click links in text for more info


A neighbourhood, or neighborhood, is a geographically localised community within a larger city, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition, but the following may serve as a starting point: "Neighbourhood is defined spatially as a specific geographic area and functionally as a set of social networks. Neighbourhoods are the spatial units in which face-to-face social interactions occur—the personal settings and situations where residents seek to realise common values, socialise youth, maintain effective social control." In the words of the urban scholar Lewis Mumford, “Neighbourhoods, in some annoying, inchoate fashion exist wherever human beings congregate, in permanent family dwellings. Most of the earliest cities around the world as excavated by archaeologists have evidence for the presence of social neighbourhoods. Historical documents shed light on neighbourhood life in numerous historical preindustrial or nonwestern cities.

Neighbourhoods are generated by social interaction among people living near one another. In this sense they are local social units larger than households not directly under the control of city or state officials. In some preindustrial urban traditions, basic municipal functions such as protection, social regulation of births and marriages and upkeep are handled informally by neighbourhoods and not by urban governments. In addition to social neighbourhoods, most ancient and historical cities had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, social control. Administrative districts are larger than neighbourhoods and their boundaries may cut across neighbourhood divisions. In some cases, administrative districts coincided with neighbourhoods, leading to a high level of regulation of social life by officials. For example, in the T’ang period Chinese capital city Chang’an, neighbourhoods were districts and there were state officials who controlled life and activity at the neighbourhood level.

Neighbourhoods in preindustrial cities had some degree of social specialisation or differentiation. Ethnic neighbourhoods remain common in cities today. Economic specialists, including craft producers and others, could be concentrated in neighbourhoods, in societies with religious pluralism neighbourhoods were specialised by religion. One factor contributing to neighbourhood distinctiveness and social cohesion in past cities was the role of rural to urban migration; this was a continual process in preindustrial cities, migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past. Neighbourhood sociology is a subfield of urban sociology which studies local communities Neighbourhoods are used in research studies from postal codes and health disparities, to correlations with school drop out rates or use of drugs. Neighbourhoods have been the site of service delivery or "service interventions" in part as efforts to provide local, quality services, to increase the degree of local control and ownership.

Alfred Kahn, as early as the mid-1970s, described the "experience and fads" of neighbourhood service delivery over the prior decade, including discussion of income transfers and poverty. Neighbourhoods, as a core aspect of community are the site of services for youth, including children with disabilities and coordinated approaches to low-income populations. While the term neighbourhood organisation is not as common in 2015, these organisations are non-profit, sometimes grassroots or core funded community development centres or branches. Community and economic development activists have pressured for reinvestment in local communities and neighbourhoods. In the early 2000s, Community Development Corporations, Rehabilitation Networks, Neighbourhood Development Corporations, Economic Development organisations would work together to address the housing stock and the infrastructures of communities and neighbourhoods. Community and Economic Development may be understood in different ways, may involve "faith-based" groups and congregations in cities.

In the 1900s, Clarence Perry described the idea of a neighborhood unit as a self-contained residential area within a city. The concept is still influential in New Urbanism. Practitioners seek to revive traditional sociability in planned suburban housing based on a set of principles. At the same time, the neighborhood is a site of interventions to create Age-Friendly Cities and Communities as many older adults tend to have narrower life space. Urban design studies thus use neighborhood as a unit of analysis. In mainland China, the term is used for the urban administrative division found below the district level, although an intermediate, subdistrict level exists in some cities, they are called streets. Neighbourhoods encompass 2,000 to 10,000 families. Within neighbourhoods, families are grouped into smaller residential units or quarters of 100 to 600 families and supervised by a residents' committee. In most urban areas of China, neighbourhood', residential community, residential unit, residential quarter' have the same meaning: 社区 or 小区

1954 Australian Labor Party leadership spill

A leadership spill of the Australian Labor Party the opposition party in the Parliament of Australia, was rejected on 21 October 1954. On 5 October 1954 Evatt gave an aggressive speech against'disloyal elements' within the Labor Party, which aimed "to deflect the Labor Movement from the pursuit of established Labor objectives and ideals." The speech caused ructions within the ALP leading many to question Evatt's position. Labor's caucus rejected by 52 to 28 votes a motion for a spill moved by Senators George Cole and James Fraser. Deputy leader Arthur Calwell and Allan Fraser would have stood for election as Leader and deputy leader in the event of a spill occurring. After the ballot, Evatt insisted on counting the names for and against, which only furthered his opponents animosity. 1954 Australian federal election Australian Labor Party split of 1955

Ali Shah

Ali Hassimshah Omarshah, known as Ali Shah, is a former Zimbabwean international cricketer. An all-rounder who batted left-handed and bowled right-arm medium pace, Shah played in three Test matches and 28 One Day Internationals for Zimbabwe between 1983 and 1996, was the first non-white player to represent the country, he was educated at Morgan High School. Shah played in three Cricket World Cups, in 1983, 1987 and 1992, was a member of the team that won the ICC Trophy in 1986 and 1990. Towards the end of his career, he played domestically for Mashonaland in the Logan Cup. After retiring from playing, Shah became a television commentator and a selector of the national team, he was removed from the latter role in 2004 following the sacking of captain Heath Streak

House of Wolves (film)

House of Wolves is a 2016 Hong Kong comedy film co-written and directed by Vincent Kok, who appears in a supporting role in the film, starring Francis Ng and Ronald Cheng. The film was released on 21 January 2016. Charlie is a swindler who pretends to be an ALS patient, while Fung Yan-ping is an idle village leader; these two self-proclaimed wicked men fall in love at first sight with Yu Chun, a newcomer to the village. Chun pregnant with their child. While helpless, Chun devises a scheme where she invites Charlie and Yan-ping to her house for dinner, causing them to be drunk and mistakenly believing that one of them have impregnated her. Unable to find out who the real father of the child and Yan-ping both take care of Chun. One day and Yan-ping realized that neither one of them are the father of Chun's father, furiously returns her to her ex-boyfriend in exchange for a cash. Afterwards, by chance and Yan-ping discovers that Chun's ex-boyfriend plan to use their child for an experiment and decides to rescue Chun and her unborn child.

Francis Ng as Charlie Ronald Cheng as Fung Yan-ping Jiang Shuying as Yu Chun Candice Yu Babyjohn Choi Ella Koon Derek Tsang Vincent Kok Lam Chi-chung Ha Chun-chau Steven Fung Tam Ping-man Cheung Tat-ming Sam Lee Josie Ho Bonnie Wong Yu Mo-lin Lo Fan Eman Lam Wylie Chiu Ken Lo Tin Kai-man Terence Tsui Kwok Wai-kwok Cheng Man-fai Lydia Lau Louis Yuen Chrissie Chau Sunny Day, Cloudy Day, Rainy Day Composer/Singer: Ronald Cheng Lyricist: Tang Wai-sing Arranger: Dennie Wong La cahnson dé liceuse Composer/Arranger: Dennie Wong Lyricist/Singer: Vicky Fung House of Wolves on IMDb House of Wolves at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase

L'Islet (Province of Canada electoral district)

L'Islet was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly of the Parliament of the Province of Canada, in Canada East, on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, north-east of Quebec City. It was created in 1841 and was based on the previous electoral district of the same name for the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, it was represented by one member in the Legislative Assembly. The electoral district was abolished in 1867, upon the creation of Canada and the province of Quebec; the Union Act, 1840 merged the two provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada, with a single Parliament. The separate parliaments of Lower Canada and Upper Canada were abolished; the Union Act provided that the pre-existing electoral boundaries of Lower Canada and Upper Canada would continue to be used in the new Parliament, unless altered by the Union Act itself. The L'Islet electoral district of Lower Canada was not altered by the Act, therefore continued with the same boundaries, set by a statute of Lower Canada in 1829: L'Islet electoral district was located on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence, to the north-east of Quebec City.

The elections were held in the town of L'Islet. L'Islet was represented by one member in the Legislative Assembly; the following were the members of the Legislative Assembly from L'Islet. The district was abolished on July 1, 1867, when the British North America Act, 1867 came into force, splitting the Province of Canada into Quebec and Ontario, it was succeeded by electoral districts of the same name in the House of Commons of Canada and the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Statutes of Lower Canada, 13th Provincial Parliament, 2nd Session, c. 74

Artin–Wedderburn theorem

In algebra, the Artin–Wedderburn theorem is a classification theorem for semisimple rings and semisimple algebras. The theorem states that an semisimple ring R is isomorphic to a product of finitely many ni-by-ni matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers ni, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. In particular, any simple left or right Artinian ring is isomorphic to an n-by-n matrix ring over a division ring D, where both n and D are uniquely determined; as a direct corollary, the Artin–Wedderburn theorem implies that every simple ring, finite-dimensional over a division ring is a matrix ring. This is Joseph Wedderburn's original result. Emil Artin generalized it to the case of Artinian rings. Note that if R is a finite-dimensional simple algebra over a division ring E, D need not be contained in E. For example, matrix rings over the complex numbers are finite-dimensional simple algebras over the real numbers; the Artin–Wedderburn theorem reduces classifying simple rings over a division ring to classifying division rings that contain a given division ring.

This in turn can be simplified: The center of D must be a field K. Therefore, R is a K-algebra, itself has K as its center. A finite-dimensional simple algebra R is thus a central simple algebra over K, thus the Artin–Wedderburn theorem reduces the problem of classifying finite-dimensional central simple algebras to the problem of classifying division rings with given center. Let R be the field of real numbers, C be the field of complex numbers, H the quaternions; every finite-dimensional simple algebra over R is isomorphic to a matrix ring over R, C, or H. Every central simple algebra over R is isomorphic to a matrix ring over R or H; these results follow from the Frobenius theorem. Every finite-dimensional simple algebra over C is a central simple algebra, is isomorphic to a matrix ring over C; every finite-dimensional central simple algebra over a finite field is isomorphic to a matrix ring over that field. For a commutative ring, the four following properties are equivalent: being a semisimple ring.

The Artin–Wedderburn theorem implies that a semisimple algebra, finite-dimensional over a field k is isomorphic to a finite product ∏ M n i where the n i are natural numbers, the D i are finite dimensional division algebras over k, M n i is the algebra of n i × n i matrices over D i. Again, this product is unique up to permutation of the factors. Maschke's theorem Brauer group Jacobson density theorem Hypercomplex number P. M. Cohn Basic Algebra: Groups and Fields, pages 137–9. J. H. M. Wedderburn. "On Hypercomplex Numbers". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. 6: 77–118. Doi:10.1112/plms/s2-6.1.77. Artin, E.. "Zur Theorie der hyperkomplexen Zahlen". 5: 251–260