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Negrito

The Negrito are several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Austronesia. Their current populations include: the Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands, the Semang and Batek peoples of Peninsular Malaysia, the Maniq people of Southern Thailand, as well as the Aeta and about 30 other recognized ethnic groups in the Philippines. Based on their physical similarities, Negritos were once considered a single population of related people; some studies suggests that they include several separate groups, as well as demonstrating that they are not related to the Pygmies of Africa, while more recent studies find evidence for a close genetic relation between the various Negrito groups. The pre-Neolithic Negrito populations of Southeast Asia were replaced by the expansion of Southern Mongoloid populations, beginning about 5,000 years ago, they engaged in trade with the local population that invaded their lands and were often subjugated to slave raids while paying tributes to the local Southeast Asian rulers and kingdoms.

Some Negrito pygmies from the southern forests were enslaved and exploited until modern times since 724 AD. While some have lived in isolation others have become assimilated with the general local population; the word Negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, used to mean "little black person". This usage was coined by 16th-century Spanish missionaries operating in the Philippines, was borrowed by other European travellers and colonialists across Austronesia to label various peoples perceived as sharing small physical stature and dark skin. Contemporary usage of an alternative Spanish epithet, Negrillos tended to bundle these peoples with the pygmy peoples of Central Africa, based on perceived similarities in stature and complexion; the appropriateness of using the label "Negrito" to bundle peoples of different ethnicities based on similarities in stature and complexion has been challenged. Many online dictionaries give the plural in English as either "Negritos" or "Negritoes", without preference.

The plural in Spanish is "Negritos". Most Negrito groups lived as hunter-gatherers, while some used agriculture. Today most Negrito tribes live assimilated to the majority population of their homeland. Discrimination and poverty are problems. Paternal haplogroups found in some Negrito populations are Haplogroup D-M174*, a branch of D-M174 among Andaman Islanders, as well as Haplogroup O-P31, common among the now Austroasiatic-speaking Negrito peoples, such as the Maniq and the Semang in Malaysia; the Onge and all the Adamanan Islanders belong to the mitochondrial Haplogroup M it is the predominant marker of other Negrito tribes and Australian aborigines, Papuans. Analysis of mtDNA, inherited by maternal descent, confirms the above results. All Onge belong to mDNA M, unique to Onge people. Most other Negritos, like the Aeta or Ati people are of great interest to genetic and historical researchers because at least 83% of them belong to haplogroup K2b, in the form of its rare primary clades K2b1* and P*.

Most Aeta males carry K-P397, otherwise uncommon in the Philippines and is associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Basal P * is rare outside some other groups within Maritime Southeast Asia. A 2009 study by the Anthropological Survey of India and the Texas Biomedical Research Institute identified seven genomes from 26 isolated "relic tribes" from the Indian mainland, such as the Baiga tribe, which share "two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, specific to Australian Aborigines"; these were specific mtDNA mutations that are shared by Australian aborigines and these Indian tribes, no other known human groupings. Bulbeck shows the Andamanese maternal mtDNA is mitochondrial Haplogroup M, their Y-DNA belong to the D haplogroup which has not been seen outside of the Andamans, a fact that underscores the insularity of these tribes. Analysis of mtDNA, inherited by maternal descent, confirms the above results. All Onge belong to tmDNA M, unique to Onge people.

A study of human blood group systems and proteins in the 1950s suggested that the Andamanese peoples were more related to Oceanic peoples than African pygmy peoples. Genetic studies on Philippine Negritos, based on polymorphic blood enzymes and antigens, showed that they were similar to their surrounding populations. Negrito peoples may descend from the first settlers of Southeast Asia. Despite being isolated, the different peoples do share genetic similarities with their neighboring populations, they show relevant phenotypic variations which require explanation. This has been interpreted to the effect that they are remnants of the original expansion from Africa some 70,000 years ago. Studies in osteology, cranial shape and dental morphology have connected the Semang to Australoid populations, while connecting the Andamanese to Africans in craniometry and to South Asians in dental morphology, Philippine Negritos to Southeast Asians. A possible conclusion of this is that the dispersal of mitochondrial haplogroup B4a1a is connected to the distinction between Philippine and other Negritos.

However, another study suggests that the Onge are more related to Southeast Asian Negritos and Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians, that the Great Andamanese "appear to have received a degree of recent admi

North Eastern Hockey League

For the league that operated from 1978-1981, see Northeastern Hockey League. The North Eastern Hockey League was a semi-professional ice hockey league from 2003 until 2008, it was created by entrepreneur Jim Cashman. The NEHL was built to focus on giving players that were not quite ready for the ECHL, United Hockey League, the Central Hockey League a place to play and develop after their Junior and college careers had finished. In the 2003-04 season, nine total players moved up to the "AA" level and remained there and six of those players came from the York IceCats alone; the League started with four franchises, the York IceCats out of York, Jamestown Titans out of Jamestown, New York, Mohawk Valley Comets out of Whitestown, New York and the Poughkeepsie Panthers out of Poughkeepsie, New York. After low attendance in the first few games in Poughkeepsie, the team was to be relocated to Connecticut and renamed the Connecticut Cougars but negotiations with an arena broke down and the Cougars finished as a road team for the remainder of the season.

When concerns of Comets players not being available for the final month of the season due to their summer jobs starting, Coach Brett Boake requested a schedule change and the season was shortened a month. The Comets decided two days before the playoff weekend that they were not going to participate as not enough players were available and they had financial concerns. With the Comets as the league regular season leaders, they were to get a bye straight to the finals, to be played on Sunday. York and Jamestown were to play on the Saturday to see. Once the Comets had informed the league that they would not be playing, the league changed the playoff structure. York and Jamestown would play a two-game series that weekend. If there were a tie after the two games they would play a mini-game lasting twenty minutes. York won the opening game, 8-5. Jamestown defeated York 9-1 in the second game and won a 20-minute tiebreaker game 6-1; as league champions, the Titans received the Herb Brooks Memorial Trophy.

The league went dark for the 2004-05 season attempted to return in 2005-06 as the Continental Professional Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States. The regular 44-game season was supposed to start in early November 2005, was postponed, saw six games played, was cancelled in mid-December 2005. In the 2006-2007 season, The New England Stars finished first with a record of 20-0, cruised in the Championship series beating the Mohawk Valley Icecats 2 games to 0 to capture the 2006-2007 NEHL Crown; the league announced on January 23, 2008 that it was suspending operations for the remainder of the 2007-08 season. 2003–2004Jamestown Titans Mohawk Valley Comets Poughkeepsie Panthers York IceCats 2005–2006 Philadelphia Comets Pittsburgh Pounders St. Catharines IceCats Sault Ste. Marie Stampede2006–2007Danville Pounders Findlay Freedom: Mohawk Valley IceCats New England Stars2007–08Copper City Chiefs: Findlay Freedom: Kensington Valley Pounders: Norfolk IceCats: A previous league was known as the Northeastern Hockey League during the 1978-79 season.

This league renamed itself the Eastern Hockey League for the 1979-80 season. NEHL website

Pablo Nassarre

Pablo Nassarre was a Spanish priest and Baroque composer. His work, Escuela Música según la práctica moderna, made him an important theorist of the Baroque era. Nassarre was born blind in Alagón, Zaragoza, in 1650, he moved to Daroca to be taught by Pablo Bruna a blind composer. At age 22, Nassarre became a Franciscan and joined the Royal Convent of San Francisco in Zaragoza, where he was the organist until his death, he opened a school of harmony and counterpoint, where José de Torres and Joaquín Martínez de la Roca were his students. Escuela Música según la práctica moderna Fragmentos músicos Arde en incendio de amor - A carol written in 1685. Three toccatas for organ Palacios, José Ignacio, Los compositores aragoneses, Zaragoza ISBN 84-95306-41-7 Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana, Volume No. 1133 Nassarre, fray Pablo in the Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa NASSARRE, Pablo in the Pequeña Enciclopedia Franciscana

Reuben G. Soderstrom

Reuben George Soderstrom was an American leader of organized labor who served as President of the Illinois State Federation of Labor and Illinois AFL-CIO from 1930–1970. A key figure in Chicago and statewide politics, he played a pivotal role in American labor history, helping to define national labor policy after the merger of the AFL and CIO in 1955. Soderstrom advised and was courted by multiple U. S. Presidents seeking his endorsement; the longest-serving state federation chief in American labor history, he passed seminal labor legislation and grew his organization's membership five-fold, transforming it into one of the most powerful labor bodies in the United States. Reuben Soderstrom was born on March 1888, on a small farm west of Waverly, Minnesota, he was the second of six children born to John Frederick Soderstrom and Anna Gustafava Erikson, immigrants from Småland, Jämtland, respectively. John, a Free Church preacher and cobbler by trade, attempted to become a farmer, he leveraged the family's assets in 1886 to purchase land and equipment.

His efforts met with failure, within ten years the Soderstrom family was mired in debt. In 1898, John sent ten-year-old Reuben to work for a blacksmith in neighboring Cokato, Minnesota, to pay the family's arrears. Two years Reuben traveled alone to the mining town of Streator, Illinois, in search of better wages, he labored in the glass factories, which proved formative experiences. “People ask me what moved him, what things in his life made him choose to devote his life to the Labor Movement,” his sister Olga wrote. “He knew poverty, firsthand, he experienced child labor. He knew the loneliness of separation from his family at such an early age; these were his formative years, they were not happy ones."Eventually, Soderstrom earned enough money to move his parents and siblings to Streator. At age 16, he became a “printer’s devil” at the Streator Independent Times. There he came under the tutelage of John E. Williams, a columnist and early leader of the labor movement in Illinois, he introduced Soderstrom to the works of many organized labor theorists and activists including John Mitchell, Richard Ely, William U’Ren.

Soderstrom pursued a career as a union linotypist, apprenticing throughout the Midwest from St. Louis, Missouri to Madison, Wisconsin to Chicago, Illinois, he returned to Streator in 1909, establishing himself professionally and marrying Jeanne Shaw on December 2, 1912. He assumed full financial responsibility for his mother and sister after his father's death that same year. Soderstrom soon became a fixture in the city's labor movement. In 1910, he was elected to his Local's Executive Committee, was nominated as a delegate to the city's Trades and Labor Council. In 1912, he was elected President of both the Streator Trades and Labor Council. After retiring from the Presidency in 1920 he became the Labor Council's Reading Clerk, a position he held until 1936. In 1914, Soderstrom made his first run for public office, campaigning for Illinois State Representative as a member of President Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party. Although unsuccessful, the race introduced Reuben to the state political scene.

Four years he was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives as a member of the Republican Party. After a 1920 loss, Soderstrom reclaimed the office in 1922 and held it without interruption for 14 years. Soderstrom soon earned a reputation as organized labor's strongest advocate in the Illinois House, he authored and shepherded a series of pro-labor bills through the legislature, including the Injunction Limitation Act, the Anti-"Yellow Dog" Contract Act, the One Day Rest in Seven Act, the Old Age Pension Act. He increased education funding, helped found the University of Illinois Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, known today as the Illinois School of Labor and Employment Relations, he secured favorable amendments to the workmen's compensation, occupational disease, pension laws. In 1923, he led the campaign in Streator against the National Association of Manufacturers' anti-labor “American Plan.” The organized city became a central front in the NAM's bid to end unions in America, with Illinois Manufacturers' Association chief J.

M. Glenn leading the charge. Under his direction, the LaSalle County Sheriff flooded the streets with deputized IMA-funded armed "patrols." While ostensibly charged with keeping the peace, these "imported thugs" were accused of intimidating striking workers and breaking up peaceful demonstrations by force. When Soderstrom and his fellow Labor Council members protested, they were issued injunctions and charged with conspiracy. While the sanctions and threat of prison were severe, Soderstrom's resistance earned him statewide and national attention. During this course of events he was introduced to American Federation of Labor leader Samuel Gompers, who encouraged him to persevere, counseling him “Young man, you know you can climb the highest mountain if you’ve got the patience to do it one step at a time."In 1936, Soderstrom threw his full support behind President Franklin D. Roosevelt; when polling showed FDR losing Illinois to challenger Alfred Landon 52% to 48%, he helped organize an unprecedented rally at the Chicago Stadium for the President dubbed the “Meeting at the Madhouse.”

While Roosevelt won Illinois, Soderstrom lost his re-election—a defeat attributed to his support for the Democratic President. Though no longer a state representative, Soderstrom continued to serve

Wolfgang von Trips

Wolfgang Alexander Albert Eduard Maximilian Reichsgraf Berghe von Trips known as Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips and nicknamed'Taffy' by friends and fellow racers, was a German racing driver. He was the son of a noble Rhineland family. Von Trips was born in Germany, he had diabetes during his career and he always had high sugar snacks during the races to compensate for his low blood sugar levels. He participated in 29 Formula One World Championship Grand Prix races, debuting on 2 September 1956, he won two races, secured one pole position, achieved six podiums, scored a total of 56 championship points. He sustained a concussion when he spun off track at the Nürburgring during trial runs for a sports car race held in May 1957, his Ferrari was destroyed. It was the only one of its marque to be entered in the Gran Turismo car class of more than 1600 cc. Von Trips was forced out of a Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix at Silverstone, in July 1958, when his Ferrari came into the pits on the 60th lap with no oil.

The following August he was fifth at Porto in the 1958 Portuguese Grand Prix, won by Stirling Moss in a Vanwall. Von Trips was one lap behind at the finish. Moss was more than five minutes ahead of Mike Hawthorn. In July 1960 von Trips was victorious in a Formula Two event in a Ferrari, with a newly introduced engine in the rear; the race was called the Solitude Formula Two Grand Prix. It was a 20-lap event with the winner averaging 164.49 km/h over 229 km. He won the Targa Florio, 10-lap 721 kilometres race, in May 1961. Von Trips achieved an average speed of 103.42 km/h in his Ferrari with Olivier Gendebien of Belgium as his co-driver. Von Trips and Phil Hill traded the lead at Spa, Belgium during the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix, in June 1961. Hill led most of the way in front of a crowd of 100,000 people. Ferraris captured the first four places at the race conclusion with von Trips finishing second; the Formula One World Championship driver competition at this juncture in 1961 was led by Hill with 19 points followed by von Trips with 18.

In 1961 von Trips established a go-kart race track in Germany. The track was leased by Rolf Schumacher, whose sons and Ralf, made their first laps there; the 1961 Italian Grand Prix on 10 September saw von Trips locked in the battle Formula One World Drivers' Championship that year with his teammate Phil Hill. During the race at Monza, his Ferrari collided with Jim Clark's Lotus, his car became airborne and crashed into a side barrier, fatally throwing von Trips from the car, killing fifteen spectators. Clark described the accident, saying: "Von Trips and I were racing along the straightaway and were nearing one of the banked curves, the one on the southern end. We were about 100 metres from the beginning of the curve. Von Trips was running close to the inside of the track. I was following him, keeping near the outside. At one point Von Trips shifted sideways, it was the fatal moment. Von Trips's car went into the guardrail along the inside of the track, it bounced back, struck my own car and bounced down into the crowd."

Movie footage of the crash that surfaced after the race showed that Clark's memory of the incident was inaccurate: after colliding with Clark, von Trips's car rode directly up an embankment on the outside of the track and struck a fence behind which spectators were packed. At the time of his death von Trips was leading the Formula One World Championship, he had previous incidents at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, where he crashed cars in the 1956 Italian Grand Prix and the 1958 Italian Grand Prix, was injured in both events. * Indicates shared drive with Cesare Perdisa and Peter Collins † Indicates shared drive with Mike Hawthorn Regarding personal names, Graf is a German title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The feminine form is Gräfin. Film – Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips zwischen Rittergut und Rennstrecke

Heywood, Wiltshire

Heywood is a civil parish and small village in the county of Wiltshire in southwestern England. The village is 1.5 miles north of Westbury and 3.5 miles south of the county town of Trowbridge. Heywood village, which has 200 inhabitants, lies between the A350 national route and the B3461 road, which links nearby Yarnbrook and the Westbury industrial area; the hamlet of Dursley is situated directly to the west of the village on the other side of the railway line. The parish includes the hamlets of Hawkeridge and Norleaze; the Biss Brook forms the northwest boundary of the parish. For most of its history, Heywood formed hundred of Westbury. From the 13th century the manor of Heywood was an estate of Stanley Abbey, it was acquired by Sir Edward Bayntun in 1537. In 1848 the Wilts and Weymouth Railway was built through the parish, passing between Heywood and Dursley, to link the Swindon-Bath line with Westbury via Trowbridge; this line remains open. The civil parish of Heywood was created in 1896 from the northern section of Westbury parish.

Brook Hall, in the west of Heywood parish near the Biss Brook, is a c. 1600 farmhouse which incorporates a Grade I listed wing of a 15th-century manor house. James Ley, 1st Earl of Marlborough built a house at Heywood in the early 17th century. Around 1700 this house was owned by cloth merchants. In the century the house came into the Ludlow family, in 1837 Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow had the present Heywood House built on the same site, east of the present A350. On Henry's death in 1876 the house passed to Henry Charles Lopes, of the Lopes family who owned Westbury manor. Henry Lopes was created Baron Ludlow in 1897. Since the house had several owners and for a time housed the headquarters of the National Trust; the house is now multi-tenanted offices. From 1935 until 1974, Heywood was part of the Warminster and Westbury Rural District, abolished by the Local Government Act 1972, when it joined the new West Wiltshire district. Since the abolition of West Wiltshire as a district in 2009, all significant local government functions have been carried out by the new Wiltshire Council unitary authority.

The member of parliament for Heywood is Andrew Murrison. A small Congregational church was built at Hawkeridge in 1844; as of 2015 the church remains in use. The Church of England parish church of the Holy Trinity was built in 1849 and served a new ecclesiastical parish, formed from the northern half of the parish of Westbury; the building is in the 13th-century style. The church was converted for residential use. There is a pub at the Royal Oak; the village primary school was closed in 1971. It had been built in 1836 at the expense of Henry G. G. Ludlow and educated children of all ages until 1930. Tumblewood Community School, near Dursley, is a specialist school for girls. John Barnard Bush, Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire 2004 to 2012 W. H. Hamilton Rogers, The Strife of the Roses & Days of the Tudors in the West: on-line text Wiltshire Community History: Heywood Media related to Heywood, Wiltshire at Wikimedia Commons