1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Jefferson County, Kentucky
Jefferson County is a county located in the U. S. Commonwealth of Kentucky; as of the 2010 census, the population was 741,096. It is the most populous county in the commonwealth. Since a city-county merger in 2003, the county's territory and government have been coextensive with the city of Louisville, which serves as county seat; the administrative entity created by this merger is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Jefferson County is the anchor of the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana. Jefferson County—originally Jefferson County, Virginia—was established by the Virginia General Assembly in June 1780, when it abolished and partitioned Kentucky County into three counties: Fayette and Lincoln. Named for Thomas Jefferson, governor of Virginia at the time, it is one of Kentucky's nine original counties. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, George Rogers Clark's militia and 60 civilian settlers, established the first American settlement in the county on Corn Island in the Ohio River, at head of the Falls of the Ohio.
They moved to the mainland the following year. Richard Mentor Johnson, the 9th Vice President of the United States, was born in Jefferson County in 1780, while the family was living in a settlement along the Beargrass Creek; the last major American Indian raid in present-day Jefferson County was the Chenoweth Massacre on July 17, 1789. Whenever possible, the metro government avoids any self-reference including the name "Jefferson County" and has renamed the Jefferson County Courthouse as Metro Hall. Prior to the 2003 merger, the head of local government was the County Judge/Executive, a post that still exists but now has few powers; the office is held by Queenie Averette. Local government is now led by the Mayor of Louisville Metro, Greg Fischer. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 398 square miles, of which 380 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; the Ohio River forms its northern boundary with the state of Indiana. The highest point is South Park Hill, elevation 902 feet, located in the southern part of the county.
The lowest point is 383 feet along the Ohio River just north of West Point. As of the census of 2000, there were 693,604 people, 287,012 households, 183,113 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,801 per square mile. There were 305,835 housing units at an average density of 794 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.38% White, 18.88% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 1.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 287,012 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.20% were married couples living together, 14.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.20% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,789, the median income for a family was $49,161. Males had a median income of $36,484 versus $26,255 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,352. About 9.50% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. NOTE: Since the formation of Louisville Metro on January 6, 2003, residents of the cities below became citizens of the newly expanded Metro, but none of the incorporated places dissolved in the process; the functions served by the county government for the towns were assumed by Louisville Metro. However, the former City of Louisville was absorbed into the new city-county government. † Formerly a census-designated place in the county, but, in 2003, these places became neighborhoods within the city limits of Louisville Metro.
Jefferson County Public Schools Jefferson County Sunday School Association Louisville/Jefferson County metro government, Kentucky National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky Jefferson County Clerks Office Jefferson County Sheriff's Office Louisville/Jefferson County Information Consortium Louisville Metro
Spencer County, Kentucky
Spencer County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,061, its county seat is Taylorsville. The county was named for Spier Spencer. Spencer County is part of KY -- IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Taylorsville Lake, located within Spencer County, serves as a major economic resource for the area. Spencer was a dry county until 2009 when the county's residents voted to overturn the ban on alcohol sales. From 2000 to 2005, Spencer County ranked 19th out of all U. S. counties in percent growth, with a 33% increase. Spencer County was formed by the 32nd Kentucky General Assembly; the land that now makes up Spencer County was taken from Bullitt County, Shelby County, Nelson County. Spencer County became Kentucky's 77th county; the county was named for Kentucky's Captain Spier Spencer, who fought and died in the Battle of Tippecanoe. That year, in December 1824, Taylorsville was made the county seat. In 1829, the city was incorporated. During the American Civil War, the courthouse at Taylorsville was burned by Confederate guerrillas in January 1865, but the county's records were saved.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 192 square miles, of which 187 square miles is land and 5.0 square miles is water. Shelby County Anderson County Nelson County Bullitt County Jefferson County Kentucky Route 44 Kentucky Route 55 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,766 people, 4,251 households, 3,358 families residing in the county; the population density was 63 per square mile. There were 4,555 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.50% White, 1.13% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,251 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.90% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.00% were non-families. 17.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 33.50% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,042, the median income for a family was $52,038. Males had a median income of $36,638 versus $24,196 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,848. About 7.70% of families and 8.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. The Spencer County Public Schools comprises six schools: Spencer County High School, Spencer County Middle School, Spencer County Elementary School, Taylorsville Elementary School, Hillview Academy, Spencer County Preschool. Taylorsville Fisherville Elk Creek Little Mount Mount Eden Rivals Waterford Yoder Louisville-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Spencer County, Kentucky Spencer County official website Spencer County Public Schools
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Louisville metropolitan area
The Louisville metropolitan area or Kentuckiana known as the Louisville–Jefferson County, Kentucky–Indiana, metropolitan statistical area, is the 45th largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. The principal city is Kentucky, it was formed by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and consisted of the Kentucky county of Jefferson and the Indiana counties of Clark and Floyd. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Jefferson County, they met Census criteria to be added to the MSA. Jefferson County, plus twelve outlying counties – seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana – are now a part of this MSA. One other Kentucky county was part of the MSA in the 2000 and 2010 U. S. Censuses, but was spun off by the Census Bureau into its own Micropolitan Statistical Area in 2013. People living in any of the MSA are said to be living in the Louisville–Jefferson County Area; because it includes counties in Indiana, the MSA is referred to as Kentuckiana.
It is now the primary MSA of the Louisville–Jefferson County–Elizabethtown–Madison, Kentucky–Indiana combined statistical area. The combined statistical area created by the United States Bureau of the Census in 2000 and most redefined in 2013 comprises the Louisville–Jefferson County MSA, the Elizabethtown–Fort Knox, Kentucky, MSA, the Bardstown, micropolitan statistical area and the Madison, Indiana micropolitan statistical area; as of 2013 the U. S. Office of Management and Budget defines the Louisville–Jefferson County MSA as including Bullitt, Jefferson, Oldham and Trimble Counties in Kentucky and Clark, Harrison and Washington Counties in Indiana; the larger Louisville–Jefferson County–Elizabethtown–Madison CSA adds two other statistical areas in Kentucky and one in Indiana: The Elizabethtown–Fort Knox, Kentucky, MSA, consisting of Hardin and LaRue Counties. The Bardstown, micropolitan statistical area, consisting of Nelson County; the Madison, micropolitan statistical area, consisting of that state's Jefferson County.
Louisville–Jefferson County MSA Bullitt County, Kentucky Clark County, Indiana Floyd County, Indiana Harrison County, Indiana Henry County, Kentucky Jefferson County, Kentucky Meade County, Kentucky Oldham County, Kentucky Scott County, Indiana Shelby County, Kentucky Spencer County, Kentucky Trimble County, Kentucky Washington County, Indiana Elizabethtown–Fort Knox, Kentucky, MSA Hardin County, Kentucky LaRue County, Kentucky Bardstown, Kentucky, µSA Nelson County, Kentucky Madison, Indiana, µSA Jefferson County, Indiana Principal city Louisville, KentuckyIn 2003, the Jefferson government merged with that of its largest city and county seat, forming a new entity, the Louisville–Jefferson County Metro Government or Louisville Metro. All small cities within Jefferson became part of the new Louisville Metro government while retaining their city governments. For statistical and ranking purposes, the United States Census Bureau uses the statistical entity Louisville–Jefferson County metro government, Kentucky, to represent the portion of the consolidated city-county of Louisville–Jefferson County that does not include any of the 83 separate incorporated places located within the city and county.
Louisville Metro Louisville–Jefferson County Municipalities with more than 25,000 people Jeffersontown, Kentucky* Jeffersonville, Indiana New Albany, IndianaMunicipalities with 10,000 to 25,000 people Clarksville, Indiana Lyndon, Kentucky* Mount Washington, Kentucky St. Matthews, Kentucky* Shelbyville, Kentucky Shepherdsville, Kentucky Shively, Kentucky*Municipalities with less than 10,000 people *Part of Louisville Metro ‡Prospect lies in both Jefferson and Oldham Counties; the portion within Jefferson County is part of Louisville Metro. Notes Populations are based upon published estimates by the United States Bureau of the Census. Notes Populations are based upon published estimates by the United States Bureau of the Census. Geography of Louisville, Kentucky Table of United States Combined Statistical Areas Louisville metropolitan area at Curlie U. S. Census Bureau State & County QuickFacts at the Wayback Machine U. S. Census Bureau population estimates at the Library of Congress Web Archives Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas at the Wayback Machine About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Metropolitan Area Standards Review Project at the Wayback Machine
Washington County, Kentucky
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,717, its county seat is Springfield. The county is named for George Washington. Washington County was the first county formed in the Commonwealth of Kentucky when it reached statehood, the sixteenth county formed; the center of population of Kentucky is located in the city of Willisburg. The county is dry, meaning that the sale of alcohol is prohibited, but it contains the "wet" city of Springfield, where retail alcohol sales are allowed; this classifies the jurisdiction as a moist county. Three wineries are licensed separately to sell to the public. Jacob Beam, founder of Jim Beam whiskey, sold his first barrel of whiskey in Washington County. Washington County was established in 1792 from land taken from Nelson County, it was the first county created by the Commonwealth of Kentucky after its separation from Virginia. The Washington County Courthouse, completed in 1816, is the oldest courthouse still in use in Kentucky.
A significant county court record is the marriage bond of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, parents of President Abraham Lincoln. The bond is dated June 10, 1806; the marriage return was signed by Jesse Head, the Methodist preacher who performed the ceremony, dates the marriage to June 12, 1806. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 301 square miles, of which 297 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. Anderson County - northeast Mercer County - east Boyle County - east Marion County - south Nelson County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 10,916 people, 4,121 households, 3,020 families residing in the county; the population density was 36 per square mile. There were 4,542 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.62% White, 7.51% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.61% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 4,121 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.03. The age distribution was 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,136, the median income for a family was $39,240. Males had a median income of $27,624 versus $21,593 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,722. About 10.30% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.40% of those under age 18 and 19.60% of those age 65 or over.
The county is served by Washington County Schools, a district that contains five schools: North Washington Elementary School in Willisburg for grades PK, K-8 with 468 students Washington County Elementary School in Springfield for grades PK, K-5 with 387 students Care Academy, Inc. in Willisburg for grades 6-12 with 65 students Washington County Middle School in Springfield for grades 6-8 with 206 students Washington County High School in Springfield for grades 9-12 with 626 studentsSt. Catharine College is located near Springfield. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Kentucky