Merrill C. Meigs Field Airport was a single runway airport in Chicago, in operation from December 1948 until March 2003, on Northerly Island, an artificial peninsula on Lake Michigan; the airport sat adjacent to the second largest business district in North America. Meigs Field airport was opened on 10 December 1948, and, by 1955, had become the busiest single-strip airport in the United States; the airport was a familiar sight on the downtown lakefront. The latest air traffic tower was built in 1952 and the terminal was dedicated in 1961; the airfield was named for Merrill C. Meigs. Meigs Field airport was closed when Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley ordered the runway destroyed with bulldozers without the thirty-day notice required by Federal Aviation Administration regulations. Northerly Island, owned by the Chicago Park District, is the only lakefront structure to be built based on Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago; the Plan of Chicago had no provision for air service. The island was to be populated by trees and grass for the public enjoyment by all.
Northerly Island was the site of the Century of Progress in Chicago. Chicago's first airplane flight took place in 1910 in Grant Park, adjacent to Northerly Island, with an international aeronautical exhibition at the same location in 1911. In 1918, regular air mail service to Grant Park began. However, Grant Park was unsuitable for the city's growing aviation needs. Burnham died in 1912. By 1916, Edward H. Bennett, co-author of the Plan of Chicago, wrote that a lakefront location would be most suitable for an airport serving the central business district. In 1920, Chicagoans approved a bond referendum to pay for landfill construction of the peninsula, in 1922 construction began; that same year Mayor William Hale Thompson recommended locating the downtown airport there. A few years the Chicago South Park Commission voted in agreement. In 1928, the Chicago Association of Commerce, representing the business community advocated for the lakefront airport; the Great Depression put numerous civic plans including the airport.
Construction continued on the peninsula itself, with the 1933 World's Fair occupying the just-completed peninsula. In the 1930s the Chicago City Council and Illinois State Legislature passed resolutions to create the airport, but both the poor economy and World War II intervened. After World War II, in 1946, airport construction began; that same year the Illinois state legislature deeded 24 acres of adjacent lake bottom to Chicago for additional landfill, to make the property large enough for a suitable runway. Aviation technology had advanced during World War II; the airport opened on December 1948, in a grand ceremony. On June 30, 1950, the airport was renamed Merrill C. Meigs Field, named after Merrill C. Meigs, publisher of the Chicago Herald and Examiner and an aviation advocate. Various improvements took place over the years, including the 1952 opening of an air traffic control tower, the 1961 opening of a new terminal building, runway lengthening, the late 1990s charting of two FAA instrument approaches allowing landings in poor weather conditions.
By the 1970s Meigs Field became a critical facility for aeromedical transport of patients and transplant organs to downtown hospitals as medical transportation technology modernized. Corporate aircraft used the airfield including Cessna Citation and Dassault Falcon 10 business jets, Beechcraft King Air and Grumman Gulfstream I business propjets; the Main Terminal Building was operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and contained waiting areas as well as office and counter space. The runway at Meigs Field was nearly 3,900 by 150 ft. In addition, there were four public helicopter pads at the south end of the runway, near McCormick Place; the north end of the runway was near the Adler Planetarium. Meigs Field provided commuter airline service to the public, peaking in the late 1980s as Mayor Richard M. Daley took office. During the mid 1950s, Illini Airlines was operating scheduled passenger service between the airport and Freeport, IL, Madison, WI, Rockford, IL and Sterling, IL with de Havilland Dove and Piper Navajo twin engine prop aircraft.
From the 1960s to early 1990s, typical intrastate destinations were Springfield, IL and Carbondale, IL. Small airliners such as Beechcraft Model 99, Beechcraft 1900C, de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and Fairchild Swearingen Metro III turboprops as well as Piper PA-31 Navajo prop aircraft were operated on a scheduled basis into the airport. In 1968, Gopher Airlines was operating nonstop service between Minneapolis/St. Paul with Beechcraft 99 turboprops. In the mid and late 1970s Air Illinois operated 44-passenger seat Hawker Siddeley HS 748 turboprops into Meigs; the HS 748 was the largest aircraft to use Meigs on a regular basis for scheduled passenger airline operations. Ozark Air Lines, a large local service airline in the midwest that operated McDonnell Douglas DC-9 jets and Fairchild Hiller FH-227B propjets at the time, served the airport during the early 1970s with DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops with up to eight round trip nonstop flights a day between Meigs and the Illinois state capital in Springfield.
Other commuter air carriers serving Meigs Field in 1975 included Midwest Commuter Airways with nonstop flights to Indianapolis and South Bend, Skystream Airlines with nonstops to Detroit City Airport with both small airlines operating Beechcraft 99 commuter turboprops. Scheduled passenger helicopter airline service was available between Meigs Field and Chicago O'Hare Airport and Chicago Midway Airport at different times over the years. From the late 1950s to late 1960s, Chicago Helic
Racing video game
The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air or space vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may fall under the category of sports games. In 1973, Atari released Space Race, an arcade video game where players control spaceships that race against opposing ships, while avoiding comets and meteors, it is a competitive two-player game controlled using a two-way joystick, features black and white graphics. The following year, Atari released the first car driving video game in the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the track in low resolution white-on-black graphics; that same year, Taito released Speed Race designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, in which the player drives down a straight track dodging other cars.
The game was re-branded as Wheels by Midway Games for release in the United States and was influential on racing games. In 1976, Sega released Moto-Cross, re-branded as Fonz in the US, as a tie-in for the popular sitcom Happy Days; the game featured a three-dimensional perspective view, as well as haptic feedback, which caused the motorcycle handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle. In October 1976, Atari's Night Driver presented a first-person view. Considered the first "scandalous" arcade game, Exidy's Death Race was criticized in the media for its violent content, which only served to increase its popularity. In 1977, Atari released Super Bug, a racing game significant as "the first game to feature a scrolling playfield" in multiple directions. Sega released Twin Course T. T. a two-player motorbike racing game. Another notable video game from the 1970s was The Driver, a racing-action game released by Kasco that used 16 mm film to project full motion video on screen, though its gameplay had limited interaction, requiring the player to match their steering wheel, gas pedal and brakes with movements shown on screen, much like the sequences in laserdisc video games.1979 saw the release of Vectorbeam's Speed Freak, a 3D vector racing game, which Killer List of Videogames calls "very impressive and ahead of their time".
In 1980, Namco's overhead-view driving game Rally-X was the first game to feature background music, allowed scrolling in multiple directions, both vertical and horizontal, it was possible to pull the screen in either direction. It featured a radar, to show the rally car's location on the map. Alpine Ski, released by Taito in 1981, was a winter sports game, a vertical-scrolling racing game that involved maneuvering a skier through a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, a ski jumping competition. Turbo, released by Sega in 1981, was the first racing game to use sprite scaling with full-color graphics. One of the most influential racing games was released in 1982: Pole Position, developed by Namco and published by Atari in North America, it was the first game to be based on a real racing circuit, the first to feature a qualifying lap, where the player needs to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races. While not the first third-person racing game, Pole Position established the conventions of the genre and its success inspired numerous imitators.
According to Electronic Games, for the first time in the amusement parlors, a first-person racing game gives a higher reward for passing cars and finishing among the leaders rather than just for keeping all four wheels on the road". According to IGN, it was "the first racing game based on a real-world racing circuit" and "introduced checkpoints," and that its success, as "the highest-grossing arcade game in North America in 1983, cemented the genre in place for decades to come and inspired a horde of other racing games". In 1983, Kaneko produced a roller skating racer. In 1984, several racing laserdisc video games were released, including Sega's GP World and Taito's Laser Grand Prix which featured live-action footage, Universal's Top Gear featuring 3D animated race car driving, Taito's Cosmos Circuit, featuring animated futuristic racing. Taito released Kick Start, Buggy Challenge, a dirt track racing game featuring a buggy. Irem's The Battle-Road, a vehicle combat racing game that featured branching paths and up to 32 possible routes.
Racing games in general tend to drift toward the arcade side of reality due to hardware limitations in the 1980s and 1990s. It is, untrue to say that there were no games considered simulations in their time. In 1984, Geoff Crammond, who developed the Grandprix series, produced what is considered the first attempt at a racing simulator on a home system, REVS, released for the BBC Microcomputer; the game offered an unofficial recreation of British Formula 3. The hardware capabilities limited the depth of the simulation and restricted it to one track, but it offered a semi-realistic driving experience with more detail than most other racing games at the time. In 1985, Sega released a Grand Prix style motorbike racer, it used force feedback technology and was one of the first arcade games to use 16-bit graphics and Sega's "Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates. In 1986, Durell released Turbo Esprit, which had an official
The Nissan GT-R is a 2-door 2+2 high performance vehicle produced by Nissan, unveiled in 2007. It is the successor to the Nissan Skyline GT-R, although no longer part of the Skyline range itself, that name now being used for Nissan's luxury-sport market. Between 1969 and 1974, again between 1989 and 2002, Nissan produced a high performance version of its Skyline coupe called the Nissan Skyline GT-R; this car achieved much fame and success on both road and track. The GT-R is an new model, sharing little with the Skyline GT-R save its signature four round tail lights. Like some generations of the Skyline GT-R, the GT-R has all-wheel drive with a twin-turbo 6-cylinder engine, but the four-wheel-steering HICAS system has been removed and the former straight-6 RB26DETT engine has been replaced with a new V6 VR38DETT. Because of the GT-R's heritage, the chassis code for the all-new version has been called CBA-R35, or'R35' for short, carrying on the naming trend from previous Skyline GT-R generations.
The GT-R has retained its Skyline predecessor's nickname, given to it by the Australian motoring publication Wheels in its July 1989 edition. Nissan showed two concept GT-Rs at motor shows before it unveiled the production model: one at the Tokyo Motor Show in 2001, to preview a 21st-century GT-R. Officials said; the production version of the GT-R debuted at the 2007 Tokyo Motor Show, launching in the Japanese market on December 6, 2007. The U. S. official launch was seven months on July 7, 2008. Universal Nissan in Los Angeles provided a customer with the delivery of a new GT-R, fresh from the production line at 12:01 am, on July 7, 2008; the Canadian launch was in July 2008. Europe became the third consumer market, where it launched in March 2009; the large disparity in initial marketing between these regional releases is due to Nissan having to build GT-R performance centers where the car is serviced. Nissan chief creative officer, Shirō Nakamura, has likened the new GT-R to the giant robots of the Gundam series.
Nakamura stated: "The GT-R is unique because it is not a copy of a European-designed Sports car. Nissan's American designers sculpted the rear three quarters of the vehicle, while their European designers sculpted the roofline. Polyphony Digital, creators of the Gran Turismo series of motor racing video games, were themselves involved in the development of the GT-R, having been contracted to design the GT-R's multifunction display; as of 2014 the GT-R was the only model built on Nissan's Premium Midship platform, an evolution of the Front Midship architecture introduced in its 2001 Skyline. It is a hybrid unibody assembled on ultra-low-tolerance jigs similar to those used in racecar construction. Alcoa aluminum is used for the hood, trunk lid and outer door skins, with die-cast aluminum front shock towers and inner door structures. Outer body panels are stamped using multiple-strike coining process for added rigidity and precision; the chassis is stiffened with a carbon-composite front crossmember/radiator support.
Nissan developed a 6-stage paint process with double clear coat and chip-resistant paint for use in critical areas of the GT-R chassis. An optional liquid-effect finish employs a hand-polished 8-stage process with product-specific Super Silver metallic paint and three layers of clearcoat; the Premium Nissan GT-R has a body-colored rear spoiler whereas the Black Edition has a dry carbon-fiber rear spoiler. Both the Premium and Black Edition GT-R are fitted with headlights, automatic on/off headlights, LED daytime running lights, LED taillights and brake lights, dual heated body-color power outside mirrors, power folding outside mirrors, flush-mounted aluminum door handles, four 5" exhaust outlets with polished tips and UV-reducing solar glass. For the 2014 model year, Nissan introduced a limited production Track Edition GT-R which deletes the rear seats and adds more aggressive suspension, carbon fiber air inlets, improved brake cooling, a unique front spoiler, new black and gray leather Recaro front seats.
The Nissan GT-R is powered by the VR38DETT V6 engine, a 3,799 cc DOHC V6 with plasma transferred wire arc sprayed cylinder bores. Two parallel Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries turbochargers provide forced induction. Models manufactured between 2007 and 2010 produce a manufacturer-claimed engine output of 485 PS at 6400 rpm and 434 lb⋅ft at 3200–5200 rpm; the engine meets California Air Resources Board Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standards. A curb weight of 1,730 or 1,736 kg with side curtain airbags is achieved using a jig welded steel chassis with aluminum used for the hood and doors. A rear mounted six-speed BorgWarner designed dual clutch semi-automatic transmission built by Aichi Machine Industry is used in conjunction with the ATTESA E-TS system to provide power to all four wheels and along with Nissan's Vehicle Dynamics Control to aid in stability. Three shift modes can be selected for various conditions. Beginning in 2010, engine power and torque were upgraded to 390 kW at 6400 rpm and 612 N⋅m at 3200–6000 rpm respectively.
Models produced in 2012 again featured improved engine output. The next-generation GTR is expected to be a hybrid, powered by a combination of the GT-R LM Nismo derived 3.0 liter V6 and a battery/motor system. The revised GT-R features an engine with revi
Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed
Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed, released as Need for Speed: Porsche 2000 in Europe and Need for Speed: Porsche in Latin America, is a racing video game released in 2000. It is the fifth installment in the Need for Speed series. Unlike other NFS titles, Porsche Unleashed centers on racing Porsche sports cars, with models ranging from 1950 to 2000. Unlike the previous four Need for Speed games, Porsche Unleashed was not released in Japan. Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed gives the player the opportunity to race Porsche cars throughout a range of tracks located in Europe; the cars were studied in detail in terms of driving mechanics in order to create a realistic simulation. The premise of the game remains the same compared to previous games in the series: driving and racing sports cars. However, the game only offers Porsches; the handling of the cars was improved, the player can customize their cars drawing from an in-depth catalog of different Porsche as well as aftermarket parts. Unlike previous games in the series, there are no pursuit modes.
Some factory driver events include police cars, but the police cars only attempt to impede the players car during certain sprint events. Four additional cars could be downloaded and added to the game, 959, GT2, GT3, 928 GTS. An additional online-only conversion of Porsche Unleashed, dubbed Need for Speed: Top Speed, was released in response to both the release of MacGillivray Freeman's 2002 IMAX film, Top Speed, the Porsche Cayenne; the game features three existing tracks from Porsche Unleashed and three Porsche vehicles: the 911 Turbo, the 959 and the Cayenne Turbo. Access to Need for Speed: Top Speed was bundled alongside the PC version of Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit 2; the 40 Jahre 911 Bundle was only available in Germany. It was a special 40th anniversary edition for the Porsche 911; the CD box is packed in a unique metal box with the game itself patched to version 3.4. Included is the official soundtrack of the game, although no additional game features were included. In the United States, Porsche Unleashed's computer version sold 74,795 units by the end of 2000.
This accounted for $2.58 million in revenue. Domestic sales rose to 340,000 copies, for revenues of $6.3 million, by August 2006. At the time, this led Edge to declare Porsche Unleashed the country's 52nd-best-selling computer game released since January 2000. In the German market, Porsche Unleashed debuted at #4 on Media Control's computer game sales rankings for March 2000. Securing fifth place the following month, it proceeded to remain in the top 20 through June, before dropping to 27th in July and 39th in August. Sales in the region totaled 65,000 units by late 2000, a figure with which Electronic Arts was "not dissatisfied", according to PC Player's Udo Hoffman. However, he noted that the title had underperformed compared to its predecessors, was part of a downturn in computer game sales that year. Need for Speed: Porsche Unleashed received mixed to positive reviews. Aggregating review websites GameRankings and Metacritic gave the Microsoft Windows version 84.36%, the PlayStation version 74.50% and 78/100 and the Game Boy Advance version 59.25% and 62/100 In the UK, Official UK PlayStation Magazine gave the PS version eight out of ten and liked its structure, but said that many of the 70 cars were indistinguishable, criticised the lifespan.
They described the handling as "arcadey", warned people who didn't like Porsches to "steer well clear". PC Gamer US named Porsche Unleashed the best racing game of 2000
In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a circular hole through, placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when a moment is applied by gravity or torque to the wheel about its axis, thereby making together one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads; the English word wheel comes from the Old English word hweol, from Proto-Germanic *hwehwlan, *hwegwlan, from Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlo-, an extended form of the root *kwel- "to revolve, move around". Cognates within Indo-European include Icelandic hjól "wheel, tyre", Greek κύκλος kúklos, Sanskrit chakra, the latter two both meaning "circle" or "wheel"; the invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. This implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia after the invention of agriculture and of pottery, during the Aceramic Neolithic.
4500–3300 BCE: Copper Age, invention of the potter's wheel. Precursors of wheels, known as "tournettes" or "slow wheels", were known in the Middle East by the 5th millennium BCE; these were made of stone or clay and secured to the ground with a peg in the center, but required significant effort to turn. True potter's wheels were in use in Mesopotamia by 3500 BCE and as early as 4000 BCE, the oldest surviving example, found in Ur, dates to 3100 BCE; the first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia, the Northern and South Caucasus, Eastern Europe, so the question of which culture invented the wheeled vehicle is still unresolved. The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle is on the 3500–3350 BCE Bronocice clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland. In nearby Olszanica 5000 BCE 2.2 m wide door were constructed for wagon entry. This barn was 40 m long with 3 doors; the oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia is now dated within two standard deviations to 3340–3030 BCE, the axle to 3360–3045 BCE.
Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known. They both are dated to c. 3200–3000 BCE. In China, the wheel was present with the adoption of the chariot in c. 1200 BCE, although Barbieri-Low argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, c. 2000 BCE. In Britain, a large wooden wheel, measuring about 1 m in diameter, was uncovered at the Must Farm site in East Anglia in 2016; the specimen, dating from 1,100–800 BCE, represents the most complete and earliest of its type found in Britain. The wheel's hub is present. A horse's spine found; the wheel was found in a settlement built on stilts over wetland, indicating that the settlement had some sort of link to dry land. Although large-scale use of wheels did not occur in the Americas prior to European contact, numerous small wheeled artifacts, identified as children's toys, have been found in Mexican archeological sites, some dating to about 1500 BCE, it is thought that the primary obstacle to large-scale development of the wheel in the Americas was the absence of domesticated large animals which could be used to pull wheeled carriages.
The closest relative of cattle present in Americas in pre-Columbian times, the American Bison, is difficult to domesticate and was never domesticated by Native Americans. The only large animal, domesticated in the Western hemisphere, the llama, a pack animal but not physically suited to use as a draft animal to pull wheeled vehicles, did not spread far beyond the Andes by the time of the arrival of Columbus. Nubians from after about 400 BCE used wheels as water wheels, it is thought. It is known that Nubians used horse-drawn chariots imported from Egypt; the wheel was used, with the exception of the Horn of Africa, in Sub-Saharan Africa well into the 19th century but this changed with the arrival of the Europeans. Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle; some of the earliest wheels were made from horizontal slices of tree trunks
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Need for Speed: High Stakes
Need for Speed: High Stakes, known as Need for Speed: Road Challenge in Europe is a 1999 racing game released by EA for the PlayStation and Microsoft Windows. The career system of this entry consists of two modes: "Tournament", straightforward series of races with certain cars. Completing races earns the player credits which are used to buy new cars for new events and to upgrade old cars to make events a little easier. Completing races unlocks the tracks for single race purposes, completing Tournament events unlocks the Special Event events. Beating all events of Tournament or Special Events will unlock one of two secret cars to purchase; the PC version is somewhat different, starting with having everything under a clear "Career Mode". All events are split into a selection of 1 to 5 individual competitions. One of those competitions is a "High Stakes" race, where the player bets their current car. In High Stakes, two racers bet their cars on a duel; the player or players must own more than one car to participate in a High Stakes race.
In addition to the "Classic" mode, which plays to the previous Hot Pursuit, High Stakes introduces "Getaway" and "Time Trap" modes. In Getaway, the speeder must evade the police or the police must catch the speeder within the time limit. If the speeder has not been arrested when time is up, the player has the option to quit to the Race Results menu or to continue play for as long as possible. In Time Trap, the speeder must complete a race or the police must arrest all racers within the time limit; the police can set up spike strips and road blocks, call for backup. PC versionAn updated Hot Pursuit mode returns from Need For Speed III: Hot Pursuit. High Stakes is based on Need For Speed III with updated racing modes; the standard races and police pursuits are bolstered by a new type of race and two new pursuit modes. Vehicle physics are improved, chiefly with the introduction of a damage model that affects both the appearance and performance of a given vehicle. PlayStation versionUnlike the PC version of the video game, based on the previous instalment in the series, the PlayStation version benefitted from improved graphics and vehicle physics with the introduction of new modes namely Test Drive and Special Events.
The Test Drive mode lets the player drive selected cars on tracks which are unlocked, although some cars and tracks need to be unlocked by progressing through the Tournament mode. The Special Events mode requires the player to have a specified car with upgrades along with requiring the player to submit an entry fee to enter; the Knockout mode was specific to the Special Events mode. The damage model, vehicle upgradation and the career progression system are carried over from the PC version. Another notable change from the previous instalment was the ability to choose police cars in the Hot Pursuit mode, requiring the player to arrest a specific number of racers if a police car was chosen. Pursuit assists such as Spike Strips and Backup units were available to the player during the race; the player was awarded with faster police cars and new upgrades when the racers were stopped within the allocated time. Bonus time was awarded if the racers were stopped quickly. In the German market, Need for Speed: High Stakes' PlayStation version received a "Gold" award from the Verband der Unterhaltungssoftware Deutschland by the end of July 1999, indicating sales of at least 100,000 units across Germany and Switzerland.
Need for Speed: High Stakes received positive reviews from critics upon release for the new features such as vehicle damage, vehicle customization and the new career mode, as well as for its exciting police chases. Aggregating review websites GameRankings and Metacritic gave the PlayStation version 84.38% and 86/100, GameRankings gave the PC version 83.08%. In Japan, Famitsu gave the PS version a score of 30 out of 40. In the UK, Official UK PlayStation Magazine gave the same version eight out of ten'. However, Official UK PlayStation Magazine said that it could not compete with other racing titles such as Gran Turismo and R4: Ridge Racer Type 4. High Stakes was named the best racing game of 1999 by CNET Gamecenter, it was a runner-up for Computer Games Strategy Plus's prize in this category, which went to Dirt Track Racing. The editors wrote, "Graphically, it has few peers, and the High Stakes mode made it more than just another pretty face."