British Rail Class 170
The Class 170 Turbostar is a British diesel multiple-unit train built by Bombardier Transportation at its Derby Litchurch Lane Works. Introduced after privatisation, these trains have operated regional as well as long-distance services, to a lesser extent suburban services. 139 units were built, but some were converted to Class 168 or Class 171 units. The class is a development of the design used in the British Rail Class 165 and 166 DMUs known as the Networker Turbos which were built by British Rail Engineering Limited and ABB Transportation Ltd before that company became part of Bombardier. Notable features shared are the aluminium alloy frame and Voith transmission as well as the general body shape, interior design and door fittings; the final drive is sourced from ZF instead of Gmeinder and the diesel-engine supplier is MTU. The engine and transmission are located under the body. One bogie per coach is powered. All coaches in the set are powered; the units can work in multiple with trains in the 15X series, i.e. Sprinters and Pacers, with other units of the same class.
They are unable to operate in multiple with units in the 16X series due to different wiring arrangements. Seating arrangements are of both 2+1 and 2+2 formation, give a seated passenger capacity of between ~100 and ~200 per three-car set. 2-car sets are operated. Class 170 units have been categorised into six sub-classes; because of the different interior fittings the sub-classes differ in weight from one another by a small amount, up to ~2 tonnes. All the subclasses were built at Derby works either under Adtranz or Bombardier Transportation ownership. Most units are owned by Porterbrook, they are leased to the train operating companies. Abellio ScotRail is the largest operator of the Class 170, with a fleet which comprised 55 3-car sets but, in the process of being reduced to 34 sets. All units are allocated to Edinburgh Haymarket depot; the first class 170s in Scotland were 24 units built for ScotRail in 1999-2001, which had first-class accommodation for use on ScotRail Express services (i.e. the Edinburgh–Glasgow shuttle and Aberdeen/Inverness–Glasgow/Edinburgh services.
A further 10 similar units were built in 2003-05 to complete the conversion of ScotRail Express services from class 158 to class 170 operation. By the time the second batch entered service. Two standard-class only units were provided for Strathclyde Partnership for Transport services from Glasgow Queen Street in 2001, followed in 2004-05 by 7 more units for SPT and 12 similar units for Edinburgh commuter services. In December 2008, six of the standard-class-only units were fitted with first-class sections, two more were fitted with first class in December 2011. A further four 3-car sets with first class accommodation and'mini-buffets', were obtained from Hull Trains in 2005, bringing the First ScotRail class 170 fleet up to a peak of 59 3-car sets; the former Hull Trains units were used on ScotRail Express services to Inverness, but by 2012 the buffets were out of use and all four units were converted to standard class only. The 9 units built for SPT services were delivered in SPT livery, whereas the rest of the fleet carried First ScotRail livery.
In September 2008 the Scottish Government's agency Transport Scotland announced that all ScotRail trains would be repainted in a new blue livery with white Saltire markings on the carriage ends. In April 2015 the ScotRail franchise passed from First to Abellio, the 9 units owned by Evershot went off-lease. Five of these units remain in Scotland on short-term lease to Abellio ScotRail, but the other 4 units were converted into class 171s for their new operator Southern; as a result of the electrification of the Edinburgh to Glasgow Queen Street line in 2018 and the conversion of ScotRail Express services to Aberdeen and Inverness to HSTs in 2018-19, the class 170s are being displaced from ScotRail Express routes. Additionally, electrification of most of the Glasgow Queen Street commuter lines and of the Edinburgh to Dunblane route will see class 170s displaced from these services once the class 385 EMU fleet is operational; some of the surplus class 170s will be cascaded to other Abellio ScotRail services replacing older class 156 and 158 units, but 16 units were transferred to Northern.
The first four of these units moved to Northern in March 2018, followed by a further four in August 2018. First TransPennine Express operated nine Class 170s, used on the Manchester Piccadilly to Hull route. Class 185s were set to operate the route but a combination of weight-restriction problems on the Selby to Hull Line, chronic overcrowding on several of the company's services and the government reducing the amount of money available to First TransPennine Express for new trains resulted in Class 170s coming into service. From September 2009, two Class 170s were used Sundays to Thursdays on the Cleethorpes–Manchester Airport service. First Trans
Ipswich railway station
Ipswich railway station is on the Great Eastern Main Line in the East of England, serving the town of Ipswich, Suffolk. It is 68 miles 59 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and on the main line it is situated between Manningtree to the south and Needham Market to the north. Ipswich is the terminus of the East Suffolk Line to Lowestoft, a branch line to Felixstowe, a branch line to Ely, Cambridgeshire, its three-letter station code is IPS. As of February 2012, the station is operated by Greater Anglia, who operate all trains serving it, as part of the East Anglia franchise; the Eastern Union Railway opened its first terminus in Ipswich, called Ipswich Stoke Hill, in 1846 on Station Road at the other end of the current tunnel close to the old quay for the steamboats and the aptly named Steamboat Tavern. The Ipswich Steam Navigation Company had been formed in 1824/25 during a period of "steamship mania" and offered services from the quay between Ipswich and London calling at Walton-on-the-Naze.
The current station is just to the north of Stoke tunnel, constructed as part of the Ipswich to Ely Line which opened as far as St. Edmunds in late 1846; the station was re-sited to its present location in 1860 and the main building was thought to be principally the work of Peter Bruff. The actual design was in the Italianate style and submitted by architect Sancton Wood as part of a competition; when the new station was completed, a new road linking the station to the town was opened. By the 1860s the railways in East Anglia were in financial trouble and most were leased to the Eastern Counties Railway. Although they wished to amalgamate formally, they could not obtain government agreement for this until 1862, when the Great Eastern Railway was formed by the amalgamation; the island platform at Ipswich was added by the GER in 1883. Ipswich engine was at the south end of Stoke tunnel, it was the third-largest shed in the Great Eastern area during the steam era, after those at Stratford and Cambridge.
At the beginning of World War 1 soldiers of the Norfolk Yeomanry regiment were deployed to Ipswich to guard key railway bridges in the area. They were relieved by the 9th field company Royal Engineers. In 1923 the GER amalgamated with other railways to form North Eastern Railway. On 30 April 1932 the LNER arranged an exhibition of railway stock at Ipswich; the show was opened by Sir Arthur Churchman, of tobacco family fame, over 16,000 visited the show. The proceeds were divided between the East Suffolk Hospital and railway charities; the exhibits were:'Hush Hush' W1 class 4-6-4 No. 10000. This last locomotive had not been in service; the show included a sleeping car and a new composite corridor coach. In 1948 following nationalisation of the railways Ipswich became part of the British Railways Eastern Region. In the early 1980s the railway through Ipswich was electrified and in May 1985 electric services operated by class 86 locomotives started to operate to London Liverpool Street. At this point the line from Norwich had not been electrified and for a year diesel locomotives were detached and electric locomotives attached at Ipswich.
During 1985-86 the line to Norwich was electrified and through electric working commenced. The station's original lifts were removed in 1983. Following the privatisation of British Rail, services from Ipswich were operated by Anglia Railways from 1997 until 2004, after which the franchise was won by National Express East Anglia. In the five years between 2004–05 and 2008–09, patronage rose by 50% from 2 million per year to 3 million per year. Ticket barriers were installed in the station building in 2009 and the exit gate on platform 2 was closed permanently. New lifts, promised for many years since they were removed in 1983 were opened in June 2011. In October 2011 the Department for Transport awarded the new franchise to Abellio, the services operated by National Express transferring to Greater Anglia in February 2012. Abellio became responsible for the operation of Ipswich station. Platform 1 is a bay platform for trains to/from Felixstowe. Platform 2 is used for through-trains to London from Norwich as well as some Felixstowe services.
Platform 3 is used for through-trains to Norwich from London as well as some Cambridge services. Platform 4 is used for services to Cambridge and Peterborough, stopping services to London. There is an avoiding line between the lines that serve the main through platforms 2 and 3. Prior to electrification there were two short sidings at the London end of the "up" platform which were used for locomotive changes on up trains when required. Platforms 3 and 4 can lift. Opposite platform 4 is a stabling point used by Freightliner diesel and electric locomotives. Classes 66, 70, 86 and 90 are the most common, although locomotives of other companies have been known to use the point in the past. For railway photographers, platforms 3 and 4 offer the best views of the stabling point; the station has extensive facilities including self-service ticket machines, ticket counters, a convenience store, two cafes, a multi-storey car park, taxi stand, bus station and ATMs. The whole stations is now accessible, with lifts having been insta
Claydon railway station (Suffolk)
Claydon railway station was a station in Claydon, Suffolk. It closed to passengers in 1963; the goods facility for Blue Circle Cement, British Steel Piling and Kings Scrapyard was still staffed in the late 1970s with the staff working from the former up side station buildings. The station was opened on 30 November 1849 when the Bury Railway started operation. Opened for goods traffic, passenger services commenced on 23 December the same year; the station building was designed by Frederick Barnes who designed a number of stations along the route. Its design is similar to Elmswell railway station, still extant today. At the west end of the station, which had two platforms, the line was crossed by the Ipswich to Stowmarket Road although that traffic is now carried on the A14, the level crossing is still quite busy with local traffic; the Ipswich and Bury Railway was soon merged to become part of the Eastern Union Railway and this was taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway in 1854. Although these two companies did not formally merge until they amalgamated with other railways to form the Great Eastern Railway in 1862.
The Bradshaws Railway guide for July 1922 shows down services for Bury St Edmunds and Norwich calling at Claydon. Up services terminated at Ipswich calling at Bramford. In 1923 operation of the station became the responsibility of the London and North Eastern Railway following the 1923 grouping. On 1 February 1941 the adjacent cement works was bombed during the second world war. On nationalisation operation of the station became the responsibility of the Eastern Region of British Railways; the station was closed to passengers on 17 June 1963 and the goods yard was closed on 31 March 1971. The down side platforms and structures were demolished soon after closure to passengers to enable the railway layout in the cement factory to be extended; the main building on the upside survived until 1992 although it was demolished despite efforts to have it listed. The signal box lasted until 1986 when following re-signalling of the main line and the replacement of the old level crossing barriers by new remote controlled barriers, it had become redundant.
The station had a number of goods facilities. Behind the up platform there was a railway owned goods yard which included a private coal siding operated by Ipswich Coal merchant Thomas Moy. A cement factory operated by George Mason & Co was established in the 1913 on the down side of the station, it is unclear whether it was rail connected in 1913 but maps of 1926 show it was rail connected with rail traffic continuing until the closure of the factory in 1999. In 1948 operation of the factory was taken over by APCM; the company operated a number of quarries in the area. On the west side of the level crossing on the down side of the line a second goods yard was established in the First World War and there were used as a railhead for aviation fuel for nearby RAF Wattisham during the Second World War. A scrap yard operated at this location. In 1921 on the down side of the line west of the crossing the Zenith Works of the British Steel Piling Co Ltd was established. Rail traffic lasted until 1973 with the connection being removed in 1976 although some track was extant in 1986.
About a mile west of the level crossing there is an active aggregates terminal on the up side of the line. Plans to redevelop one of the old cement factory quarries into an indoor ski resort called SnOasis have led to suggestions that the station may re-open although whether it will be in the same site due to its proximity to the level crossing is unknown. However, there seems little evidence the project will go ahead in 2014 so it may be some years before the station is reopened. Claydon station on navigable 1946 O. S. map
Kennett railway station
Kennett is a railway station in Cambridgeshire serving the village of Kentford, England. It opened in 1854. At its peak during the period 1860 to 1890 there was a station master and three other members of staff. From 1929 onwards the four station staff were replaced by a'Porter-in-charge' until 1967. During a heavy storm in 1968, the original brick bridge that crosses the River Kennett east of the station was washed away isolating the line for several days whilst a new metal structure was constructed to replace it; the station closed to freight traffic on 28 December 1964, although a Speedlink rail service continued to serve the granary behind the station until the mid-1980s. Further east of the station a siding serves Lafarge aggregate, providing sugar stone for British Sugar. On 2 January 1967, the station became an unstaffed halt on the Cambridge-Ipswich line and the main station buildings were demolished in 1976 after being left derelict. Parts of the original building were retained to serve as storage for the signal box and line-side maintenance.
The station buildings were typical of the line between Bury St Edmunds and Newmarket, consisted of a two-story station master's house adjoining a small booking hall, similar to the extant buildings at Higham station. The signal box closed following the replacement of the semaphore signals on 11 November 2011, it was subsequently transported by road to the Colne Valley Railway in Essex. Signal control was moved to Bury St Edmunds Yard because of modernisation of the line to provide increased capacity; the growth in demand comes from the increase of freight operations from Felixstowe to the midlands. A new footbridge was constructed in July 2014. Building work to improve the station continued until the spring of 2016. For the platforms this meant a rebuild of platform 1, resurfacing of both platforms, the addition of sheltered and unsheltered seating, the installation of LED lamp posts; the carpark was improved, with the addition of dedicated motorbike and bicycle parking, an illuminated noticeboard to display train timetables and planned service alterations.
According to the Official Handbook of Stations the following classes of traffic were being handled at this station in 1956: G, P, F, L, H, C and there was a 1-ton 10 cwt crane. The following services call at Kennett: Train times and station information for Kennett railway station from National Rail Kennett station on navigable 1946 O. S. map External pictures of Kennett station in 1975 External pictures of Kennett station in the 1980s
Thurston railway station
Thurston railway station serves the village of Thurston in Suffolk, England. The station, all trains serving it, are operated by Greater Anglia, it is served by local services between Ipswich and Cambridge. Thurston station was opened by the Ipswich and Bury Railway in 1846; the main building was designed by Frederick Barnes in the Jacobean style using decorative brickwork. The building required three stories to reach the platforms from ground level owing to the station's location on an embankment; the building is Grade II is no longer in railway use. Adjacent to the station building is an original bridge over the road. According to the Official Handbook of Stations the following classes of traffic were being handled at this station in 1956: G, P, F, L, H, C and there was a 1-ton 10 cwt crane. H Clarke & Son had a private siding; the following services call at Thurston: On 8 May 2010, a trainspotter was on an opposite platform to video a train hauled by steam locomotive 70013 Oliver Cromwell. In doing so, he narrowly avoided being struck by a service train operated by a Class 170 multiple unit travelling non-stop in the other direction.
The actions of the man, dubbed by the railway press as a "vidiot" drew widespread condemnation from fellow enthusiasts and industry professionals alike. Train times and station information for Thurston railway station from National Rail Thurston station on navigable 1946 O. S. map
Cambridge railway station
Cambridge railway station is the principal station serving the city of Cambridge in the east of England. It stands off Hills Road, 1 mile south-east of the city centre, it is the northern terminus of the West Anglia Main Line, 55 miles 52 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street, the southern terminus. The station is managed by Greater Anglia, it is one of two railway stations in the city. Cambridge is noted for having the third-longest platform on the network in England. Cambridge is the terminus of three secondary routes: the Fen line to King's Lynn, the Breckland line to Norwich and the Ipswich–Ely line to Ipswich. In 1822 the first survey for a railway line in the Cambridge area was made and, in the 1820s and 1830s a number of other surveys were undertaken none of which came to fruition although the Northern and Eastern Railway had opened up a line as far as Bishop's Stortford by May 1842; the financial climate in the early 1840s ensured that no further scheme got off the ground, but by 1843, Parliament had passed an act enabling the Northern and Eastern Railway to extend the line to Newport.
The following year, a further act was passed, extending the rights to build a railway through to Cambridge itself. In 1844, the Northern and Eastern Railway was leased by the Eastern Counties Railway, which built the extension; the 1844 act covered an extension of the line north of Cambridge to Brandon in Suffolk forming an end on connection to the line through to Norwich. Robert Stephenson was appointed engineer and on 29 July 1845, the station opened with services operating from Bishopsgate station in London via Stratford and Bishops Stortford. In the years following the opening of the main line from Cambridge through to Norwich in 1845, other railways were built to Cambridge; some of these planned to have separate stations but opposition from the university saw them all using the same station. The first line to arrive was the St Ives to Huntingdon line which opened in 1847 and was built by the East Anglian Railway. Services to Peterborough commenced that year, with the opening of the line from Ely via March to Peterborough, which became the main route for coal traffic into East Anglia, built by the Eastern Counties Railway.
The following year, the Eastern Counties Railway opened a line between St Ives and March which saw some passenger services although the coal traffic was diverted onto this route. In 1851, a branch line from Newmarket to Cambridge was opened which used the alignment of the Newmarket and Chesterford Railway which subsequently closed. In 1854, the Newmarket line was extended eastwards to meet the Eastern Union Railway line at Bury St Edmunds, allowing through running to Ipswich. A parliamentary act in 1848 was granted to the Royston and Hitchin Railway to extend their line from Royston. Although Cambridge was its goal, Parliament sanctioned only an extension as far as Shepreth; the line was completed in 1851 and the GNR, who had leased the Royston and Hitchin Railway in the interim, ran a connecting horse-drawn omnibus service. This proved unsuccessful so in April 1852, the line was extended to join the ECR main line south of Cambridge and was leased to the Eastern Counties Railway for 14 years with a connection to enable the ECR to run trains from Cambridge to Hitchin.
In 1862, the Bedford and Cambridge Railway opened. A local undertaking, it was soon acquired by the London & North Western Railway, extended to Bletchley, saw services between Oxford and Cambridge introduced on what became known as the "Varsity Line". By the 1860s, the railways in East Anglia were in financial trouble, most were leased to the ECR, thus Cambridge became a GER station in 1862. The University of Cambridge helped block 19th-century attempts to create a central station; the GER opened the cross-country line from Marks Tey via Sudbury and Haverhill to Shelford in 1865 which enabled the introduction of direct services to Colchester. The Midland Railway built a line from Kettering to Huntingdon which opened in 1866 and services ran to Cambridge using running powers over the Huntingdon to St Ives line. In 1866 the Great Northern Railway again applied to run services from King's Cross as the lease on the line to Hitchin was ending; the GER opposed this but agreement was reached and from 1 April 1866 services started operating between Cambridge and King's Cross from a dedicated platform at Cambridge station.
In 1882 the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway was opened. As well as becoming the major route for coal traffic from the north east to East Anglia it saw the introduction of direct services between London and York. Goods trains passed Cambridge on dedicated goods lines to the east of the station. Between these and the station a number of carriage sidings existed; the next line to open was in 1884 when the Fordham line opened joining the main line towards Ely at Barnwell Junction. The following year the branch to Mildenhall railway station opened and services operated direct from there to Cambridge; each of the four companies had its own goods facilities in the station area, except for the M. R. its own motive power depot. The G. E. R. Maintained a special locomotive for the Royal Train here for workings between London and Sandringham. In the 1923 Grouping, the GER amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Easter
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were