the cervical region of the human spine is made up of seven cervical vertebrae referred to as C-1 to C-7, with cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. The spinal cord sits within the part of the vertebral column. The spinal column carries nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body, from top to bottom the cervical spine is gently curved in convex-forward fashion.
In addition to coming from and within the human spine. In the middle line below the chin can be felt the body of the bone, just below which is the prominence of the thyroid cartilage called Adams apple. Still lower the cricoid cartilage is easily felt, while between this and the notch the trachea and isthmus of the thyroid gland may be made out. At the side the outline of the muscle is the most striking mark. The upper part of the former contains the submaxillary gland known as the submandibular glands, the line of the common and the external carotid arteries may be marked by joining the sterno-clavicular articulation to the angle of the jaw
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
The pope is sovereign of the order. Founded as Milites Sancti Sepulcri attached to the Augustinian Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, recognised in 1113 by Papal bull of Pope Paschal II and of Pope Calistus II in 1122. Besides the Canons Regular, early members included secular canons, Milites Sancti Sepulcri, armed knights of valour and dedication chosen from the crusader troops. Together they vowed to obey the Augustinian Rule of poverty and obedience, and undertook specifically to defend the Holy Sepulchre, still today, the order bestows Canons as well as Knights, with the primary mission to support the Christian presence in the Holy Land. In 1496, Pope Alexander VI vested the Grand Magistry in the Papacy, in 1847, the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was restored by Pope Pius IX and the chivalric order was reorganised based on legal and spiritual ties to the Holy See. From 1949, Grand Masters have been Cardinals and it is the only order of chivalry, together with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, that is recognised and protected by the Holy See.
The order today is estimated to have some 23,000 members in 52 Lieutenancies around the world, including monarchs, heads of state, the current Cardinal Grand Master is Edwin Frederick OBrien since 2011, and the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is Grand Prior. Its headquarters are situated at Palazzo Della Rovere and its church in SantOnofrio al Gianicolo. The name of the Knights and Order varied over the centuries, including the Milites Sancti Sepulcri, the current name was determined on 27 July 1931 as the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem by decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonies of the Holy See. Pilgrimages to the Holy Land were a common, if hazardous, numerous detailed commentaries have survived as evidence of this early Christian devotion. While there were places the pious visited during their travels. During the era of the Islamic expansion, Emperor Charlemagne sent two embassies to the Caliph of Baghdad, asking Frankish protectorate over the Holy Land, an epic chanson de geste recounts his legendary adventures in the Mediterranean and pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Tradition maintains that long before the Crusades, a form of knighthood was bestowed upon worthy men at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In any case, during the 11th century, prior to the Crusades, milites sancti Petri were established to protect Christians, persecution of Christians in the Holy Land intensified. Relations with the worlds Christian rulers was further strained when Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009. The crusades coincided with a concern in Europe for the holy places. After the capture of Jerusalem at the end of the First Crusade in 1099, the men in charge of securing its defense and its community of canons were called Milites Sancti Sepulcri. Together, the canons and the formed part of the structure of which evolved into the modern Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem