Nelson, New Zealand

Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson City is bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east and south-east by Marlborough District Council; the city does not include the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city; when combined with the town of Richmond, which has 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local crafts scene; the annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars. Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, means'build','raise', or'establish'. In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose move the hand forward so that the fingers point forward away from oneself. Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence; the earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō and Rangitāne tribes.

Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and displaced them. The New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson, they intended to buy from the Māori some 200,000 acres of land which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell to intending settlers. The company earmarked profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers, with their families, for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the colony pushed ahead, land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships, the Arrow and Will Watch, sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony. However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island.

The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area. But it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land; the Company secured land from the Māori, not defined, for £800: it included Nelson, Motueka and Whakapuaka. This allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict; the three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841. When the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire, Mary-Ann, Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months they found the town laid out with streets, some wooden houses and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners; the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf. These were Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics.

In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society was formed in a Nelson church hall. After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression; the labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased. By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; the pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley; the New Zealand Company tried to claim. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area; the Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray; the subsequent Government inquiry exonerated the Māori and found that the Nelson settlers had no legitimate claim to any land

Collaborative Computational Project Number 4

The Collaborative Computational Project Number 4 in protein crystallography or was set up in 1979 in the United Kingdom to support collaboration between researchers working in software development and assemble a comprehensive collection of software for structural biology. The CCP4 core team is located at the Research Complex at Harwell at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, near Oxford, UK. CCP4 was supported by the UK Science and Engineering Research Council, is now supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; the project is coordinated at CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory. The results of this effort gave rise to the CCP4 program suite, now distributed to academic and commercial users worldwide. CCP4i — CCP4 Graphical User Interface CCP4MG — CCP4 Molecular Graphics Project Coot, homepage — Graphical Model Building HAPPy — automated experimental phasing MrBUMP — automated Molecular Replacement PISA — Protein Interfaces and Assemblies MOSFLM GUI — building a modern interface to MOSFLM CCP4 Official website CCP4 Documentation wiki — concentrates only on CCP4 CCP4 Community wiki — general X-ray crystallography topics related to CCP4


Pisciotta is an Italian town and comune of the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania. According to legend, Trojans escaping from the fire and the destruction of their city, founded Siris; some of the inhabitants of the city advanced westwards, following the vast valley of the Sinni river, up to the lake and to the Sirino mountain, near present-day Lagonegro, where they founded the city of Siruci. From here, they went on the beach of the Gulf of Policastro. Here they founded the colony of Pixous; this event is shown in a rare series of ancient coins, in archaic characters, with the names of Sirinos and Pixoes inscribed, referring to the populations of the two cities of Siris and Pixous, respectively. The name "Pixous" comes from the root "PYX". In the year 194 BC, the Greek word pixous became corrupted to the Latin Buxentum. In AD 915, when the town was plundered and burnt by the Saracens of Agropoli, the town's name had changed to Policastro. Many of the fleeing Bussetani went beyond the promontory of Palinuro, where they founded a small village that they called Pixoctum, in memory of their lost town.

Over the years the name had changed many times - Pixocta Pissocta Pichotta and Pisciotta. The name of Pisciotta is found in the Catalogus Baronum; the year 1464 marked for the country a important development, when the survivors of Molpa, following the destruction of their village, were sheltered in Pisciotta. Until the abolition of feudality in 1806, Pisciotta was owned by the Caracciolos, the Sanseverinos, the Pappacodas. Beginning in 1996 Pisciotta became host for a summer study-abroad program conducted through SUNY Purchase College. Located on a hill above the coastline of Cilento and its port and marina, Pisciotta lies on the national highway 447 between Ascea and Palinuro; the municipality borders with Ascea and San Mauro La Bruca. Hazleton, United States Cilentan dialect Cilentan Coast Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park Media related to Pisciotta at Wikimedia Commons