Government of Louisville, Kentucky
The government of Louisville, headquartered at Louisville City Hall in Downtown Louisville, is organized under Chapter 67C of the Kentucky Revised Statutes as a First-Class city in the state of Kentucky. Created after the merger of the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County, the city/county government is organized under a mayor-council system; the Mayor is elected to four-year terms and is responsible for the administration of city government. The Louisville Metro Council is a unicameral body consisting of 26 members, each elected from a geographic district for four-year terms; the Mayor is limited to a three consecutive term limit, while members of the Louisville Metro Council are not term limited. The Executive Branch of the Louisville Metro Government is led by the Mayor, contains two dozen distinct agencies; each agency is led by either a Commissioner, both of whom are appointed by the Mayor. The agencies are grouped into nine distinct entities, referred to as departments; each Department is led by a Chief, appointed by, reports to, the Mayor.
The Mayor is the chief executive officer of a magistrate. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and federal laws within the Louisville Metropolitan area. Under the Kentucky Revised Statutes, they are responsible for the appointment and removal of all unelected officers and shall "broadly exercise all executive and administrative powers" vested in the city except otherwise prescribed by law; the mayor is directly elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The mayor is responsible for creating the city's budget through the Office of Management and Budget, submitted for approval, not drafting, to the Louisville Metro Council; the Mayor's office is located at Louisville City Hall in Downtown Louisville. It has complete jurisdiction over the Louisville Metro and Jefferson County areas, in addition to partial jurisdiction over all Home-rule class cities within the Louisville Metro; the mayor appoints a large number of officials, including Commissioners and Chiefs.
Regulations approved by the mayor's office are compiled in the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Code. According to current law, the Mayor is limited to three consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break. Under KRS 67C.105, the mayor is charged with nine specific duties and responsibilities under the law. The mayor is empowered to: Prepare and submit an annual report coinciding with the fiscal year, on the state of the consolidated local government, to be presented at a public meeting of the council. Legislative Powers of the city of Louisville are vested in the Louisville Metro Council. Formally established in 2003 after the city/county merger, the council is a unicameral body consisting of 26 Council members, whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries that each contain 28,500 people. Although all cities in Jefferson County, apart from Louisville itself, maintained their respective status after the merger, their residents are represented on Metro Council and vote alongside other county residents.
The seats come up for reelection every four years, using a staggered process so that only half of the seats are up every two years. Numbered districts hold elections overlapping each quadrennial Presidential election, whilst odd numbered districts hold elections overlapping each quadrennial off-season election. All districts are redrawn every ten years, after the Decennial United States Census; the last redistricting took place in 2011. At the beginning of the first Legislative session of each year, the 26 members of the Metro Council elect a Council President; the Council President serves for a one-year term, while there is no term limit, no Council President has served for more than two terms, with the exception of former Councilman Jim King, who served an unprecedented four terms, from 2011 until 2015, when he died in office. Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the Mayor, who may veto them. If the Mayor vetoes a bill, the Council may override this veto with a two-thirds vote. Passed laws are incorporated into the Louisville Metro Code, published online.
Since the city/county merger in 2003, only five bills have been vetoed by the mayor. In addition, only one veto has been overruled by the Council; the Metro Council is organized into 13 Standing Committees. Each Committee is led by a Chairman and Vice Chairman, both of whom are appointed by the Council President, who serves as an ex officio member of all committees. In the city of Louisville, Public Agency is the name given to various regulatory agencies and public-benefit corporations which operate within the city limits. While in theory public agencies within the city fall under the absolute jurisdiction of the Louisville Mayor's office, in practice each agen
Original Highlands, Louisville
The Original Highlands is a historic neighborhood in the Highlands area of Louisville, United States. The neighborhood was built on land surveyed in 1774 and granted to Colonial William Preston, surveyor of Fincastle County, Virginia, he died in 1781, his son, Major William Preston, wife moved onto the land in 1814 and established a plantation called the "Briar Patch". The 1819 construction of the Louisville and Bardstown Turnpike would lead to many people moving to the area. Before the American Civil War the area was agricultural and attracted many German immigrants, was known as New Hamburg. Formal subdivision began after the land was inherited by Susan Preston Christy. In 1869, Sydney J. Rogers subdivided Hepburn Avenue between Baxter. Interest in the neighborhood picked up with the extension of a horse-drawn streetcar line to Highland Avenue in 1871; the next subdivision was Hughes Addition, starting in 1875. Much of the rest of the land was subdivided by William Preston Johnson by 1891; the last was the Barr Subdivision in 1896.
Popularity was further increased by the establishment of Cherokee Park in 1891. All of the land was developed by 1895; the vast majority of houses in the Original Highlands were constructed between 1860 and 1895 in the last 11 years of that period, during which 600 were built. The dwellings from before 1884 were located along Breckinridge, Christy and Barret; the area was called the Highlands because it sits on a ridge between the middle and south forks of Beargrass Creek, above the Ohio River flood plain. Today eight other neighborhoods in the area on the same ridge are collectively called The Highlands; the Original Highlands name has developed to distinguish it from these neighborhoods. The architecture of the neighborhood is a mixture of large, wood framed and brick Victorian houses and working class shotgun houses, which sit right next to each other. In recent years the area has attracted many professionals because of its proximity to downtown and the Baxter Avenue/Bardstown Road and Barret Avenue commercial corridors which include arts galleries, eclectic shopping, night life.
National Products, a small factory at the corner of Breckinridge Street and Baxter Avenue, produces more disco balls than any other factory in the world. The stretch of Baxter Avenue between Highland Avenue and Broadway is known as one of Louisville's most popular destinations with its mix of bars, restaurants and shops; the Barret Avenue commercial corridor is an emerging art zone due to the large number of galleries. The neighborhood is home to the Original Highlands Music Festival. Held on Baxter Avenue each September, the festival features local and national music acts along with art and vendor booths; the neighborhood is host to the annual Highlands Louisville Halloween Parade, Louisville Zombie Attack and Ancient Order of Hibernians St. Patrick's Day Parade; the area is well known for its numerous dining establishments, giving it the nickname "Restaurant Row". The Original Highlands' boundaries are East Broadway on the north, Bardstown Road/Baxter Avenue on the east, Rufer Avenue on the south and Barret Avenue on the west.
The Original Highlands Neighborhood Association works with residents on Ellwood Avenue, located just to the south of Winter Avenue. As of 2000, the population of the Original Highlands was 1,580, of which 89.4% are white, 6.8% are listed as other, 2.7% are black, 1.1% are Hispanic. College graduates are of the 34.3% population, people without a high school degree are 12.6%. Males outnumber females 53.7% to 46.3%. History of Louisville, Kentucky National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area ^ "Community Resource Network". Retrieved 2005-11-18. Louisville Survey: East Report. 1980. Pp. 71–72. The Original Highlands Neighborhood Association Website The Original Highlands Art and Music Festival Website The Original Highlands Silent Auction and Wine Tasting Website Street map of The Original Highlands The Original Highlands Neighborhood Plan Images of Original Highlands in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
St. James–Belgravia Historic District
The St. James–Belgravia Historic District, within Old Louisville, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, it comprises the Belgravia Court. It was the site of the Southern Exposition, is bordered to the north by the scenic Central Park, a popular summer destination of Shakespeare in the Park patrons; the area is famous for the St. James Court Art Show that takes place the first weekend of October, attracts thousands of visitors and craftsmen; the Belgravia area features houses inspired by its namesake in London and has no immediate street access, as it is a "walking court" with a green area instead of a street where the main entrances face. It features two important houses: the Conrad–Caldwell House, the Pink Palace; this neighborhood was the site of the Southern Exposition held 1883-1887. The exhibition was held on 23 acres of open land south of Central Park, surrounded by a wealthy residential neighborhood. Upon the conclusion of the Exposition, the land was developed as "Louisville's first example of thoughtful urban site-planning."
The design of residential rows that face not a street but the green pedestrian mall of St. James became a model for other areas of the city; the Conrad–Caldwell House, once nicknamed "Conrad's Castle", was built 1893 by Arthur Loomis for Theophile Conrad and his wife, Mary. Mr. Conrad found his fortune in the tanning business. After Conrad died on February 13, 1905, William E. Caldwell bought it for his family's residence and called it their home for 35 years. In 1947 the local Presbyterian church acquired it, for the next forty years it was the Rose Anna Hughes Presbyterian Retirement Home; this building's style is Richardsonian-Romanesque. Made of Bedford limestone, it cost "at least $35,000", its vertical framework comes from its heavy corner towers features and turrets that are one of three shapes: coned and pyramid shaped. Randomly placed on the building are carving of animals and other objects and intricate foliation; as fitting for a house to receive members of society in the Victorian Era, the interior features elaborately carved fireplaces, stained-glass windows, high ceilings in parlors and dining rooms, with carved arched fretwork leading the way into these rooms from the reception hall with its large staircase.
The interior woodwork is cherry, bird's eye maple, golden oak. Known for its parquet flooring, the designs mimic quilt patterns and feature the woodwork in the room; the St. James Court Historic Foundation, Inc, a 5013 non-profit organization, has owned the building since 1987, uses it for a museum; the building complex offers rental spaces for a variety of uses. Located at the corner of St. James and Belgravia Courts, the Pink Palace, built in 1891, was not a home, but an exclusive Gentleman's Club and Casino for the residents of the Court; the Jefferson County Women's Christian Temperance Union purchased the property on May 28, 1948 and held the property until September 1972. Conrad–Caldwell House website Historic Old Louisville Visitor Center website Old Louisville Walking Tour
Portland is a neighborhood and former independent town northwest of downtown Louisville, Kentucky. It is situated along a bend of the Ohio River just below the Falls of the Ohio, where the river curves to the north and to the south, thus placing Portland at the northern tip of urban Louisville. In its early days it was the largest of the six major settlements at the falls, the others being Shippingport and Louisville in Kentucky and New Albany and Jeffersonville on the Indiana side, its modern boundaries are the Ohio River along the northwest and northeast, 10th Street at the far east, Market Street on the south, the Shawnee Golf Course at the far west. Gen. William Lytle II, the founder of Cincinnati, owned a large amount of land just below the Falls of the Ohio and in 1811 laid out the settlement of Portland, he planned to sell the lots to finance his plan to build a canal around the Falls. Lytle authorized Joshua Barclay and Alexander Ralston to design the town, which featured a Northeast to Southwest street grid.
The original settlement was between what is now 36th and 33rd Street along the Ohio River, which included a large wharf. The settlement grew to the east in a Northwest to Southeast street grid, which noticeably contrasts to the East-West grid of adjacent areas of Louisville; the advent of steamboats on the Mississippi occurred with Portland's development, allowing the Ohio River to be used as a major freight shipping route in what was the American Frontier. Portland was located just downstream from the only natural obstacle on the Ohio River, so all large boats traveling on the Ohio had to stop to move their freight by land around the Falls and reload them on another boat. With a captive audience and a need for freight hauling, Portland's Wharf flourished as numerous taverns and shipyards were built. By 1814 French immigrants from Alsace began populating the town. By 1817 the original street grid had run out of room and was expanded to 40th Street on the west and 13th Street on the east in 1817 to facilitate the additional growth.
It became a rival of Louisville and the nearer-by settlement of Shippingport. The three were first connected by road in 1818; this road called the Louisville & Portland Turnpike, became Portland Avenue. An important early home was the Squire Earick house, home of the first magistrate, used as the settlement's courthouse and jail. Another landmark was the Church of Our Lady now Good Shepherd Catholic Church, started in 1839 and the third building, built in 1873, still standing in 2010. From 1826 to 1833, the Louisville and Portland Canal was built around the Falls, causing many of the warehouses and shipyards to close and shifting economic power on the Falls to nearby Louisville, although Portland would continue to grow as many French and Irish immigrants moved there, it was incorporated in 1834, but annexed by Louisville in 1837 after a compromise by which the canal would be widened to handle larger ships but the new rail line going from Lexington to the Ohio River would go to Portland's wharf instead of Louisville's.
However, after the new line collapsed into bankruptcy in 1840 having only reached as far as Louisville, Portlanders voted in 1842 to become independent again, although ten years the area was annexed a second time. Although now just a neighborhood of the much larger Louisville, Portland would continue to flourish as a working class community through the 1930s, with residents working in many of the nearby factories; the largest Ohio River flood in recorded history occurred in 1937 and inundated all of Portland, with areas closest to the river nearly being wiped out. Plans began to protect the area with a flood wall, but World War II occupied the priority of the government's engineers. Just eight years in 1945 the second largest flood in Louisville's history occurred. In its aftermath all areas of Portland nearest to the river were razed, including the Portland Wharf, a gigantic flood wall was built to a height three feet above the level of the 1937 flood. Both floods had driven many middle-class families from the area.
Despite the loss of many of area's oldest buildings, portions of the neighborhood away from the flood wall were untouched by urban renewal, retain a great number of pre-Civil War buildings. Although many older mansions exist in Portland, the vast majority of homes built in the area were shotgun houses; as of 2015, the estimated population of Portland is 11,810. Portland was the only predominantly white neighborhood on Louisville's West Side. Prior to 1960, African Americans were unable to live in the neighborhoods north of Broadway, which included Portland. Portland has been home to one of the earliest settlements of free, property-holding blacks who co-existed as 10-15% of Portland's resident population according to Rick Bell, Portland historian. Archives of this community may be visited at the Portland Museum, 2308 Portland Ave. However, during white flight areas to Portland's south and west became entirely African-American. In 2006, Portland was named by First Lady Laura Bush to be a Preserve America community.
Communities designated through the program are allowed to use the Preserve America logo on signs and promotional materials and are eligible to apply for grants that will be administered by the U. S. Department of the Interior. There are several futures plans to help revive parts of Portland, including the creation of a mu
Camp Taylor, Louisville
Camp Taylor is a neighborhood and former military base six miles southeast of downtown Louisville, United States. First announced on June 11, 1917 it was a military camp named for former president Zachary Taylor. For a time it was America's largest military training camp, housing 47,500 men at one time, spurred development in an area, dominated by farmland. Most of the camp was dismantled after World War I and a residential neighborhood emerged, composed of small bungalow and Cape Cod homes, many built or purchased by soldiers returning from the war. Many of these buildings were built from lumber and other materials from the dismantled military buildings; the working class community was annexed by Louisville in 1950. F. Scott Fitzgerald was mentions it in his novel The Great Gatsby. Bellarmine University is built on part of the location of the former Camp Taylor. In the 2000 census, the population of Camp Taylor was 1,402, of which 94.3% are white, 3.6% are listed as other, 1.9% are black, 0.2% are Hispanic.
College graduates are 10.9% of the population, people without a high school degree are 27.3%. Females outnumber males 54.9% to 45.1%. ^ "Community Resource Network". Retrieved 2006-09-16. Camp Zachary Taylor Historical Society Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville,Ky. On Facebook Camp Zachary Taylor Neighborhood Association US Census Analysis: Camp Taylor Street Map: Camp Taylor Dead Link Images of Camp Taylor in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections "Camp Taylor: The Military's Influence Lived on Long After World War I in Area's Houses, Camaraderie" — Article by Grace Schneider of The Courier-Journal
Germantown is a neighborhood three miles southeast of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Germantown is a general term for an area of Louisville from the Original Highlands to St Joseph and Bradley neighborhoods that were predominantly settled by Germans; the actual neighborhood is bounded by Barrett Ave, Eastern Parkway, the South Fork of Beargrass Creek. The area was settled as small farms and butcher shops by German immigrants in the 1870s. At this time area was nicknamed'Frogtown' because the adjacent Beargrass Creek flooded the area, causing numerous epidemics of malaria; the flooding problem was solved. The area was subdivided and developed during the 1890s, when the largest collection of shotgun houses in the city of Louisville was built. In 1907, a bridge was built across the South Fork of Beargrass Creek which allowed French settlers north of the creek, in an area called Paristown, to attend the one Catholic church in the area; the German-Paristown Neighborhood Association was founded in 1973, making it one of Louisville's first neighborhood associations.
Today the area is undergoing a transition to a younger, more educated demographic. Many homes in the neighborhood are being renovated and urban homesteading is common; as of 2000, the population of Germantown was 3,867, of which 93.9% are white, 4.2% are black, 1.6% are listed as other, 0.7% are Hispanic. College graduates are of the 17.9% population, people without a high school degree are 29.3%. Females outnumber males 52.9% to 47.1%. Butchertown, Louisville History of the Germans in Louisville Images of Germantown in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections
Shawnee is a neighborhood in western Louisville, Kentucky. Its boundaries are the Ohio River on the West, Bank Street and the Portland neighborhood on the North, I-264 on the East, West Broadway on the South. Maps sometimes identify the area as Shawneeland. Shawnee Park was completed in 1892 and residential districts sprung up around it quickly. In 1895, Louisville annexed extended street car lines; the land between Shawnee and Louisville was subdivided and many whites moved in during the early 20th century. The wealthiest areas were near the park and golf course, with middle- and working-class neighborhoods further east; the Flood of 1937, as well as air pollution problems caused many white families to move further east. The neighborhood became integrated in the 1960s and was predominantly black following the 1968 riots when many longtime white residents moved. Many of the homes in Shawnee are examples of late-19th century architecture; the grand homes are still in good to excellent condition. The size and quality of these homes rival those found in other areas of the city Crescent Hill.
As Louisville's West End is economically depressed and lacks many amenities, the housing costs are lower than other areas of the city. Like other Southern cities, many of Louisville's public facilities were segregated; the park system was no exception to this rule. Shawnee Park was a segregated whites-only public park, while Chickasaw Park, to the south, was a public park for blacks until the 1950s. Fontaine Ferry Park, an early amusement park located at the end of Market Street from 1905 to 1969, was restricted to whites, with the exception of "negro days", a common occurrence for opening segregated facilities limited to whites in the south; the park was integrated in 1963 and operated without incident until opening day 1969 when a race riot erupted which resulted in the amusement park being closed by its owners citing safety concerns. In 1973 it reopened as Ghost Town On The River and as River Glen Park until it closed due to poor patronage in 1977. Following a series of fires which destroyed portions of the park in 1978 the park was demolished.
Aubrey Dude Ranch remained until 1983. In September 2007, Shawnee residents voted to ban liquor sales in four precincts of the neighborhood in an effort to combat crime. Shawnee suffered from a rash of unsolved murders in 2005. Today, Shawnee Park is a community asset for the community of Louisville; the park is used as an unofficial central gathering place for youths of Western Louisville. This is evident in the Summer when thousands of youth pack the park over the weekend on Saturdays. Several festivals are held at Shawnee year round; as of 2000, the population of Shawnee was 12,630. Though not recorded, the race breakdown is estimated to be around 90% Black or African-American, 5% White, 5% Hispanic. Street map of Shawnee Up to 115 Shawnee homes being renovated over five years—Louisville.gov October 30, 2013 US Department of Housing and Urban Development approves Shawnee Neighborhood Revitalization Plan—Louisville.gov September 29, 2013 Images of Shawnee in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections "Shawnee: Farms of the 1800s Gave Way to Park and Dignified Homes.
Pillow of The Courier-Journal