The Charles River is an 80-mile-long long river in eastern Massachusetts. From its source in Hopkinton the river flows in a northeasterly direction, traveling through 23 cities and towns before reaching the Atlantic Ocean at Boston; the Native-American name for the Charles River was Quinobequin, meaning "meandering". The Charles River is fed by 80 streams and several major aquifers as it flows 80 miles, starting at Teresa Road just north of Echo Lake in Hopkinton, passing through 23 cities and towns in eastern Massachusetts before emptying into Boston Harbor. Thirty-three lakes and ponds and 35 municipalities are or part of the Charles River drainage basin. Despite the river's length and large drainage area, its source is only 26 miles from its mouth, the river drops only 350 feet from source to sea; the Charles River watershed contains more than 8,000 acres of protected wetlands, referred to as Natural Valley Storage. These areas are important in preventing downstream flooding and providing natural habitats to native species.
Harvard University, Boston University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are located along the Charles River. Near its mouth, it forms the border between Cambridge and Charlestown; the river is lined by the parks of the Charles River Reservation. On the Charles River Esplanade stands the Hatch Shell, where concerts are given in summer evenings; the basin is known for its Independence Day celebration. The middle section of the river between the Watertown Dam and Wellesley is protected by the properties of the Upper Charles River Reservation and other state parks, including the Hemlock Gorge Reservation, Cutler Park, the Elm Bank Reservation. A detailed depth chart of the lower basin of the Charles River, from near the Watertown Dam to the New Charles River Dam, has been created by a partnership between the MIT Sea Grant College Program and the Charles River Alliance of Boaters. Online and hardcopy charts are available as a public service; the river is well known for its rowing, canoeing, paddleboarding and sailing, both recreational and competitive.
The river may be kayaked. The "Lower Basin" between the Longfellow and Harvard bridges is home to Community Boating, the Harvard University Sailing Center, the MIT Sailing Pavilion; the Head of the Charles Regatta is held here every October. In early June, the annual Hong Kong Boston Dragon boat Festival is held in Cambridge, near the Weeks Footbridge; the Charles River Bike Path runs 23 miles along the banks of the Charles, starting at the Museum of Science and passing the campuses of MIT, Harvard and Boston University. The path is popular with bikers. Many runners gauge their distance and speed by keeping track of the mileage between the bridges along the route. For several years, the Charles River Speedway operated along part of the river. On July 13, 2013, swimming for the general public was permitted for the first time in more than 50 years. Long before European settlers named and shaped the Charles, Native Americans living in New England made the river a central part of their lives; the native name for the Charles River was Quinobequin, meaning "meandering".
Captain John Smith explored and mapped the coast of New England, naming many features naming the Charles River the Massachusetts River, derived from the tribe living in the region. When Smith presented his map to King Charles I he suggested that the king should feel free to change any of the "barbarous names" for "English" ones; the King made many such changes, but only four survive today, one of, the Charles River which Charles named for himself. In portions of its length, the Charles drops in elevation and has little current. Despite this, early settlers in Dedham, found a way to use the Charles to power mills. In 1639, the town dug a canal from the Charles to a nearby brook. By this action, a portion of the Charles's flow was diverted, providing enough current for several mills; the new canal and the brook together are now called Mother Brook. The canal is regarded as the first industrial canal in North America, it remains in use for flood control. Waltham was the site of the first integrated textile factory in America, built by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814, by the 19th century the Charles River was one of the most industrialized areas in the United States.
Its hydropower soon fueled many factories. By the century's end, 20 dams had been built across the river to generate power for industry. An 1875 government report listed 43 mills along the 9 1⁄2-mile tidal estuary from Watertown Dam to Boston Harbor. From 1816 to 1968, the U. S. Army operated a gun and ammunition storage and production facility known as the Watertown Arsenal. While it was key to many of the nation's war efforts over its several decades in operation, not the least of which being the American Civil War and World War I, its location in Watertown so near the Charles did great environmental harm; the arsenal was declared a Super Fund site, after its closure by the government it had to be cleaned at significant expense before it could be safely used again for other purposes. The many factories and mills along the banks of the Charles supported a buoyant economy in their time but
North End, Boston
The North End is a neighborhood of Boston, United States. It has the distinction of being the city's oldest residential community, where people have continuously inhabited since it was settled in the 1630s. Though small, only 0.36 square miles, the neighborhood has nearly one hundred establishments and a variety of tourist attractions. It is known for fine Italian restaurants; the district is a pending Boston Landmark. The North End as a distinct community of Boston was evident as early as 1646. Three years the area had a large enough population to support its own church, called the North Meeting House; the construction of the building led to the development of the area now known as North Square, the center of community life. Increase Mather, the minister of the North Meeting House, was an influential and powerful figure who attracted residents to the North End, his home, the meeting house, surrounding buildings were destroyed by a fire in 1676. The meeting house was rebuilt soon afterwards; the Paul Revere House was constructed on the site of the Mather House.
Part of Copp's Hill was converted to a cemetery, called the North Burying Ground. The earliest grave markers located in the cemetery date back to 1661; the North End became a fashionable place to live in the 18th century. Wealthy families shared the neighborhood with artisans, laborers and slaves. Two brick townhouses from this period still stand: the Pierce-Hichborn House and the Ebenezer Clough House on Unity Street. Christ Church, now known as the Old North Church, was constructed during this time, as well, it is the oldest surviving church building in Boston. In the early stages of the Revolution, the Hutchinson Mansion, located in North Square, was attacked by anti-Stamp Act rioters on the evening of August 26, 1765, forcing Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson to flee through his garden. In 1770, 11-year-old Christopher Seider was part of an angry crowd that attacked the home of a Custom's Office employee, located on Hanover Street; the employee, Ebenezer Richardson, fired a gun into the crowd and fatally wounding Christoper Seider.
During the Siege of Boston, the North Meeting House was dismantled by the British for use as firewood. In the first half of the 19th century, the North End experienced a significant amount of commercial development; this activity was concentrated on Commercial and Lewis Streets. During this time the neighborhood developed a red-light district, known as the Black Sea. By the late 1840s, living conditions in the crowded North End were among the worst in the city. Successive waves of immigrants came to Boston and settled in the neighborhood, beginning with the Irish and continuing with Eastern European Jews and Italians. Boston as a whole was prosperous and the wealthy residents of the North End moved to newer, more fashionable neighborhoods such as Beacon Hill. In 1849, a cholera epidemic swept through Boston. In 1859, tensions between the Catholic Irish immigrants and the existing Protestant community led to the Eliot School Rebellion. By 1880, the Protestant churches had left the neighborhood; the Boston Draft Riot of July 14, 1863 began on Prince Street in the North End.
In the latter half of the 19th century, several charitable groups were formed in the North End to provide aid to its impoverished residents. These groups included The Home for the North End Mission; the North Bennet Street Industrial School was founded at around this time to provide North End residents with the opportunity to gain skills that would help them find employment. Beginning in the 1880s, North End residents began to replace the dilapidated wooden housing with four- and five-story brick apartment buildings, most of which still stand today; the city contributed to the revitalization of the neighborhood by constructing the North End Park and Beach, Copp's Hill Terrace, the North End Playground. In the early 20th century, the North End was dominated by Italian immigrants. Three Italian immigrants founded the Prince Macaroni Company, one example of the successful businesses created in this community. During this time, the city of Boston upgraded many public facilities in the neighborhood: the Christopher Columbus School, a public bathhouse, a branch of the Boston Public Library were built.
These investments, as well as the creation of the Paul Revere Mall, contributed to the North End's modernization. In 1918, the Spanish Influenza Pandemic hit the crowded North End severely; the following year, in 1919, the Purity Distilling Company's 2.3 million gallon molasses storage tank explosively burst open, causing the Great Molasses Flood. A 25 ft wave of molasses flowed down Commercial Street towards the waterfront, sweeping away everything in its path; the wave killed 21 people, injured 150, caused damage worth $100 million in today's money. In 1927, the Sacco and Vanzetti wake was held in undertaker Joseph A. Langone, Jr.’s Hanover Street premises. The funeral procession that conveyed Sacco and Vanzetti’s bodies to the Forest Hills Cemetery began in the North End. In 1934, the Sumner Tunnel was constructed to connect the North End to East Boston, the location of the new Boston Airport. In the 1950s the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway was built to relieve Boston’s traffic congestion
Mission Hill, Boston
Mission Hill is a ¾ square mile neighborhood of Boston. The population was estimated at 15,883 in 2011. About 3,000 short-term residents are undergraduates from neighboring colleges, maybe another 1500 are short-term visiting scholars, students and degree candidates working in the adjacent Longwood Medical Area for Harvard Medical School, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, and/or the Harvard teaching hospitals; the neighborhood is bounded by Columbus Avenue and the Boston neighborhood of Roxbury to the east, Ruggles Street to the northeast and the Olmsted designed Riverway/Jamaicaway, the town of Brookline to the west. The Historic District was designated by the Boston Landmarks Commission in 1985 and is bounded by Smith Street, Worthington Street, Tremont Street, Huntington Avenue; the Mission Hill neighborhood is north of the Boston neighborhood of Jamaica Plain. It is served by the MBTA Green Line "E" Branch and the Orange Line, is within walking distance of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Gardner Museum.
"The Hill" overlaps with about half of the Longwood Medical and Academic Area, home to 21 health care and educational institutions which together provides the largest employment area in the City of Boston outside of downtown Boston. Due to these adjacencies, the neighborhood is struggling with institutional growth taking residential buildings and occupying storefront commercial space. Recent years have seen new retail stores and residential development giving the neighborhood a stronger political voice and identity, as some of the educational institutions have made commitments to house all or most of their about 2000 undergraduate students in newly erected campus housing, including several new high-rise dormitories. People aged 20 to 24 account for 32% of the population living in Mission Hill; the Mission Hill Triangle is an architectural conservation district with a combination of freestanding houses built by early wealthy landowners, blocks of traditional brick rowhouses, many triple-deckers.
Many are now condominiums, but there are several two-family and some single-family homes. The neighborhood was named in March 2008 as one of 25 "Best ZIP Codes in Massachusetts" by The Boston Globe, citing increased value in single-family homes, plentiful restaurants and shopping, a marked racial diversity, the behavioral fact that 65% of residents walk, bike, or take public transit to their work; the neighborhood has two main commercial streets: Huntington Avenue. Both have several small shops. Mission Hill is at the far western end of Tremont Street, with Government Center at the far eastern end. Mission Hill has two main ZIP codes. Additionally, a small portion of the southeastern edge uses the code 02130 and two streets on the far western edge use 02215. Parker Hill, Roxbury Crossing, the Triangle District, Back of The Hill, Calumet Square are areas within the Mission Hill, an designated neighborhood in Boston. Brigham Circle, located at the corner of Tremont and Huntington is the neighborhood's commercial center, with a grocery store, drug stores, bistros and taverns.
Additionally, two other smaller commercial areas are in the neighborhood: Roxbury Crossing and the corner of Huntington and South Huntington next to the Brookline line. One block up the hill from Brigham Circle is Boston's newest park, Kevin W. Fitzgerald Park created when a new $60-million mixed use building was completed in 2002. On Tremont Street is Our Lady of Perpetual Help Basilica, an eponymous landmark building that dominates the skyline of the area; the church was chosen as the location for the funeral of Senator Edward M. Kennedy on Saturday, August 29, 2009. Nearby is the restored Parker Hill Library, the neighborhood branch of the Boston Public Library, designed by architect Ralph Adams Cram in 1929; the city used eminent domain to acquire the land for both the library and the adjacent Mission Hill playground. Atop the hill are the New England Baptist Hospital and the Parker Hill Playground, which extends from the hospital grounds down Parker Hill Avenue. Parker Hill Playground proposed in 1915 by Boston Mayor James Curley, is one of the highest points in the city where one can enjoy a panoramic view of downtown Boston, Boston Harbor, the Blue Hills.
Always considered a part of Roxbury until a generation ago, Mission Hill is now most regarded as a conceptually distinct section of the city. However, neighborhood boundaries in Boston are inherently ambiguous, whether or not Mission Hill is adjacent to Roxbury or remains a section of Roxbury is sometimes a subject of vigorous debate. There is a park in Mission Hill, a walking, sitting park for the community, called the Kevin W. Fitzgerald Park. Named Puddingstone Park because of the local rock sources, the park includes lawn space and asphalt walkways for people to walk on; the walkway is lined with benches for people to rest and enjoy the various views such as Lower Roxbury, the Fenway, Back Bay. This park was one of the five quarries in Boston; this park was known as the Harvard Quarry. The operation of the quarry was ceased around 1910 and this left a 65-foot-
Allston is an recognized neighborhood of the City of Boston, Massachusetts. It was named after poet Washington Allston, it comprises the land covered by the zip code 02134. For the most part, Allston is administered collectively with the adjacent neighborhood of Brighton; the two are referred to together as "Allston–Brighton." Boston Police Department District D-14 covers the Allston-Brighton area and a Boston Fire Department Allston station is located in Union Square which houses Engine 41 and Ladder 14. Engine 41 is nicknamed "The Bull" to commemorate the historic stockyards of Allston. Housing stock varies but consists of brick apartment buildings on Commonwealth Avenue and the streets directly off it, while areas further down Brighton Avenue, close to Brighton, are dotted with wooden triple-deckers. Lower Allston, across the Massachusetts Turnpike from the rest of Allston, consists of 1890–1920s single-family and multi-family Victorian homes; the estimated population of Allston is 29,196, according to the 2010 Census.
The median home cost is a decline of 0.97 % in the last year. The cost of living is 9.81% higher than the national average. The population density is 18,505/mi2, about 50% higher than the citywide average of 12,166; the median age is 29.2. 76.45% of residents list status as single. Allston is home to many immigrant populations, the largest groups being from Russia, East Asia, South Asia, South America. Young adults make up 78.3% of the neighborhood's population. The high concentration of students and "twenty-somethings" has created tension between some long-time residents and the student population which cycles in and out as students matriculate and graduate from Boston's many colleges and universities. In addition to nightly dancing and live music at area bars, house parties abound on surrounding streets during the school year; this has long been a sore point among other Allston residents. The largest religious affiliation is Catholic, followed by Protestant, unspecified Christian, Jewish and Muslim.
According to the 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the largest ancestry groups in ZIP Codes 02134 and 02163 are: The neighborhood of Allston borders the Boston Neighborhoods of Fenway/Kenmore and Brighton, as well as the City of Brookline. Allston is bordered on the north by the Charles River; the area north of the turnpike near the Charles river is known as Lower Allston. It consists of streets north of the Turnpike, all the way to the Charles River, it extends westward eastward to the Charles River. In its center is Allston Square at the crossroads of Western Avenue and North Harvard Street. Allston is named for the great painter and 1800 Harvard graduate, Washington Allston, "The Father of American Romanticism". Allston Square is appropriately located halfway between Harvard Square in the North and Allston Village, Boston's'Greenwich Village' in the South. Allston claims to be the only community in America named for an artist. Lower Allston is a small neighborhood that consists of a mix of young professionals, blue-collar tradesmen, members of the educational community and long-term residents.
Unlike the rest of Allston, Lower Allston has far fewer students. The neighborhood is quiet, has low crime, is an easy walk to Allston Village or Harvard Square. Lower Allston has close proximity to Route 2, the Mass Pike, Storrow Drive, Soldiers Field Road. Public transportation includes the Red Line at Harvard Square, the Green Line at Packard's Corner or Harvard Avenue and Commonwealth Avenue and the 57, 66, 70, 71, 86 bus connections on North Harvard Street and Western Avenue. In the early 21st century, Harvard University announced dramatic expansion plans that called for major building projects, including the demolition of existing businesses, to prepare for the construction of new biology and science buildings in the northern sections of Lower Allston. While the existing building stock was demolished and businesses were evicted, the financial crisis of 2008 and the resultant decrease in Harvard's endowment caused the university to suspend the expansion projects. In 2016, Harvard began building again, has completed two new buildings and is starting on the new, state-of-the-art Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences on Western Avenue west of Allston Square by the Charles River.
It will begin construction of the "Gateway" building on the northeast corner of Allston Square. Allston was an eastern section of the former town of Brighton. In 1867 a new railroad depot for the Boston and Albany Railroad opened. In 1868 the station and post office in Brighton's eastern portion were given the name "Allston" after Washington Allston, the noted painter who had lived and worked across the Charles River in the Cambridgeport section of Cambridge, it can be said to have been named for a specific painting: Washington Allston's "Fields West of Boston." Allston has never existed as a separate political entity in its own right. The Town of Brighton was annexed by the City of Boston in 1874. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow owned several properties in Allston. In 1887 the wooden depot was replaced by the station depicted at the right. In 1888 Boston's first trolley route began there, running a route through Coolidge Corner, Brookline, to Boylston Street, to downtown Boston; the Allston community developed around large railroad and livestock operations.
The Boston and Albany Railroad (now
History of Boston
The history of Boston plays a central role in American history. In 1630, Puritan colonists from England helped it become the way it is today. Boston became the political, financial and educational center of the New England region; the American Revolution erupted in Boston, as the British retaliated harshly for the Boston Tea Party and the patriots fought back. They besieged the British in the city, with a famous battle at Breed's Hill in Charlestown on June 17, 1775 and won the Siege of Boston, forcing the British to evacuate the city on March 17, 1776. However, the combination of American and British blockades of the town and port during the conflict damaged the economy, the population fell by two thirds in the 1770s; the city recovered after 1800, re-establishing its role as the transportation hub for the New England region with its network of railroads, more important, the intellectual and medical center of the nation. Along with New York, Boston was the financial center of the United States in the 19th century, was important in funding railroads nationwide.
In the Civil War era, it was the base for many anti-slavery activities. In the 19th century the city was dominated by an elite known as the Boston Brahmins, they faced the political challenge coming from Catholic immigrants. The Irish Catholics, typified by the Kennedy Family, took political control of the city by 1900; the industrial foundation of the region, financed by Boston, reached its peak around 1950. By the 21st century the city's economy had recovered and was centered on education and high technology—notably biotechnology, while the many surrounding towns became residential suburbs; the Shawmut Peninsula was connected to the mainland to its south by a narrow isthmus, Boston Neck, surrounded by Boston Harbor and the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Several prehistoric Native American archaeological sites, including the Boylston Street Fishweir, excavated during construction of buildings and subways in the city, have shown that the peninsula was inhabited as early as 7,500 years Before Present.
In 1629, the Cambridge Agreement was signed in England among the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The agreement established the colony as a self-governing entity, answerable only to the king. John Winthrop was its leader, would become governor of the settlement in the New World. In a famous sermon, "A Model of Christian Charity," Winthrop described the new colony as "a City upon a Hill." The competing Plymouth Colony, founded in 1620, merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. In June 1630, the Winthrop Fleet arrived in what would be called Salem, which on account of lack of food, "pleased them not." They proceeded to Charlestown. The Puritans settled around the spring in what would become Boston, acquiring the land from the first English settler, William Blaxton and Chickatawbut, the Native American sachemTrimountaine was the name given by the 1630 settlers to the peninsula that would be incorporated as the City of Boston; the name was derived from a set of three prominent hills on the peninsula, two of which were leveled as the city was modernized.
The middle one, Beacon Hill, shortened between 1807 and 1824, remains to this day as a prominent feature of the Boston cityscape. Tremont Street still carries an alternative form of the original name; the two smaller peaks were Mt. Whoredom. Governor Winthrop announced the foundation of the town of Boston on September 7, 1630, with the place named after the town of Boston, in the English county of Lincolnshire, from which several prominent colonists emigrated; the name derives from Saint Botolph, the patron saint of travelers. Early colonists believed that Boston was a community with a special covenant with God, as captured in Winthrop's "City upon a Hill" metaphor; this influenced every facet of Boston life, made it imperative that colonists legislate morality as well as enforce marriage, church attendance, education in the Word of God, the persecution of sinners. One of the first schools in America, Boston Latin School, the first college in America, Harvard College, were founded shortly after Boston's European settlement.
Town officials in colonial Boston were chosen annually. Boston's Puritans looked askance at unorthodox religious ideas, exiled or punished dissenters. During the Antinomian Controversy of 1636 to 1638 religious dissident leader Anne Hutchinson and Puritan clergyman John Wheelwright were both banished from the colony. Baptist minister Obadiah Holmes was imprisoned and publicly whipped in 1651 because of his religion and Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard College during the 1640s–50s, was persecuted for espousing Baptist beliefs. By 1679, Boston Baptists were bold enough to open their own meetinghouse, promptly closed by colonial authorities. Expansion and innovation in practice and worship characterized the early Baptists despite the restrictions on their religious liberty. On June 1, 1660, Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common for defying a law banning Quakers from being in the colony; the Boston Post
South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood of Boston, located south and east of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. South Boston, colloquially known as Southie, was once a predominantly working class Irish Catholic community, but is nowadays a hot spot for the millennial population. South Boston contains Dorchester Heights, where George Washington forced British troops to evacuate during the American Revolutionary War. South Boston has undergone gentrification, its real estate market has seen property values join the highest in the city. South Boston has left its mark on history with Boston busing desegregation. South Boston is home to the St. Patrick's Day Parade, a celebration of the Irish-American culture and the Evacuation Day observance Geographically, Dorchester Neck was an isthmus, a narrow strip of land that connected the mainland of the colonial settlement of Dorchester with Dorchester Heights. Landfill has since increased the amount of land on the eastern side of the historical neck, widened the connection to the mainland to the point that South Boston is no longer considered separate from it.
South Boston gained an identity separate from Dorchester, but the two were annexed by Boston in pieces, from 1804 to 1870. During the American Revolutionary War, George Washington placed a cannon on Dorchester Heights, thereby forcing the evacuation of British troops from Boston on March 17, 1776; the British evacuated Fort William and Mary for Halifax, Nova Scotia. Fort William and Mary was replaced with a brick fortification known as Fort Independence; that fort was replaced by a granite fortification prior to the American Civil War, still stands on Castle Island as a National Historic Landmark. Edgar Allan Poe was stationed at Castle Island for five months in 1827 and was inspired to write The Cask of Amontillado based on an early Castle Island legend. In 1874, South Boston came to close attention when 14 year old Jesse Pomeroy murdered two children: 10-year-old Katie Curran and 4-year-old Horace Millen, found on a marsh in Dorchester Bay after being mutilated with a knife, he became the youngest person in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to be convicted with first-degree murder, earning the nickname "the Boston Boy Fiend."
During the 1970s, South Boston received national attention for its opposition to court-mandated school desegregation by busing students to different neighborhoods. In the early 21st century, property values in the City Point neighborhood near Castle Island, rose to the level of some of the highest in the city; the City Point area of South Boston, labeled "East Side" by realtors, has seen a major increase in property values due to its close proximity to downtown Boston and gentrification. The "West Side" of South Boston known as the "lower end" by lifelong residents, though slower to begin the gentrification process benefits from the proximity to not only downtown but the popular South End. Additionally, the West Side is home to the first green residence in Boston — the Macallen Building, featured in the movie The Greening of Southie; the City of Boston is investing in the West Side through developments like the ~150,000-square-foot mixed use building being developed by the Boston Redevelopment Authority on West Broadway.
The 1865 Harrison Loring House is a Second Empire brick mansion located in South Boston. It was used as a private residence until 1913. At that time it was purchased by the Roman Catholic Church to use the space as a convent; the house located at 789 East Broadway was designated a Boston Landmark in 1981. It is associated with Harrison Loring, who owned and operated one of the first South Boston shipyards; the history behind the South Boston Saint Patrick's Day Parade is General Henry Knox brought 55 cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga. In March, the troops positioned the cannons on Dorchester Heights, they had cut down trees to cannon size, hollowed them out and blackened them over fire to look like cannons. Surprise was just around the corner. On March 17, 1776, orders were given that if you wished to pass through the continental lines, the password was "St. Patrick"; the British left Boston. Evacuation Day was declared a holiday in the City of Boston in 1901. In celebration, the city hosted a parade based in South Boston.
A monument to the historical event was completed in Dorchester Heights in 1902. Major George F. H. Murray served as Chief Marshall for the parade in 1901; the state of Massachusetts recognized Evacuation Day as a holiday in Suffolk County in 1938. The Saint Patrick’s Day Parade is both a celebration of the Irish-American culture in Boston and the Evacuation Day victory; the City of Boston sponsored the event until 1947, when Mayor James Michael Curley gave authority to the South Boston Allied War Veterans Council. Politicians and local celebrities have participated in these annual Saint Patrick’s Day Parade for years. In 1958 Senator John F. Kennedy rode with Jacqueline Kennedy in the parade; the Kennedy family were well known as participating in this parade. Robert F. Kennedy marched in 1968, Ted and Joan Kennedy marched in 1970; the N. A. A. C. P entered a float in the Saint Patrick’s Day Parade in 1964. In the mid-1960s the Harvard’s Irish Society joined the march. Irish nationalists unofficially marched in the Saint Patrick's Day Parade in the 1970s.
In 1972, Irish Republican Aid Committee members protested violence in Northern Ireland by carrying a coffin draped with the Irish tricolored flag. The Boston chapter of the Irish Northern Aid Commission marched with black armbands and a sign reading "England Ge