A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
Le Mans Prototype
A Le Mans Prototype is the type of sports prototype race car used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, FIA World Endurance Championship, WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, European Le Mans Series and Asian Le Mans Series. Le Mans Prototypes were created by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest; the technical requirements for an LMP include bodywork covering all mechanical elements of the car. While not as fast as open-wheel Formula One cars, LMPs are the fastest closed-wheel racing cars used in circuit racing. Le Mans Prototypes are considered a class above production-based grand tourer cars, which compete alongside them in sports car racing. Modern LMP designs include hybrid cars. Le Mans Prototypes have used various names depending on the series; the FIA's equivalent cars were referred to as Sports Racing Prototypes. The American IMSA GT Championship termed their cars World Sports Cars', while the short-lived United States Road Racing Championship used the classic Can-Am name for their prototypes. Since 2004, most series have switched to referring to these cars as Le Mans Prototypes.
The American Le Mans Series, the successor to the IMSA GT Championship and the predecessor of the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship referred to the cars as Prototypes. An LMP is referred to as a Le Mans car in the media; the first use of what would become Le Mans Prototypes was at the 1992 24 Hours of Le Mans. In an attempt to increase the number of entrants beyond the small field of Group C competitors that the World Sportscar Championship had to offer, older Porsche 962s were allowed entry in Category 3. To further increase the size of the field, small open-cockpit race cars using production road car engines which were raced in small national championships, were allowed in Category 4. Only three cars were entered, with all failing to run more than a few hours; however at the end of 1992, the World Sportscar Championship as well as the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship collapsed, leaving the expensive Group C prototypes little competition outside Le Mans. With Group C being phased out, the ACO chose to allow production-based race cars to enter for the first time in many years, while at the same time creating the Le Mans Prototype class.
The cars continued to use the same formula as they had in 1992. ACO announced their intentions to replace the Group C cars with Le Mans Prototypes in 1994. However, LMP1 cars this year were just ex-GroupC cars Two classes were created, with LMP1s running large displacement custom-built engines that were turbocharged, LMP2s using the smaller displacement production-based engines. Both classes were required to have open cockpits. At the same time, the IMSA GT Championship announced the end of their closed cockpit GTP and Lights classes, deciding as well to replace them with a single open-cockpit class of World Sports Cars equivalent to LMP1; this formula continued up to 1996, with many manufacturers embracing the LMP and WSC classes, including Ferrari and Mazda. In 1997, the first European series based around Le Mans Prototypes was launched, known as the "International Sports Racing Series". Using classes similar to LMP1/WSC and LMP2, these cars were known as "SR1" and "SR2" by the FIA. 1998 saw the creation of another series of Le Mans Prototypes, with the new United States Road Racing Championship attempting to break away from the IMSA GT Championship.
To differ from IMSA'S WSC class, the USRRC named their open-cockpit prototypes "Can-Am" in an attempt to resurrect the sportscar championship of the 1970s. However the USRRC collapsed before the end of 1999, with the series becoming the Rolex Sports Car Series who chose to use the FIA's SR1 and SR2 formula instead. 1998 saw a great expansion for the ACO's LMP classes. Following the cancellation of the IMSA GT Championship at the end of 1998, the ACO allowed for the creation of the American Le Mans Series; this series used the same class structure as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, meaning it was the first championship to use the LMP name. At the same time, the ACO altered their LMP classes; the smaller LMP2 class were eliminated, while a new class of closed-cockpit prototypes were allowed in, known as "LMGTP". These cars were evolutions of production-based road cars that the ACO considered too advanced and too fast to fall under the GT class regulations, forcing the ACO to promote them to prototypes.
In 2000, changes were made to the LMP regulations, as the ACO once again split the open-cockpit LMP class. The two new classes became known as "LMP900" and "LMP675", with the numbers denoting the minimum weight requirements for each class; the LMP900s were to be more powerful and faster in top speed, but heavier and more cumbersome. The LMP675s were to lack the top speed of the larger class. Both classes were intended to be able to compete for overall wins. Audi, Chrysler and Panoz opted to use the LMP900 formula, while MG were the only major manufacturer to attempt the LMP675 class; the LMGTP class continued, with Bentley being the only manufacturer to build a closed-cockpit prototype after the regulation changes in 2000. Outside Le Mans, the FIA's SR classes suffered from these rule changes; the SR2 class no longer aligned with the new LMP675 class, with the more powerful and durable racing engines that were allowed there. The SR1 and LMP900 classes did not use the same rules, although engines were similar.
This meant that teams competing in the newly re
Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours
Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours is a motor racing circuit located in central France, near the towns of Magny-Cours and Nevers, some 250 km from Paris and 240 km from Lyon. It staged the Formula One French Grand Prix from 1991 to 2008, the 24-hour Bol d'Or motorcycle endurance events from 2000 to 2014, it hosted the French motorcycle Grand Prix in 1992, the Superbike World Championship in 1991 and annually since 2003. Magny-Cours has hosted several additional international championships, like the World Sportscar Championship, World Touring Car Championship, FIA GT Championship, World Series by Renault and Formula 3 Euroseries; the FFSA GT Championship has visited the circuit since 1997. A campus of the French engineering college Institut supérieur de l'automobile et des transports is located on the circuit. Dubbed Magny-Cours, it was built in 1960 by Jean Bernigaud and was home to the prestigious Winfield racing school, which produced drivers such as François Cevert, Jacques Laffite and Didier Pironi.
However, in the 1980s the track fell into disrepair and was not used for international motor racing until it was purchased by the Regional Conseil de la Nièvre. In the 1990s the Ligier Formula One team was based at the circuit and did much of its testing at Magny-Cours, it had hosted the French Formula One Grand Prix since 1991, the Bol d'Or since 2000. The circuit was re-designed in 2003 and used for a wide range of events include various sports and commercial use. For the 2003 event, the final corner and chicane were changed in an effort to increase overtaking, with little effect; this did, change the approach to strategy at this circuit as it made the pitlane much shorter. Because less time was lost making a pit stop, Michael Schumacher was able to win the 2004 French Grand Prix using an unprecedented four-stop strategy. In 2006, Michael Schumacher became the first driver to win any single Formula One Grand Prix a total of 8 times and at the same circuit; the 2008 race was to mark the last French Grand Prix at Magny-Cours, as the French Grand Prix had been indefinitely suspended from the Formula One calendar.
Bernie Ecclestone confirmed that F1 would not return to Magny-Cours in 2008, instead moving to an alternative location in Paris. However in a striking U-turn, it was revealed that the 2008 French Grand Prix would take place at Magny-Cours with the release of the official calendar in July 2007. In May 2008, Ecclestone confirmed that Magny-Cours would stop hosting the French Grand Prix after the 2008 race, suggesting that he was looking into the possibility of hosting the French Grand Prix on the streets of Paris; the venue suffered from poor attendances due to its remote location, poor access and insufficient accommodation. In June 2008, the provisional calendar for the 2009 season was released, a French Grand Prix at Magny-Cours appeared on it, scheduled for 28 June. However, in October 2008 the 2009 French Grand Prix was cancelled after the French Motorsports Federation withdrew financing for the event. In 2009 the track hosted its first Superleague Formula event, it hosted a second event in 2010.
The circuit was used as part of stage three of the 2014 Paris–Nice cycling race, with the peloton completing a full lap of the circuit – in the reverse direction to its motorsport use – before the finish on the front straight. The track nowadays is a smooth circuit with good facilities for the teams, although restricted access prevents spectators from reaching many parts of the circuit. Unusually, many corners are modelled on famous turns from other circuits, are named after those circuits, i.e.. The fast Estoril corner, the Adelaide hairpin and the Nürburgring and Imola chicanes, it has a mix of slow hairpins and high-speed chicane sections which includes a long fast straight into the first-gear Adelaide hairpin, the best overtaking opportunity on the circuit. The circuit is flat with negligible change in elevation; the circuit provides few overtaking opportunities, despite modifications in 2003, which means the races here are regarded as quite uneventful. Formula 1 races at Magny-Cours tend to have a processional nature, with most overtaking occurring during pit stop sequences.
More varied racing occurs when it rains, such as in the 1999 race, interrupted by a downpour. After a restart, most top contenders developed problems, which paved the way for Heinz-Harald Frentzen to claim a surprising victory in his Jordan. Although the Bol d'Or 24-hour motorcycle endurance race was held at Magny Cours for several years, it never quite matched the cachet of the Le Mans event. World Superbike Tom Sykes Magny-Cours Lap Record. Official website Google Maps satellite view of Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours Nevers Magny-Cours History and Statistics Track info from official F1 site A lap of Magny-Cours with Honda’s Alexander Wurz Magny-Cours - the technical requirements
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
2016 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 84th 24 Hours of Le Mans was an automobile endurance racing event held from 15 to 19 June 2016 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. It was the 84th running of the 24 Hour race organised by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest as well as the third and premier round of the 2016 FIA World Endurance Championship. A test day was held two weeks prior to the race on 5 June; the event was attended by 263,500 people. Neel Jani of Porsche started from pole position for the second consecutive year, but heavy rainfall forced the organisers to start the race behind a safety car for the first time in history. Once the rain had stopped and the track sufficiently dried, the field was released from under safety car conditions. Toyota and Porsche traded off the race lead in the early hours until the No. 6 Toyota established a firm hold on first place, followed by the No. 5 Toyota and No. 2 Porsche. Issues for the No. 6 allowed the No. 5 Toyota to take over the lead, maintaining a small gap from the Porsche.
Kazuki Nakajima was driving the Toyota to the finish in the closing three minutes of the race when it suffered a mechanical issue and stopped on the circuit right after the finish line on his last lap. Jani overcame the one-minute gap with the ailing Toyota and passed it on the final lap, taking the race victory; the sister Toyota of Stéphane Sarrazin, Mike Conway and Kamui Kobayashi finished three laps behind in second, while the No. 8 Audi of Loïc Duval, Lucas di Grassi and Oliver Jarvis completed the race podium. The Signatech Alpine-Nissan of Gustavo Menezes, Nicolas Lapierre and Stéphane Richelmi won the Le Mans Prototype 2 category after it led the final 196 laps of the race. Roman Rusinov, René Rast and Will Stevens of G-Drive Racing finished on the same lap as the Alpine, while the all-Russian SMP Racing BR01-Nissan of Vitaly Petrov, Kirill Ladygin and Viktor Shaytar was four laps behind in third. On the day of the fiftieth anniversary of their first overall 24 Hours of Le Mans victory, Ford won the Le Mans Grand Touring Endurance Professional Pro class with the No. 68 American entry of Joey Hand, Sébastien Bourdais and Dirk Müller.
Risi Competizione Ferrari were second with Giancarlo Fisichella, Toni Vilander and Matteo Malucelli, after they and the winning Ford had led all but 26 laps of the race. Ford USA's sister car of Ryan Briscoe, Scott Dixon and Richard Westbrook was third. Americans led the Le Mans Grand Touring Endurance Amateur category, with Scuderia Corsa's Townsend Bell, Jeff Segal and Bill Sweedler edging out the fellow Ferrari of AF Corse, driven by Emmanuel Collard, Rui Águas and François Perrodo. Khalid Al Qubaisi, Patrick Long and David Heinemeier Hansson were third in class for Abu Dhabi-Proton; the result of the race meant Lieb and Dumas increased their Drivers' Championship advantage over the new second-placed Duval, di Grassi and Jarvis to 38 points while Kobayashi and Sarrazin's second-place finish allowed them to advance to third position. André Lotterer, Benoît Tréluyer and Marcel Fässler moved from eighth place to fourth and Alexandre Imperatori, Dominik Kraihamer and Mathéo Tuscher fell to fifth after not finishing the race.
In the Manufacturers' Championship, Porsche extended their lead over Audi to 38 points while Toyota fell to third place with six races left in the season. The date for the 2016 Le Mans race was confirmed as part of the FIA World Endurance Championship's 2016 schedule at a FIA World Motor Sport Council meeting in Paris in December 2015, it was the third of nine scheduled endurance sports car rounds of the 2016 calendar and the 84th running of the event. With the end of the race scheduled for 19 June, the event conflicted with the 2016 European Grand Prix. Force India driver Nico Hülkenberg, who won the 2015 race with Porsche would be unable to return and defend his title, leading to accusations that Formula One Management had deliberately scheduled the race to conflict with Le Mans and prevent Formula One drivers from participating. Before the race Porsche drivers Marc Lieb, Neel Jani and Romain Dumas led the Drivers' Championship with 43 points, 18 ahead of nearest rivals Loïc Duval, Lucas di Grassi and Oliver Jarvis and a further three in front of Kamui Kobayashi, Mike Conway and Stéphane Sarrazin.
Alexandre Imperatori, Dominik Kraihamer and Mathéo Tuscher were fourth on 15 points and their teammates Nick Heidfeld, Nico Prost and Nelson Piquet Jr. rounded out the top five with 12 points. In the Manufacturers' Championship, Porsche lead with 55 points, 12 ahead of their nearest rivals Toyota in second position, a further three in front of the third-placed manufacturer Audi. Modifications were made to the circuit in the run-up to the race. A new entry run-off area was constructed at the Porsche Curves in response to a major accident sustained by Duval during practice for the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans although the turn's alignment was not altered. SAFER barriers were installed on the outside of the first entry section of the turn, marking the technology's first appearance at a European motor racing venue. Vincent Beaumesnil, the Automobile Club de l'Ouest's sporting manager, revealed was easier to install a chicane, but following discussions with the national motor racing governing body of France, the Fédération Française du Sport Automobile, the circuit's layout was allowed to remain unchanged.
The ACO planned to expand the race entry from 56 cars to 58 in 2015. But responding to an increase in the number of "high-quality entry requests" they allowed 60 entries for the 2016 race; the Selection Committee took steps to ensure the two additional required pits would be operational in time for the 2016 race. Teams that won their class i
2010 Le Mans Series
The 2010 Le Mans Series season was the seventh season of Automobile Club de l'Ouest's Le Mans Series. It featured five events between 11 April and 12 September 2010. For the first time in 2010, Formula Le Mans cars were run in a fifth class in the series, running alongside Le Mans Prototype cars and GT cars, rather than as a support series, it was the final season when GT1 cars were allowed to run in the series. Stéphane Sarrazin won the LMP1 championship despite sharing his car with Nicolas Lapierre for most of the season. Despite this, Sarrazin won only one race, winning at the 1000 km of Algarve with Lapierre and Olivier Panis. Lapierre was second ahead of Rinaldo Capello. Other class victories went to Sébastien Bourdais, Pedro Lamy and Simon Pagenaud at Spa, Greg Mansell and Leo Mansell at the Hungaroring, Nicolas Minassian and Anthony Davidson at Silverstone. In LMP2, Thomas Erdos and Mike Newton claimed the championship for the second time, after their more consistent finishes helped them to fend off Strakka Racing's Jonny Kane, Danny Watts and Nick Leventis, who won three races to one for Erdos and Newton.
The only other win was taken by Olivier Pla at Spa. The GT1 championship went to Larbre Compétition pairing Gabriele Gardel and Patrice Goueslard, as they were the only team to attempt every race in the championship. Julien Canal and Fernando Rees joined them in various races but were not a factor in the championship; the only team to beat Larbre during the season was the Marc VDS Racing Team car of Eric De Doncker, Bas Leinders and Markus Palttala, who won at Spa. GT2 proceedings saw a second successive title for Felbermayr-Proton duo Marc Lieb and Richard Lietz, winning three of the season's five races; the other two were taken by AF Corse duo Gianmaria Bruni and Jaime Melo at Algarve and at Silverstone. Another tight championship battle was fought out in the Formula Le Mans class, with DAMS' Andrea Barlesi and Gary Chalandon holding off Hope Polevision Racing driver Steve Zacchia by just two points; the season's five races were shared between four different entries, with Barlesi and Chalandon only winning at the Hungaroring with Alessandro Cicognani.
Zacchia won at Spa with Wolfgang Kaufmann and Luca Moro, Damien Toulemonde, Ross Zampatti and David Zollinger won at Paul Ricard, while Jody Firth and Warren Hughes won twice, in the Algarve, at Silverstone. On 27 October 2009 the ACO released a preliminary calendar for the 2010 season featuring three named events and two unconfirmed events, plus the traditional pre-season test session at Circuit Paul Ricard; the calendar was further revised with two additional events at the Autódromo Internacional do Algarve and the Hungaroring. The Paul Ricard race was extended to eight hours in length; the 1000 km of Silverstone was the part of the inaugural Le Mans Intercontinental Cup for LMP1s, it was the first time that the race had been run on the circuit's "Arena" configuration. Except for the 8 Hours of Castellet, as the name implied an eight-hour time limit, all races ran for either 1000 km or six hours, whichever came first; the 2010 1000 km of Hungaroring race was run at a distance shorter than the 1000-km scheduled distance after six hours.
Overall winner in bold. Points were awarded to all race finishers, with unclassified entries failing to complete 70% of the race distance or entries failing to reach the finish not earning championship points. One bonus point was awarded for winning pole position, a further bonus was awarded for the entry which sets the fastest race lap. Entries which changed an engine prior to the required two race minimum were penalized two points, with a four-point penalty for every subsequent engine change. Points were allocated in one of two ways, dependent on race length; the top two finishers in the LMP1, LMP2 and GT2 championships earned automatic entry to the 2011 24 Hours of Le Mans, provided that the team was running for the full season. Partial season entries were not eligible for automatic entries for the 24 Hours of Le Mans. GT1 championships were not awarded any automatic entries as the GT1 category was phased out by the end of the year. All teams in the Formula Le Mans category utilized the Oreca FLM09 chassis and General Motors 6.3 L V8.
Le Mans Series
Porsche 919 Hybrid
The Porsche 919 Hybrid is a Le Mans Prototype 1 sports car built and used by the German manufacturer Porsche in the 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 seasons of the FIA World Endurance Championship. It was Porsche's first all-new prototype since the RS Spyder and the first to compete in sports car racing's premier level since the Porsche 911 GT1. Work on the car began in mid-2011 and its monocoque was finalised at the end of 2012 with inspiration from the 911 GT3 R Hybrid racing car and the 918 Spyder hybrid-powered sports vehicle; the car features two separate energy recovery hybrid systems to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases and convert kinetic energy into electrical energy under braking for storage into lithium-ion battery packs. In accordance with the 2014 regulations, the vehicle was placed in the 6 MJ class, its engine, a 2 l 90-degree angled mid-mounted, V4 mono turbocharged petrol power unit produced 500 hp and acted as a chassis load bearing member. The 919 Hybrid was shown to the press for the first time during the Geneva Motor Show on 4 March 2014.
Porsche supplied two cars, driven by six drivers, for the season. Romain Dumas, Neel Jani and Marc Lieb won three pole positions and the season-ending 6 Hours of São Paulo as Timo Bernhard, Brendon Hartley and Mark Webber helped the team finish third in the World Manufacturers' Championship; the car was further developed in accordance with the 2015 regulations. Its front was reshaped and weight was reduced by manufacturing the chassis as one; the hybrid system was made lighter and more efficient to produce additional power and was categorised into the 8 MJ category. Bernhard and Webber won four out of the eight contested races to claim the 2015 World Endurance Drivers' Championship and the World Manufacturers' Championship. Furthermore, Earl Bamber, Nico Hülkenberg and Nick Tandy triumphed in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, driving a third 919 Hybrid; the car was further developed for the 2016 season. Many of its components were improved through detailed performance enhancements and reducing overall weight.
The engine was made lighter and the car's hybrid system was made more efficient and powerful. Three distinct body kits were created by Porsche to aerodynamically match the 919 Hybrid to a track. Dumas and Lieb won the 6 Hours of Silverstone along with the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Afterwards, consistent performances from the trio helped them clinch the 2016 World Endurance Drivers' Championship and the second for the team. Although Bernhard and Webber had reliability issues in the season's first three races, the trio took victory in four of the campaign's six remaining rounds to help Porsche win its second World Manufacturers' Championship in a row. Further development was undertaken for the 2017 season; the car was redesigned at the front to make it less aerodynamically sensitive from small debris and its rearward air intakes were redesigned for the radiators to cool the engine. Tandy and former Audi LMP1 driver André Lotterer joined Jani in place of Dumas and Lieb while Bamber was paired with Bernhard and Hartley to fill in for the retired Webber.
Porsche finished on the podium in 2017's first two rounds. Bamber and Hartley recovered from the 13-lap deficit from having their car's front motor–generator replaced to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans; the trio won three more races and took Porsche's third consecutive World Drivers' and Manufacturers' Championships at the season's penultimate round, the 2017 6 Hours of Shanghai. The 919 Hybrid project was discontinued after 2017 to allow Porsche to focus on entering Formula E and an evolution of the car called the 919 Evo was demonstrated throughout 2018. A total of 9 chassis were built. In mid-May 2011, Porsche decided to compete as a works team in the Le Mans Prototype 1 category for the newly-created FIA World Endurance Championship that began in 2012; the manufacturer publicly announced the plans two months and stated that the car would debut in the 2014 season. Around this time, the Porsche Motorsport Centre Flacht in Weissach expanded its operations to 200 full-time employees on the project's design and deployment.
Porsche employed Fritz Enzinger from fellow German marque BMW to serve as vice-president of LMP1 in late 2011 and oversaw the organisation of the vehicle's construction. At the end of the same year, they employed Alex Hitzinger, former Head of F1 Development for engine builder Cosworth and Red Bull Racing's Head of Advanced Technologies, was responsible for the car's technical design; the car was named the 919 Hybrid as an acknowledgement of Porsche's embarkation into hybrid car technology and to honour its tradition of named vehicles competing at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. It was the manufacturer's first sports car prototype built since the RS Spyder debuted in 2005, the first sports car racing prototype constructed by the company to compete in the top category of sportscar racing since the 1998 Porsche 911 GT1-98 and Porsche LMP1-98 and the first sports-prototype to be raced by them as a factory operation since the Porsche 911 GT1-98 and Porsche LMP1-98; the monocoque was finalised at the end of 2012 and was designed for maximum efficiency while meeting the 2014 LMP1 regulations on driver visibility with a raised cockpit.
The 919 Hybrid's developers forwent their rivals' LMP1 experience since they had been a recent entry into the category. Because of this, they drew inspiration from their prior forays with the 911 GT3 R Hybrid racing car from 2010 and 2011 and its hybrid-powered sports vehicle, the 918 Spyder; the 2014 LMP1 regulations mandated that the car be no longer than 4,650 mm, be around 1,800 mm to 1,900 mm wide and be 1,050 mm tall. The aerodynamic fine-tuning of the carbon fibre with honeycomb aluminum core chassis began