UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
Liberty Records was an American recorded label started by chairman Simon Waronker in 1955 with Al Bennett as president and Theodore Keep as chief engineer. It had two previous revivals. Liberty's early releases focused on orchestral music, its first single was Lionel Newman's "The Girl Upstairs." Its first big hit, in 1955, was by Julie London singing her version of the torch song, "Cry Me a River", which climbed to No. 9 in the Billboard Hot 100. It helped Liberty sell her first album, Julie Is Her Name, she was to record 32 albums in her career. In 1956 Liberty released two singles and several albums by him, he left in 1958, when he became more popular. Billy Rose and Lee David's song "Tonight You Belong to Me" reached number 4 and number 28 when it was performed by teen sisters Patience and Prudence, selling over a million copies, it was first recorded in 1927 and revived by Frankie Laine in 1952. The label's biggest rock singer was Eddie Cochran who starred in Untamed Youth, his first hit for the label was John D. Loudermilk's "Sittin' in the Balcony" in 1957 came "Summertime Blues" and "C'mon Everybody".
The roster included R&B act Billy Ward and His Dominoes after Jackie Wilson quit, replacing him with ex-Lark Eugene Mumford. Their version of Hoagy Carmichael's 1927 song "Stardust" reached No. 13 in the Hot 100 at Billboard and 13 on the UK Singles Chart in October 1957. It was only million seller. By 1958, Liberty was close to bankruptcy when singer-songwriter David Seville to a number one hit with his novelty song "Witch Doctor"; that year he combined multi-track recording with the altered speed technique he had used in "Witch Doctor" and introduced the Chipmunks in "The Chipmunk Song". The Chipmunks were named after Liberty executives Bennett and Keep, respectively.) In a few months before Christmas of 1958, the record went to number one and became the only Christmas record to reach number 1 on the pop chart, selling 4.5 million copies. In 1965 Liberty acquired Pacific Jazz, founded in 1952. In 1958 Liberty formed a sublabel called Freedom which lasted through 1959. In 1959 Liberty moved to its long-time address at 6920 Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood.
Liberty's most successful signing of the early 1960s was Bobby Vee, picking up "Suzie Baby", a single he recorded with the Shadows for Soma. He covered the Clovers' 1955 doo-wop ballad "Devil or Angel" in mid-1960 and that year recorded Gene Pitney's "Rubber Ball", which made him an international star. In the summer of 1961 Vee had a hit with "Take Good Care of My Baby", which peaked at number one and number 3, he had hits until 1970. Other acts on the roster were Willie Nelson and Dean, Johnny Burnette, Gene McDaniels, Del Shannon, Gary Lewis and the Playboys, Timi Yuro, Vikki Carr. Snuff Garrett produced easy listening albums credited to "The 50 Guitars of Tommy Garrett." The name of the group was sold to Sony before being acquired by Tom Ficara and Combined Artists in 1997. Liberty sent an annual report for the fiscal year ended January 31, 1962 that included a limited edition 33-1/3 vinyl record with songs by Bobby Vee, Timi Yuro, Gene McDaniels, Si Zentner, Tommy Garrett. A welcome message recorded by Simon Waronker was included.
In 1963 Liberty was sold to electronics corporation Avnet for $12 million. Avnet bought Blue Note, Dolton and Minit. After two years of losses, Avnet sold the labels back to Al Bennett for $8 million. In 1966 Sunset was started to reissue records from the acquired labels. Sunset's catalog included Eddie Harris, Jimmy Reed, Les McCann, Teddy Buckner, Wild Bill Davis, Lester Young, Chet Baker. Liberty recordings were distributed in the UK by the Decca group on London Records by EMI on Liberty. Liberty established a branch office in London, which signed the Bonzo Dog Band, Idle Race, the Aynsley Dunbar Retaliation. After moving distribution to Philips in 1967, they returned to EMI in 1970. Liberty signed the Searchers. In 1967, Liberty issued the first single by Family. Ron Kass, onetime president of Liberty, became the head of the label of the Beatles. Ron Bledsoe, assistant to Al Bennett, was picked by Clive Davis to run the Nashville branch of Columbia. In 1966 singer Johnny Rivers started Soul City.
The following year, Liberty moved its catalog to the parent label. In 1967, Liberty signed Canned Heat. In 1968 Liberty was bought for $38 million by Transamerica Corporation, an insurance company, combined with United Artists. Two years Imperial and Minit were shut down and transferred to Liberty. In 1970 Sugarloaf scored a top 10 hit in the United States with "Green-Eyed Lady", which reached number 3 on the Billboard chart. Sugarloaf would score again in 1975 with "Don't Call Us, We'll Call You". In 1971, Liberty and its remaining labels were shifted to United Artists, Liberty was no more. In 1978 Artie Mogull and Jerry Rubinstein acquired United Artists and Liberty with money they borrowed from Capitol. In February 1979, Capitol's parent company took over Liberty. In 1980, EMI revived the Liberty name. EMI used Liberty to reissue the catalogs of United Artists and Imperial. From 1980 to 1984, Capitol used Liberty as a country music label for Kenny Rogers and Dottie West and heavy metal band Manowar.
Christopher Ward Norman is an English soft rock singer. Norman was the lead singer of Smokie, an English soft rock band which found success in Europe in the 1970s. "Stumblin' In", a 1978 duet with Suzi Quatro, was a big US hit. With the advent of rock and roll, Norman acquired his first guitar at the age of seven, his early musical influences were Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Lonnie Donegan. In these early years, Norman's parents moved around the country a lot which resulted in him going to nine different schools, living in various locations around England, such as, Luton and Nottingham. By 1962 however, the family had moved back to Norman's mother's home city of Bradford. Approaching his twelfth birthday, Norman started at St. Bede's Grammar School where he was to meet Alan Silson and Terry Uttley, future members of Smokie; as teenagers, influenced by the new era of groups such as The Beatles and The Rolling Stones and folk singer, Bob Dylan and Silson began meeting up and spent nearly all their spare time learning new songs on their guitars.
They managed to persuade Uttley to join them and, along with a drummer friend called Ron Kelly, they formed their first band. The Yen and Long Side Down were just some of a variety of names they called themselves before settling on "The Elizabethans"; when Ron Kelly left the group in 1973, an old friend called Pete Spencer was asked to take over on the drums, the group, to become Smokie, was complete. Between 1974 and the early 1980s, Smokie enjoyed success touring all over the world, but the strain and pressure of being away from home and family was beginning to tell on Norman. By the early 1980s he decided to spend more time working in the studio. Norman and Spencer now worked together on songs for other artists including hits for Kevin Keegan, the England football team song "This Time", he worked with Agnetha Fältskog, Racey and Heavy Metal Kids. In 1978, Norman recorded a duet with Suzi Quatro, "Stumblin' In", which made No. 4 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and sold over one million copies. Norman's solo career took off in 1986 with the song, "Midnight Lady", a hit throughout Europe holding the number one spot in Germany for six weeks.
Further success followed by the songs "Some Hearts Are Diamonds", "No Arms Can Ever Hold You", "Broken Heroes", "Fearless Hearts", "Sarah" and "Baby I Miss You". In 1994, Norman was honoured by CMT Europe as their'International Video Star of the Year'. In 2004, he took part in the Comeback Show on the German TV station ProSieben and he performed "Stumblin' In" as a duet with C. C. Catch. In the final episode of the show, he was joined by Smokie for the final song. On 2 June 2007, Norman performed at Isle of Man. Norman continues to this day to perform gigs throughout Europe and beyond. 1982: Rock Away Your Teardrops 1986: Some Hearts Are Diamonds 1987: Different Shades 1988: Hits from the Heart 1989: Break the Ice 1991: The Interchange 1992: The Growing Years 1993: Jealous Heart 1994: The Album 1994: Screaming Love Album 1995: Every Little Thing 1995: Reflections 1997: Into the Night 1997: Christmas Together 1999: Full Circle 2000: Love Songs 2001: Breathe Me In 2003: Handmade 2004: Break Away 2005: One Acoustic Evening – CD & DVD 2006: Million Miles 2006: Coming Home 2007: Close Up 2009: The Hits!
From His Smokie And Solo Years 2009: The Hits! Tour – Live at the Tempodrom, Berlin DVD 2009: The Hits! Tour – Live at the Tempodrom, Berlin DVD 2011: Time Traveller 2013: There And Back 2015: Crossover 2018: Don't Knock The Rock 1978: "Stumblin' In" — UK No. 41, US No. 4 1982: "Hey Baby" 1983: "Love Is a Battlefield" 1984: "My Girl and Me" 1986: "Midnight Lady" b/w "Woman" — GER No. 1, SWI No. 1, AUST No. 1, NETH No. 9, BEL No. 16 1986: "Some Hearts Are Diamonds" — GER No. 14, AUST No. 7, SWI No. 12 1987: "No Arms Can Ever Hold You" — GER No. 52 1987: "Sarah" — GER No. 46 1988: "Broken Heroes" — GER No. 3, AUST No. 7 1988: "I Want to Be Needed" 1988: "Ordinary Heart" 1988: "Wings of Love" 1989: "Back Again" 1989: "Keep the Candle Burning" 1990: "The Night Has Turned Cold" 1991: "If You Need My Love Tonight" 1992: "I Need Your Love" 1993: "Come Together" 1993: "Goodbye Lady Blue" 1993: "Growing Years" 1993: "Jealous Heart" 1994: "As Good As It Gets" 1994: "I Need Your Love" 1994: "Wild Wild Angel" 1995: "Goodbye Lady Blue" 1995: "Obsession" 1995: "Red Hot Screaming Love" 1996: "Fearless Hearts" 1996: "Reflections of My Life" 1996: "Under Your Spell" 1997: "Baby I Miss You" 1997: "Into the Night" 1999: "Oh Carol" 2000: "Mexican Girl" 2002: "Ich Mache Meine Augen Zu" 2003: "Keep Talking" 2004: "Amazing" 2004: "Only You" 2004: "Too Much / Without Your Love" 2006: "Without Your Love" 2009: "Endless Night" 2011: "Chasing Cars" 2014: "Another Night in Nashville" 1975: Pass It Around 1975: Changing All the Time 1976: Bravo präsentiert: Smokie 1976: Midnight Café 1977: Greatest Hits 1977: Bright Lights & Back Alleys 1978: The Montreux Album 1979: The Other Side of the Road 1980: Greatest Hits Vol. 2 1981: Smokie-The Very Best of Smokie 1981: Solid Ground 1982: Die großen Erfolge einer Supergruppe 1982: Midnight Delight 1982: Strangers in Paradise 1990: Smokie Forever 1994: The Collection – Komplett'B' platten 1975–78 1998: Live – The Concert Official website
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers were an American rock band from Gainesville, Florida. Formed in 1976, the band comprised Tom Petty, Mike Campbell, Ron Blair, Stan Lynch, Benmont Tench. In 1981, weary of the touring lifestyle, departed the band, his replacement, Howie Epstein, stayed with the band for the next two decades. In 1991, Scott Thurston joined the band as a multi-instrumentalist—mostly on rhythm guitar and second keyboards. Blair returned to the Heartbreakers in 2002, the year before Epstein's death. In 1994, Steve Ferrone replaced Lynch on drums; the band is best known for the hit singles "American Girl", "Breakdown", "The Waiting", "Learning to Fly", "Refugee" and "Mary Jane's Last Dance". The band's music has been characterized as both Southern rock and heartland rock, cited alongside artists such as Bruce Springsteen, Bob Seger, John Mellencamp as progenitors of that genre that arose in the late 1970s and 1980s. While the heartland rock movement waned in the 1990s, the band remained active and popular, touring until Petty's death in 2017, after which the Heartbreakers disbanded.
Their final studio album, Hypnotic Eye, was released in 2014. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Although most of their material was produced and performed under the name "The Heartbreakers", Petty released three solo albums, the most successful of, Full Moon Fever. In these releases, some members of the band contributed as collaborators and performing as studio musicians. Petty's early bands included the Sundowners, the Epics, Mudcrutch. In 1974, Mudcrutch re-located to Los Angeles, California, they released. In 1976, with himself as lead vocalist and guitarist, formed "Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers" with Mike Campbell, Ron Blair, Stan Lynch, Benmont Tench; the Heartbreakers began their recording career with a self-titled album, released through the Shelter label. The Heartbreakers did not gain much traction in the U. S. although they achieved success in the U. K. playing "Anything That's Roll" on Top of the Pops. Early singles included "Breakdown" and "American Girl".
Recalling the band's first gig in the UK in 1976, Petty states, "The audience just jumped up and charged the stage and were boogieing their brains out. It was such a rush. Wow, we had never seen anything like that, man." "Breakdown" was re-released in the U. S. and became a Top 40 hit in 1978, after word filtered back of the band's massive success in the UK, more after it featured on the popular soundtrack to the 1978 film, FM. "American Girl" was covered in 1977 by Roger McGuinn on his "Thunderbyrd" LP. Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers' second album, You're Gonna Get It!, was their first gold record, featured the singles "I Need to Know" and "Listen To Her Heart". In 1979, the band was dragged into a legal dispute when ABC Records, Shelter's distributor, was sold to MCA Records. Petty refused to be transferred to another record label and held fast to his principles, which led to his filing for bankruptcy as a tactic against MCA. In 1979, after their legal dispute was settled, the Heartbreakers released their third album Damn the Torpedoes through MCA's Backstreet label.
The album went platinum. It included "Don't Do Me Like That" and "Refugee", their U. S. breakthrough singles. Though he was extremely successful, Petty ran into record company trouble again when he and the Heartbreakers prepared to release Hard Promises, the follow-up album to Damn the Torpedoes. MCA wanted to release the record at the list price of $9.98, considered a high price for a record album at the time. This so-called "superstar pricing" was $1.00 more than the usual list price of $8.98. Petty voiced his objections to the price hike in the press, the issue became a popular cause among music fans. Non-delivery of the album or naming it Eight Ninety-Eight were considered, but MCA decided against the price increase; the album became a Top Ten hit, going platinum and spawning the hit single "The Waiting". The album included the duet "Insider", with Stevie Nicks. On their fifth album, Long After Dark, bass player Ron Blair was replaced by Howie Epstein, giving the Heartbreakers their line-up until 1991.
Long After Dark features the hits "You Got Lucky" and "Change of Heart", was to feature a track called "Keeping Me Alive", but producer Jimmy Iovine vetoed it from the album. Petty had expressed that he felt the album would have been more successful if "Keeping Me Alive" had been included. On the sixth album, Southern Accents, the Heartbreakers picked up; the recording was not without problems. The album included the psychedelic-sounding hit single "Don't Come Around Here No More", produced by and co-written with Dave Stewart; the video for the single, which starred Stewart, featured Petty dressed as the Mad Hatter and chasing Alice from the book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland cutting and eating her as if she were a cake. This caused minor controversy after it was criticized by feminist groups, but the video did win an MTV Video Music Award. A successful concert tour led to the live album Pack Up the Plantation: Live!. The
Salvatore Phillip "Sonny" Bono was an American singer-songwriter, producer and politician who came to fame in partnership with his second wife Cher, as the popular singing duo Sonny & Cher. He was mayor of Palm Springs, California from 1988 to 1992, the Republican congressman for California's 44th district from 1995 until his death in 1998; the United States Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, which extended the term of copyright by 20 years, was named in honor of Bono when it was passed by Congress nine months after his death. Mary Bono had been one of the original sponsors of the legislation known as the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Bono was born in Detroit to Zena "Jean" Bono, his mother called him "Sono" as a term of endearment, which evolved over time into "Sonny". Sonny was the youngest of three siblings; the family moved to Inglewood, California when he was seven, his parents divorced soon afterwards. Bono decided early in life to become part of the music business, began writing songs as a teenager.
"Koko Joe", a song he wrote at age 16, was recorded by Don and Dewey in 1958, covered by several other artists including The Righteous Brothers. Bono attended Inglewood High School, but did not graduate, opting to drop out so he could begin to pursue a career as a songwriter and performer, he worked at a variety of jobs while trying to break into the music business, including waiter, truck driver, construction laborer, butcher's helper. Bono began his music career as a songwriter at Specialty Records, where his song "Things You Do to Me" was recorded by Sam Cooke, went on to work for record producer Phil Spector in the early 1960s as a promotion man, percussionist and "gofer". One of his earliest songwriting efforts, "Needles and Pins" was co-written with Jack Nitzsche, another member of Spector's production team. In the same decade, he achieved commercial success with his then-wife Cher in the singing duo Sonny and Cher. Bono wrote and produced a number of hit records including the singles "I Got You Babe" and "The Beat Goes On", although Cher received more attention as a performer.
He played a major part in Cher's solo recording career and producing singles including "Bang Bang" and "You Better Sit Down Kids". Bono co-wrote "She Said Yeah", covered by The Rolling Stones on their 1965 LP December's Children, his lone hit single as a solo artist, "Laugh at Me," was released in 1965 and peaked at No. 10 on the Billboard Hot 100. In live concerts, Bono would introduce the song by saying "I'd like to sing a medley of my hit." His only other single as a solo artist, "The Revolution Kind," reached No. 70 on the Billboard Hot 100 that year. His solo album, Inner Views, was released in 1967. Sonny continued to work with Cher through the early and mid-1970s, starring in a popular television variety show, The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour, which ran on CBS from 1971 to 1974. From 1976 to 1977, the duo, since divorced, returned to perform together on The Cher Show, their last appearance together was on Late Night with David Letterman on November 13, 1987, on which they sang "I Got You Babe".
In 2011, Sonny Bono was inducted into the Michigan Roll Legends Hall of Fame. Bono's acting career included bit parts as a guest performer in such television series as Fantasy Island, Charlie's Angels, The Love Boat, The Six Million Dollar Man and CHiPs. In the 1975 TV movie Murder on Flight 502, he appeared in the 1980 miniseries Top of the Hill. He played the role of mad bomber Joe Selucci in Airplane II: The Sequel and appeared in the horror film Troll, he portrayed racist entrepreneur Franklin Von Tussle in the John Waters film Hairspray. In Men in Black, Bono is one of several oddball celebrities seen on a wall of video screens that monitor extraterrestrials living among us, he appeared as the Mayor of Palm Springs in several episodes of P. S. I Luv U during the 1991–92 TV season, on Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, in which he played Mayor Frank Berkowitz, he made a minor appearance as himself in the comedy film First Kid. Bono guest-starred as himself on The Golden Girls episode "Mrs. George Devereaux", in which he vied with Lyle Waggoner for Dorothy's affection in a dream sequence.
In Blanche's dream, her husband is still alive, Bono uses his power as Mayor of Palm Springs to have Waggoner falsely arrested so he can have Dorothy to himself. Bono entered politics after experiencing great frustration with local government bureaucracy in trying to open a restaurant in Palm Springs, California. Bono placed a successful bid to become the new mayor of Palm Springs, he served four years, from 1988 to 1992. He was instrumental in spearheading the creation of the Palm Springs International Film Festival, held each year in Bono's memory. Bono ran for the Republican nomination for United States Senate in 1992, but the nomination went to the more conservative Bruce Herschensohn, the election to the Democrat Barbara Boxer. Bono and Herschensohn became close friends after the campaign. Bono was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1994 to represent California's 44th congressional district, he was one of twelve co-sponsors of a House bill extending copyright. Although that bill was never voted on in the Senate, a similar Senate bill was passed after his death and named the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act in his memory.
It is known (derisi
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular