Neil Richard MacKinnon Gaiman is an English author of short fiction, comic books, graphic novels, audio theatre, films. His works include the comic book series The Sandman and novels Stardust, American Gods and The Graveyard Book, he has won numerous awards, including the Hugo and Bram Stoker awards, as well as the Newbery and Carnegie medals. He is the first author to win both the Newbery and the Carnegie medals for the same work, The Graveyard Book. In 2013, The Ocean at the End of the Lane was voted Book of the Year in the British National Book Awards. Gaiman's family is of other Eastern European Jewish origins, his great-grandfather emigrated from Antwerp, Belgium, to the UK before 1914 and his grandfather settled in the south of England in the Hampshire city of Portsmouth and established a chain of grocery stores. Gaiman's grandfather changed his original family name of Chaiman to Gaiman, his father, David Bernard Gaiman, worked in the same chain of stores. He has two younger sisters and Lizzy.
After living for a period in the nearby town of Portchester, where Neil was born in 1960, the Gaimans moved in 1965 to the West Sussex town of East Grinstead, where his parents studied Dianetics at the Scientology centre in the town. His other sister, Lizzy Calcioli, has said, "Most of our social activities were involved with Scientology or our Jewish family, it would get confusing when people would ask my religion as a kid. I'd say,'I'm a Jewish Scientologist.'" Gaiman says that he is not a Scientologist, that like Judaism, Scientology is his family's religion. About his personal views, Gaiman has stated, "I think. I would not beat the drum for the existence of God in this universe. I don't know, I think there's a 50/50 chance, it doesn't matter to me."Gaiman was able to read at the age of four. He said, "I was a reader. I loved reading. Reading things gave me pleasure. I was good at most subjects in school, not because I had any particular aptitude in them, but because on the first day of school they'd hand out schoolbooks, I'd read them—which would mean that I'd know what was coming up, because I'd read it."
When he was about ten years old, he read his way through the works of Dennis Wheatley, where The Ka of Gifford Hillary and The Haunting of Toby Jugg made an impact on him. One work that made a particular impression on him was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings from his school library. Although the library only had the first two of the novel's three volumes, Neil checked them out and read them, he won the school English prize and the school reading prize, enabling him to acquire the third volume. For his seventh birthday, Gaiman received, he recalled that "I admired his use of parenthetical statements to the reader, where he would just talk to you... I'd think,'Oh, my gosh, so cool! I want to do that! When I become an author, I want to be able to do things in parentheses.' I liked the power of putting things in brackets." Narnia introduced him to literary awards the 1956 Carnegie Medal won by the concluding volume. When Gaiman won the 2010 Medal himself, the press reported him recalling, "it had to be the most important literary award there was" and observing, "if you can make yourself aged seven happy, you're doing well – it's like writing a letter to yourself aged seven."
Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was another childhood favourite, "a favourite forever. Alice was default reading to the point where I knew it by heart." He enjoyed Batman comics as a child. Gaiman was educated at several Church of England schools, including Fonthill School in East Grinstead, Ardingly College, Whitgift School in Croydon, his father's position as a public relations official of the Church of Scientology was the cause of the seven-year-old Gaiman being forced to withdraw from Fonthill School and remain at the school that he had been attending. He lived in East Grinstead for many years, from 1965 to 1980 and again from 1984 to 1987, he met his first wife, Mary McGrath, while she was studying Scientology and living in a house in East Grinstead, owned by his father. The couple were married in 1985 after having Michael; as a child and a teenager, Gaiman read the works of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis Carroll, Mary Shelley, Rudyard Kipling, Edgar Allan Poe, Michael Moorcock, Alan Moore, Steve Ditko, Will Eisner, Ursula K.
Le Guin, Harlan Ellison, Lord Dunsany and G. K. Chesterton. A lifetime fan of the Monty Python comedy troupe, as a teenager he owned a copy of Monty Python's Big Red Book; when he was 19–20 years old, he contacted his favourite science fiction writer, R. A. Lafferty, whom he discovered when he was nine, asked for advice on becoming an author along with a Lafferty pastiche he had written; the writer sent Gaiman an informative letter back, along with literary advice. Gaiman has said Roger Zelazny was the author who influenced him the most, with this influence seen in Gaiman's literary style and the topics he writes about. Other authors Gaiman says "furnished the inside of my mind and set me to writing" include Moorcock, Samuel R. Delany, Angela Carter, Lafferty and Le Guin. Neil Gaiman has taken inspiration from the folk tales tradition, citing Otta F Swire's book on the legends of the Isle of Skye as his inspiration for The Truth Is a Cave in th
Tor Åge Bringsværd is an author, playwright and translator. He is best known for his speculative fiction. Together with long-time partner Jon Bing, he is considered as the first Norwegian author to write science fiction literature. Bringsværd regards himself as an anarchist, reflected in some of his works, he is known for his distinctive style of writing, for example for his random jumps to narratives or anecdotes with no clear relationship to the main story. Bazar, 1970 Den som har begge beina på jorda står stille,1974 Syvsoverskens dystre frokost, 1976 Pinocchio-papirene, 1978 Minotauros, 1980 Ker Shus, 1983 Gobi. Barndommens måne, 1985 Gobi. Djengis Khan, 1987 Uten tittel, 1988 Gobi. Djevelens skinn og ben, 1989 Gobi. Min prins, 1994 Den enøyde, 1996 Gobi. Baghdad, 1997 Pudder? Pudder! eller: Sleeping Beauty in the Valley of the Wild, Wild Pigs, 2001 Web. Betroelser om en truet art, 2005 Kvinnen som var et helt bord alene, 2009 Slipp håndtaket når du vrir, 2011 Ikke fordi den har et svar, men fordi den har en sang, 2013 1985 - The Norwegian Critics Prize for Literature for the novel Gobi – barndommens måne 1994 - Riksmål Society Literature Prize 2000 - Ibsen Prize 2008 - Alf Prøysen's Prize of Honor 2009 - The honorary Brage Prize, an open special award 2010 - Norsk kulturråds ærespris
The Guadalmedina is a river that runs through the city of Málaga, Spain. It has played an important role in the city's history, has divided the city into two halves; the city’s historic center is located on its left bank. The Guadalmedina has its source at the La Cruz Peak, in the Sierra de Camarolos mountain range, it is 47 kilometres long, it reaches the Mediterranean in the center of the city of Málaga and flows through the Montes de Málaga Natural Park. It is a river subject to high seasonal variations and has five well defined tributaries which have their sources in the Montes de Málaga range, the Arroyo de las Vacas, Arroyo Chaperas, Arroyo Humaina, Arroyo Hondo and Arroyo de Los Frailes. All of these rivers are dry most of the year. Located in the mountains, the Limonero Dam on the Guadalmedina provides water for the area. List of rivers of Spain
Beginning early in the 20th century, Mexico began a successful economic metamorphosis and growth pattern that remains an exception in Mexico. This all began with increased investments in irrigation that fueled a boom in agriculture and ranching for this northern Mexican city; the economic growth has fueled income disparity for the 3.86 million residents who live in the Monterrey Metro area. In addition, the rapid urbanization has taken a large toll on the water resources. In addressing many of this challenges, the city of Monterrey has become a model for sound and effective Integrated urban water management; the challenges that Monterrey has confronted pertain to scarcity of surface water resources, poor water quality due to untreated industrial effluents, political cycles and term-limits which can limit long-term vision, water disputes between urban and agricultural users. Monterrey has good groundwater "well-fields" that supply about 40% of the water demand for the city and are not over-exploited because of good connections to high-yield aquifer systems in the central parts of the "Curvatura de Monterrey".
These wells are managed as storage reserves that can be used in time of drought, quite common in this region of Mexico. Unique to Monterrey is an arrangement made between farmers and the municipality, whereby the farmers grant the use of their water rights from the nearby Cuchillo reservoir and the municipal water utility SADM returns urban used and treated water to farmers for irrigation; this arrangement has benefited both parties since SADM supplements its water supply with high quality but internmitent supply from the Cuchillo reservoir and farmers receive a consistent and full of nutrients water for irrigation. The longer term outlook for the area is for urbanization to continue and water availability to decrease, new water management strategies will have to be created. During the first half of the 1900s, high investments in irrigation infrastructure had spurred agricultural development. Referred to as the "Mexican miracle" from the 1940s through the 1970s, rapid economic and population growth transformed Monterrey into the second most important industrial city and second largest city in the country with a metropolitan population of 3.8 million.
Monterrey's rapid urbanization was driven in part by the development of assembly plants and expanded with the 1994 signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement. More the electronics industry became the largest industry in Monterrey and employs large volumes of industrial solvents in its productive process; these harmful chemicals are the most serious concern to surface and ground water in the Monterrey metro area §k§l§6Hola=D. A water shortage in the late 1970s forced rationing on 750,000 people, most of whom were poor and experienced low access to water. Forced water rationing spawned water protests that escalated to larger organized mass rallies, seizure of water service trucks, taking over of government buildings, the holding hostage of water delivery drivers. Most of these actions were led by poor women and resulted in presidential action with the creation of the "Water for Everyone" program that ushered in a new era of government spending that promised to bring water to every resident by 1985.
Monterrey is the capital city of the state of Nuevo León, is situated in the center of the state located in NE-Mexico and close to the Texas border. Monterrey has an elevation of 1,740 feet above sea level and is located in a wide basin about 40 miles across, surrounded to the north and south by mountains, it has a semi-arid climate with a mean temperature of 75o F. However, most of the year temperatures are either warmer than 82o F, or cooler than 57o F. Monterrey's annual rainfall averages 584 mm, with most of this total falling between June and October during the Atlantic hurricane season. In 1995 the population of the San Juan watershed was 5m inhabitants, of which 4m were in Metro Monterrey and the population is expected to increase to 8.4m inhabitants by 2020. The population of MAM is located within 360 km2 across nine municipalities. Taking discharge and aquifer recharge, current population and average hydrology into account, the watershed possesses a water availability of 484 m3 per inhabitant per year and would be reduced to 230 m3 per inhabitant per year by the year 2020.
The watershed therefore ranks amongst the poorest regions in regards to per capita water availability with countries such as Syria and Saudi Arabia. Per capita water use estimates, including domestic, commercial and industrial supplies, approach 290 liters per day per inhabitant for MAM. More the MAM receives 60% of their water supply from surface water while the remaining 40% comes from an extensive network of groundwater wells. Surface water: The San Juan River with a surface area of 20,212 km2, accounts for 31.5% of the entire surface area of the State of Nuevo León and is the largest and most important river in supplying water to Monterrey. Storage Reservoirs: El Cuchillo dam was constructed 75 km upstream of the Gómez dam and began operations in 1993 to supply water to Monterrey; the Marte R. Gómez dam, constructed in 1936 just upstream of the San Juan's confluence with the Río Bravo, serves as the Bajo Río San Juan irrigation district's principal reservoir with 829,900,000 m3 active storage capacity.
Subir Kumar Ghosh was an Indian structural geologist and an emeritus professor at Jadavpur University. He was known for his studies on theoretical and experimental structural geology and was an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, the Indian Academy of Sciences; the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards for his contributions to Earth, Atmosphere and Planetary Sciences in 1977. Born on 1 March 1932 in the Indian state of West Bengal, S. K. Ghosh graduated in science from University of Kolkata and after completing a master's degree from the same institution, he joined his alma mater as a member of the faculty of geology in 1958. Enrolled at Presidency College, Kolkata for his doctoral studies under the guidance of Santosh Kumar Ray and secured a PhD working on the time-correlation of the structural and metamorphic histories of the terrain in Kuilapal village in Purulia District.
Subsequently, he moved to Uppsala University where he worked under Hans Ramberg, a renowned geologist who would lend his name to Rambergite mineral. He stayed with Ramberg for two years at the end of which period he received the degree of Filosofisk doktorgrad from Uppsala University in 1967 and returned to join Jadavpur University where he set up an experimental laboratory to continue his researches, he served the university till his superannuation in 1997 but continued his association post-retirement as an emeritus professor, an INSA senior scientist and as an INSA honorary scientist. During this period, he had a short stint in Sweden as a research associate for the Swedish National Programme for the Geodynamics Project. Ghosh was married to Sheila and the couple had a son, Abhik Ghosh, a professor of chemistry at UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, he died on 30 October 2008, at the age of 76. Focusing his attention on the theoretical and experimental aspects of structural geology, Ghosh studied the geometrical relationships of the axial surfaces of folds with the principal planes of deformation and his researches assisted in the wider understanding of the geological phenomena such as superposed buckle folding, buckling due to constructional deformation, rotation of spherical and ellipsoidal inclusions in shear zones, deformation of early lineations, chocolate tablet boudinage and evolution of shear zone structures.
A theory on conglomerate deformation and an analysis of the mechanism of distortion of planar structure around rigid bodies have been credited to him. His researches have been documented as a book, Structural Geology: Fundamentals and Modern Developments, as chapters in books edited by others and as over 50 peer-reviewed articles, the article repository of the Indian Academy of Sciences has listed a number of them, he published a field guide for field research in Ghatsila. He served as a National professor of the University Grants Commission of India during 1979–80 and sat in the editorial boards of the Journal of Structural Geology of Oxford University Press and Tectonophysics of Elsevier, besides mentoring thirteen doctoral scholars in their studies; the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research awarded Ghosh the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize, one of the highest Indian science awards, in 1977. The Indian National Science Academy elected him as their fellow in 1979, INSA would honor him again in 1998 with K. Naha Memorial Medal.
The same year, the Indian Academy of Sciences elected him as a fellow. Evolution of Geological Structures in Micro- to Macro-scales, edited by Sudipta Sengupta and published by Springer in 1997 is a festschrift on Ghosh and Kshitindramohan Naha, another noted geologist. S. K. Ghosh. Structural Geology: Fundamentals and Modern Developments. Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-098399-5. Subir Kumar Ghosh. A field guide for Ghatsila and neighbouring mineral-belt. Jadavpur University. P. 87. Hans Ramberg. Tectonic Modeling: A Volume in Honor of Hans Ramberg. Geological Society of America. Pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-8137-1193-5. S. Sengupta. Evolution of Geological Structures in Micro- to Macro-scales. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-011-5870-1. Kshitindramohan Naha, Subir Kumar Ghosh. "Archaean Palaeogeography of Eastern and Northern Singhbhum, Eastern India". Geological Magazine. 97: 436–439. Doi:10.1017/S0016756800061781. Subir Kumar Ghosh. "A theoretical study of intersecting fold patterns". a. 9: 559–569. Doi:10.1016/0040-195190006-5.
Subir Kumar Ghosh. "Types of transpressional and transtensional deformation". GSA Memoirs. 193: 1–20. Doi:10.1130/0-8137-1193-2.1. Dhruba Mukhopadhyay. "Mihir Kumar Bose". Journal of Geological Survey of India. 76: 95-
BBC Four, its predecessor BBC Knowledge, are both channels operated by the BBC as cultural and knowledge based channels. Their visual identities therefore have been a result of this aim. BBC Knowledge was launched on 1 June 1999 with the intent of creating a multimedia learning channel; the idea was that computers, interactive TV via the Red Button and television could come together to make a new, learning channel for kids and adults alike. The launch identity consisted of cartoon characters climbing'ladders of learning' between clouds against an orange background. All the idents featured the station logo, which followed the BBC style design of the time by having the station name follow the BBC logo in upper case; this white logo would appear at the end of ident. The idents all featured characters, drawn by Michael Sheehy, shown with items such as a magnifying glass, telescope or rolls of paper. Several variations of the ident were made featuring different characters prominent on the ladders of learning.
The ident was used as the background to programme menus with characters seen climbing the ladders of learning in the background with programme information overlaid and centred to accommodate widescreen. These characters could been seen as stills on launch promotional material and on the BBC Knowledge website; the channel launched in line with the BBC practice at the time. However, different from the other channels which used the station logo, BBC Knowledge used the URL of their website'www.bbc.co.uk/knowledge'. The use of this promoted the website tie in with the channel; the channel used credit promotions where additional content or information is promoted over a programmes end credits, by reducing the credits to a smaller size and filling the information in the remaining space. Another style of presentation utilised was that of viewer videos, shown either as part of the shrinking credits, or between programmes; the presentation for the channel as a whole was in 16:9 widescreen from launch, however all information was kept in a 4:3 safe area, so no information was lost to viewers watching on a'full screen' television.
Information included the logo and the DOG. In December 2000, following the approval of the new BBC Four, BBC Knowledge's programming was realigned to better reflect the new channel. A single ident was utilised instead featuring a circle made out of different materials which would move forward and off the screen at the viewer; these could be made with a variety of objects. The musical accompaniment followed the instrumental style; this sequence lasted. Promotional style remained the same with the BBC Knowledge logo seen at the bottom; the DOG changed to the BBC Knowledge logo. The channel had always utilised a stranded layout to make genres of programmes easy to find on the new channel. However, special idents began to appear for each strand from c.2000. These featured an object, before a fact about it related to the strand appears and ends on an image with the strand name shown on screen, with a letter encircled at the centre of the screen, it is unclear whether these idents were replacements of the normal idents, or complementary to them, however it appears they complemented them, with these idents being used in the stranded sections, with the animated idents used for general interest programming.
Following the relaunch in 2000 and 2001, all different idents were dropped in favour of a single ident, featuring numerous circles made out of different structures reflecting the new strands. The BBC's "cultural" channel BBC Four was launched on 2 March 2002 as a successor to BBC Knowledge; as a result, the channel was to show a broad variety of programming. To show this, Lambie Nairn devised the idea of an improvised ident that reacted to the frequencies of continuity announcers' voices or the background music of the ident; as a result, no idents were the same, however variations were produced featuring different visualisations, such as semi circles, vibrating lines or shafts extending from the bottom surface. The channel logo featured the new style of logo with the channel name'Four' located in upper case inside a black box with the BBC logo above it; this logo was present in the bottom right corner of promotions for the entire duration. The launch slogan of the channel'Everybody needs a place to think' was present on all launch promotions.
Promotional style featured the BBC Four logo present throughout the promotion with the details appearing in white in the top right corner of the screen, aligned right. If the background image was too light, a translucent black box was placed over the top third of the screen; the channel used a DOG, however this was not the new logo, but a one line style used by the previous channel with the BBC logo and'FOUR' to the right of it in the same size. BBC Four's identity changed on 10 September 2005; these new idents, designed by Red Bee Media, featured an image made up of four parts but undistinguishable until something interacts within the scene. Idents included: Seagulls: Seagulls which fly between the pictures getting closer or further away than previous. Library: A girl climbs a ladder against a bookcase; as the ladder is moved, the ladder section in a different segment moves differently. The girl may climb off the bottom of the screen to reappear at the top. In addition, whenever she replaced a book, another fell out in a different segment.
Lake: A mountain scene against a lake where a drop of water causes ripples in more than one segment, before a drop rises from the sky/lake in another segment. Used since September 2005 Swimming Pool: A child in a swimming pool swimming with a ring; the views are from different angles, for example lo