Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
BYU Cougars men's basketball
The BYU Cougars men's basketball team represents Brigham Young University in NCAA Division I basketball play. Established in 1902, the team has won 27 conference championships, 3 conference tournament championships and 2 NIT Tournaments, competed in 29 NCAA Tournaments, it competes in the West Coast Conference. From 1999–2011, the team competed in the Mountain West Conference. BYU fielded its first basketball team in 1903. In 1906, the Cougars played their first game against Utah State University. In 1909, the team first played against the University of Utah; these two rivalries continue to this day. In its 108-year history, BYU's basketball program has won 1,786 games, ranking 12th among all Division I programs; the Cougars won the first of their 27 conference championships in 1922 as a member of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. The Cougars would make the first of their 29 NCAA Tournament appearances in 1950 under legendary head coach Stan Watts; that Cougars came within one point of reaching the national semifinals.
BYU's 1951 team was more successful, winning 28 games and once again qualifying for the NCAA Tournament. In addition, the 1951 team won the first of two NIT championships for the school; the Cougars defeated AP # 10 St. Louis and AP # 13 Dayton to win the title. Notable players on that team include: Mel Hutchins, taken #2 in the 1951 NBA draft, was named the 1951–52 NBA co-rookie of the year and became a 5-time NBA All-Star with the Pistons and the Knicks. Dunn, a future general authority in the LDS Church; the Cougars would go on to make five more appearances in the NCAA Tournament under Watts, win their second NIT championship in 1966, although by that time the overall prestige of the NIT had fallen considerably. BYU has the dubious distinction of having the most NCAA appearances of any men's team not to make the Final Four. Under Watts, BYU became the first U. S. college basketball program to include an international player on its roster, as Finland native Timo Lampen debuted in the 1958–59 season.
BYU's Krešimir Ćosić, born in Yugoslavia, became the first international player to be named an All-American. His jersey was retired in the Marriott Center in March 2006 in the last home game of the season against the New Mexico Lobos. Watts retired as the winningest coach in BYU history. After Watts' retirement following the 1972 season, the program experienced five consecutive losing seasons from 1974 through 1978 before returning to the NCAA Tournament in 1979 behind Danny Ainge and coach Frank Arnold; the Cougars reached the Elite Eight, one game short of the Final Four, in 1981, Ainge's senior season. That season, Ainge won the Wooden Award as the nation's most outstanding player. Arnold left following the 1983 season and was replaced by LaDell Andersen, who had several successful seasons in the 1980s, including the 1987–88 season when the Cougars rose as high as #2 in the national rankings on their way to a 26–6 season. Andersen resigned following a 14–15 season in 1989, he was replaced by Roger Reid, who guided the Cougars to 20-win seasons in each of his first six years and five NCAA Tournament appearances.
Reid was fired in the middle of the 1996–97 season after a 1–6 start. Part of his firing had to do with a private comment Reid made to Chris Burgess considered the top high school player in the nation and a Mormon whose father had attended BYU. Assistant coach Tony Ingle coached the team on an interim basis for the rest of the season and did not win a game. Following the season, Steve Cleveland was hired as the new head coach and returned the Cougars to prominence. In 2001, the Cougars won the MWC regular season and tournament championships, making their first NCAA Tournament appearance since 1995. After the 2004–05 season, Cleveland resigned to become the head coach at Fresno State. Dave Rose, co-captain of the University of Houston's 1983 "Phi Slama Jama" college basketball team, began the first of six straight 20-win seasons in 2005–06. Rose and assistant Dave Rice continued BYU's successful recruiting with the addition of All-American Jimmer Fredette in 2007 and DeMarcus Harrison in 2011.
In June 2009, he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and returned to coaching that year. In 2010, Rose coached BYU to their first NCAA tournament victory in 17 years in a double-overtime win against the University of Florida; the following year, BYU made further inroads as a #3 seed when they advanced to the Sweet 16. On March 13, 2012, BYU set a record for the largest comeback in a NCAA tournament game, as they were down by 25 points at one point in their first match of the 2012 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament and came back to beat the Iona Gaels 78–72. Following the Cougars appearance in 2012's NCAA tournament the Cougars look to improve upon that success with the return of Tyler Haws, from a 2-year LDS Mission, Brandon Davies in his senior year. Notable BYU basketball players after Tyler Haws include Kyle Collinsworth, a teammate of Brandon Davies at Provo High School, T. J. Haws, the younger brother of Tyler Haws. NIck Emery a more recent player, is the younger brother of Jackson Emery who played with Jimmer Fredette.
Danny Ainge Jimmer Fredette Elwood Romney Mel Hutchins Roland Minson Joe Richey John Fairchild Dick Nemelka Krešimir Ćosić Danny Ainge Devin Durrant Michael Smith Jimmer Fredette John Fairchild Danny Ainge Devin Durrant (1983
Urban Frank Meyer III is an American athletic director, college football player, coach. Meyer served as the head coach of the Bowling Green Falcons from 2001 to 2002, the Utah Utes from 2003 to 2004, the Florida Gators from 2005 to 2010. Meyer became the head coach of the Ohio State Buckeyes from 2011 until his retirement after the 2019 Rose Bowl; as of 2019, he is serving as the assistant athletic director of Ohio State. Meyer was born in Toledo, grew up in Ashtabula and attended the University of Cincinnati, where he played football as a defensive back. During his time at the University of Florida, he coached the Gators to two BCS National Championship Game victories, during the 2006 and 2008 seasons. Meyer's winning percentage through the conclusion of the 2009 season was the highest among all active coaches with a minimum of five full seasons at a Football Bowl Subdivision program. Following his temporary retirement in 2011, he worked as a college football analyst for the television sports network ESPN before succeeding Jim Tressel as Ohio State's 23rd head football coach.
In 2014, he led the Buckeyes to their first Big Ten Conference title under his tenure as well as the program's eighth national championship. Meyer is one of three coaches to win a major college football national championship at two different universities. Meyer was born on July 10, 1964 in Toledo and grew up in Ashtabula, Ohio, he graduated from Ashtabula's Saint John High School in 1982. Meyer was selected in the 13th round, as a shortstop, by the Atlanta Braves in the 1982 Major League Baseball Draft. Meyer spent two seasons playing minor league baseball in the Braves organization, he concurrently played defensive back at the University of Cincinnati before earning his bachelor's degree in psychology in 1986. During his undergraduate studies, Meyer was a member of Sigma Chi Fraternity. Meyer went on to earn his master's degree in sports administration from Ohio State University. In 2004, Meyer was recognized as the college football coach of the year by both sportswriters and television commentators.
He has twenty years including nine as a head coach. His overall record as a head coach through the end of the 2009 season is 96–18, he is 49–14 in conference play, his winning percentage through the end of 2009 season ranks first nationally among active college football head coaches. Meyer is a devout Roman Catholic and on several occasions has referred to the head coaching position at the University of Notre Dame as his "dream job," leading to speculation that he would someday wish to coach there. However, according to a July 2009 newspaper report, Meyer insisted he would never leave Florida for Notre Dame, and when the employment status of Irish coach Charlie Weis came into question in November 2009, Meyer held a press conference to dispel rumors linking him to the possible opening, stating that he would remain at Florida for "as long as they'll have me." The University of Cincinnati's Brian Kelly was hired for the job. On December 26, 2009, Meyer announced he would resign following the team's bowl game against Cincinnati, citing health concerns.
However, the following day Meyer announced that he would instead take an indefinite leave of absence, he resumed his coaching duties in time for the beginning of the Gators' spring practice on March 17, 2010. Florida athletic director Jeremy Foley announced Meyer's resignation on December 8, 2010, but stated that Meyer would remain as the head coach through the Gators' appearance in the Outback Bowl on January 1, 2011. On November 28, 2011, Meyer accepted the head coach position at The Ohio State University. After playing as a defensive back and placeholder for the University of Cincinnati, Meyer spent one season interning as a defensive back coach at Saint Xavier High School in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1985 under the mentorship of legendary St. Xavier head coach Steve Rasso, where he met members of the Ohio State coaching staff, his first collegiate coaching position was a two-year stint as a graduate assistant coaching tight ends at Ohio State under head coach Earle Bruce. He spent the next thirteen years as an assistant—two at Illinois State, six at Colorado State, five at Notre Dame.
One of the talents he coached at Colorado State was WR Greg Primus. He put up over 1,000 yards receiving from 1990–1992 under Meyer's tutelage. At Notre Dame, he coached WR Bobby Brown who would finish his career with 1,521 yards and 12 TD receiving. In 2000 at Notre Dame he coached WR David Givens who would be drafted by the New England Patriots. In 1990, while still the linebacker coach at Illinois State, he called Toledo head coach Nick Saban's home and spoke to Saban's wife to inquire if a position was available. Saban, never returned the call. Saban said "I was so kind of caught up and busy with what I was doing, I never followed up on that; that was a huge mistake on my part because the guy's a fantastic coach." In 2001, Meyer took his first head coaching job at Bowling Green. In his first season there, he engineered one of the greatest turnarounds in the NCAA football history, going 8–3 and capping off the season with a 56–21 victory over Bowling Green's rival, the University of Toledo Rockets.
He earned Mid-American Conference coach of the year honors. The next year, Bowling Green finished with a 9–3 record. After a 17–6 overall record, Meyer left for the University of Utah, he helped turn around a team that had gone 2–9 in 2000 in large part due to QB Josh Harris, a player tailor-made for Meyer's scheme. In part-time play in 2001, Harris passed
Vadal Peterson was an American basketball coach with the distinction of coaching the most wins in University of Utah history. He guided Utah through 26 seasons from 1927 to 1953, he led Utah to its only NCAA Tournament title when the Utes defeated Dartmouth 42–40, in 1944. Peterson finished with a record of 385–230 while head coach of Utah and collected four Mountain States Conference championships and the 1947 National Invitation Tournament title. List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach
Thomas M. Fitzpatrick
Thomas M. Fitzpatrick was an American football and basketball player, coach of football and baseball, football official, he served as the head football coach at the University of Utah from 1919 to 1924, compiling a record of 23–17–3. From 1917 to 1925, he was the coach of the Utah men's basketball team. Fitzpatrick was the head baseball coach at Utah from 1918 to 1921, tallying a mark of 14–8. Fitzpatrick was a native of Montana. After leaving Utah, he moved to California to coach high school sports. There he coached football and baseball at Roosevelt High School from 1926 to 1944 and at McClymonds High School from 1945 to 1956, he officiated 12 Rose Bowls, including the 1929 Rose Bowl, famous for Roy Riegels's wrong-way run. Fitzpatrick died on June 24, 1986 at the age of 95, he had been a resident of Aptos, California since 1962. Utah Utes football under Thomas Fitzpatrick
College Football All-America Team
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. The original use of the term All-America seems to have been to the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports in association with football pioneer Walter Camp. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the official selector in the early years of the 20th century; as of 2009, the College Football All-America Team is composed of the following College Football All-American first teams: Associated Press, Football Writers Association of America, American Football Coaches Association, Walter Camp Foundation, The Sporting News, Sports Illustrated, Pro Football Weekly, ESPN, CBS Sports, College Football News, ProFootballFocus, Rivals.com, Scout.com. As of 2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes the All-America teams selected by the AP, AFCA, FWAA, Sporting News, the WCFF to determine consensus All-Americans.
If three of these organizations select a player to their first team, he automatically receives the "consensus" honor. If a player is named an All-American by all five organizations, he receives "unanimous All-America" recognition. Depending upon the distribution of first team honors at any given position, it is possible to be consensus with fewer than three first-team selections; the University of Oklahoma has produced the most unanimous All Americans of any program, with 35. There have been 2,868 players from 156 colleges and universities since 1889 who were selected to at least one All-American first team. Only four players have earned that honor four times: They are: Marshall Newell, Tackle, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893 Harvard Frank Hinkey, End, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 Yale Gordon Brown, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Yale T. Truxtun Hare, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Pennsylvania The Associated Press has a panel of sportswriters who vote to determine the AP All-America Team, it has selected an All-America team since 1925.
The American Football Coaches Association has selected an All-America team every year since 1945. It is referred to as the "Coaches' All-America Team"; the Selection Process is an All-America Selection Committee is made up of three head coaches from each of the AFCA's nine I-A districts, one of whom serves as a district chairman, along with another head coach who serves as the chairman of the selection committee. The coaches in each district are responsible for ranking the top players in their respective districts; the Coaches’ All-America Team has been sponsored by various entities throughout the years but it is now under its own banner, the AFCA. These are the sponsors/publishers of the team throughout the years. 1945–1947: Published in Saturday Evening Post1948–1956: Published in Collier's1957–1959: General Mills1960–1993: Eastman Kodak1994: Schooner's International1995–1996: AFCA1997–1999: Burger King2000–present: AFCA The Football Writers Association of America Team, the second longest continuously published team in college football, has been a staple of the college football scene since 1944.
It is sometimes referred to as the "Writers' All-America Team". The FWAA has selected an All-America team with the help of its members and an All-America Committee which represents all the regions in the country; some who have helped to select this team over the years: Mark Blaudschun, Grantland Rice, Bert McGrane, Blackie Sherrod, Furman Bisher, Pat Harmon, Fred Russell, Edwin Pope, Murray Olderman, Paul Zimmerman. The All-America team is selected by a committee of writers representing all conferences and regions of the NCAA; the Writers' Team has been highlighted in various media forums. From 1946-70, Look published the FWAA team and brought players and selected writers to New York City for a celebration. During that 25-year period, the FWAA team was introduced on national television shows by Bob Hope, Steve Allen, Perry Como and others. After Look folded, the FWAA started a long association with NCAA Films, which produced a 30-minute television show and sold it to sponsors; the team was part of ABC Television's 1981 College Football Series.
From 1983-90, the team was either on ABC or ESPN, since 1991 has returned to the national spotlight on ABC. The corporate sponsor for the Writers' team is AT&T, after several years of Cingular being the sponsor; the Walter Camp Football Foundation All-America team is selected by the head coaches and sports information directors of the 120 Football Bowl Subdivision schools and certified by UHY Advisors, a New Haven-based accounting firm. Walter Camp, "The Father of American Football," first selected an All-America team in 1889; the WCF claims an 80% participation rate in the voting for its All-America team. Sporting News known as The Sporting News and known colloquially as TSN, have teams college football editors and staff select teams, which they have been doing since 1934. From that year through the 1962 season TSN's All-America team was picked by a poll of sportswriters. Beginning in 1964 the team was selected by "professional scouts and observers"; the Sporting News cited the advent of two-platoon football as the need to go to that system.
United Press International is a defunct organization that selected players in a national poll of sportswriters and began selecting teams in 1925 as "United Press". In 1958, after it merged with the International News Service, it became United Press International; the INS had chosen teams since 1913. UPI continued to choose an All-Americ
1915 college football season
The 1915 college football season had no clear-cut champion, with the Official NCAA Division I Football Records Book listing Cornell and Pittsburgh as having been selected national champions. Only Cornell, Washington State, Pittsburgh claim national championships for the 1915 season; the Southwest Intercollegiate Athletic Conference known as the Southwest Conference, began its first season of play in 1915. The league had eight founding members in Arkansas and Texas; the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, now a Division III conference, began football play in 1915. The Rose Bowl was played for the first time since its inception on January 1, 1902, following the 1901 season. Washington State would defeat Brown 14-0; the game has been played annually since. The following is a incomplete list of conference standings: The consensus All-America team included: Team scoring most points: Vanderbilt, 514 to 38. Player scoring most points: Jerry DaPrato, Michigan Agricultural, 185 Player scoring most touchdowns: Jerry DaPrato, Michigan Agricultural, 34 Player scoring most goals after touchdown: F. Parke Geyer, Oklahoma, 56 Player scoring most field goals: William T. Van de Graaff, Alabama, 11 Longest punt: Fritz Shiverick, Cornell, 86 yards, inclusive of roll of ball Longest run from kickoff: John Barrett, Washington & Lee, 101 yards Longest punt return: James DeHart, Pittsburgh, 105 yards Longest run from scrimmage: Dave Tayloe, North Carolina, John R. Georgetown, 90 yards each