United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas. The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory; the Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861. From June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821 the area that would become Kansas Territory 33 years was part of the Missouri Territory; when Missouri was granted statehood in 1821 the area became unorganized territory and contained little to no permanent white settlement with the exception of Fort Leavenworth. The Fort was established in 1827 by Henry Leavenworth with the 3rd U.
S Infantry from St. Louis, Missouri; the fort was established as the westernmost outpost of the American military to protect trade along the Santa Fe Trail from Native Americans. The trade came from the East, by land using the Boone's Lick Road, or by water via the Missouri River; this area, called the Boonslick, was located due east in west-central Missouri and was settled by Upland Southerners from Virginia and Tennessee as early as 1812. Its slave-holding population would contrast with settlers from New England who would arrive in the 1850s; the land that would become Kansas Territory was considered to be infertile by 19th century American pioneers. It was called the Great American Desert, for it was dryer than land eastward. Technically, it was part of the vast grasslands that make up the North American Great Plains and supported giant herds of American bison. After the invention of the steel plow and more sophisticated irrigation methods the thick prairie soil would be broken for agriculture.
By the 1850s immigration pressure was increasing and organization into a Territory was desired. Kansas Territory was established on May 1854 by the Kansas -- Nebraska Act; this act established both Kansas Territory. The most momentous provision of the Act in effect repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed the settlers of Kansas Territory to determine by popular sovereignty whether Kansas would be a free state or a slave state; the Act contained thirty-seven sections. The provisions relating to Kansas Territory were embodied in the last eighteen sections; some of the more notable sections were: Section 19 Defines the boundaries of the Territory, gives it the name of Kansas, prescribes that "when admitted as a State or States, the said Territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission." It further provides for its future division into two or more Territories, the attaching of any portion thereof to any other State or Territory.
Section 28 Declares the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 to be in full force in the Territory. Section 31 Locates the seat of government of the Territory, temporarily at Fort Leavenworth, authorizes the use for public purposes of the government buildings. Section 37 Declares all treaties and other engagements made by the United States Government, with the Indian tribes inhabiting the Territory, to remain inviolate, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of this act. Within a few days after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, hundreds of Missourians crossed into the adjacent territory, selected a section of land, united with fellow-adventurers in a meeting or meetings, intending to establish a pro-slavery preemption upon all this region; as early as June 10, 1854, the Missourians held a meeting at Salt Creek Valley, a trading post 3 miles west from Fort Leavenworth, at which a "Squatter's Claim Association" was organized. They said they were in favor of making Kansas a slave state if it should require half the citizens of Missouri, musket in hand, to emigrate there.
According to these emigrants, abolitionists would do well not to stop in Kansas Territory, but keep on up the Missouri River until they reach Nebraska Territory, anticipated to be a free state. Before the first arrival of Free-State emigrants from the northern and eastern States, nearly every desirable location along the Missouri River had been claimed by men from western Missouri, by virtue of the preemption laws. During the long debate that preceded the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, it had become the settled opinion at the North that the only remaining means whereby the territory might yet be rescued from the grasp of the slave power, was in its immediate occupancy and settlement by anti-slavery emigrants from the free states in sufficient numbers to establish free institutions within its borders; the desire to facilitate the colonization of the Territory took practical shape while the bill was still under debate in the United States Congress. The largest organization created for this purpose was the New England Emigrant Aid Company, organized by Eli Thayer.
Emigration from the free states, flowed into the territory beginning in 1854. These emigrants were known as Free-Staters; because Missourians had claimed much of the land closest to the border, the Free-Staters were forced to establish settlements further into Kansas Territory. Among these were Lawrence and Manhattan. To pr
Marshall County, Kansas
Marshall County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 10,117; the largest city and county seat is Marysville. The Oregon Trail crosses Marshall County; the Infamous Donner Reed Party rested along the banks of the Big Blue river and lost one of its members, Sarah Keyes, still buried at Alcove Springs. Many documented pioneer bodies are buried surrounding Alcove Spring. In 1849 Francis James Marshall, from Weston, came to Marshall County and established a ferry service on the Big Blue River at "Independence Crossing." A few years Francis Marshall decided to stay on in Marshall County and make it his home. He moved his Ferry business to an upper crossing now known as Marysville. On May 30, 1879, the "Irving, Kansas Tornado" passed through Marshall county; this tornado measured F4 on the Fujita scale and had a damage path 800 yards wide and 100 miles long. Eighteen people sixty were injured; the Marshall County Historical Society resides in the county's historic courthouse.
Which is now a Research Library. The building is beautiful. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 905 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. Pawnee County, Nebraska Nemaha County Pottawatomie County Riley County Washington County Gage County, Nebraska As of the census of 2000, there were 10,965 people, 4,458 households, 3,026 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 4,999 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.14% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,458 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families.
29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,089, the median income for a family was $39,705. Males had a median income of $28,361 versus $19,006 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,090. About 6.40% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.60% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those age 65 or over. Marshall County is a Republican county; the county has not been carried by a Democratic candidate in a presidential election since 1932, & has only failed to back the Republican candidate in two other elections from 1888 on.
The closest Democrats have came to winning the county since 1932 were in 1964 when Barry Goldwater only won it by 98 votes in the midst of a national landslide by Lyndon B. Johnson & 1992 when George H. W. Bush only won it by eight votes in conjunction with Reform Party candidate Ross Perot winning a significant share of the vote. Marshall County was a prohibition, or "dry", county until the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 and voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30 percent food sales requirement. Marysville USD 364 Vermillion USD 380 Valley Heights USD 498HistoricalAxtell USD 488 and Sabetha USD 441 consolidated to create Prairie Hills USD 113. Home Marshall County is divided into twenty-five townships; the city of Marysville is considered governmentally independent and is excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size.
Frank Wayenberg - pitcher for the Cleveland Indians in 1924. Butch Nieman - born in Herkimer, played outfield for the Boston Braves from 1943 to 1945. Don Songer - pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1924 to 1927 and the New York Giants in 1927. National Register of Historic Places listings in Marshall County, Kansas Atlas of Marshall County, Kansas. Plat Book of Marshall County, Kansas. Handbook of Marshall County, Kansas. CountyMarshall County - Official Marshall County - Directory of Public OfficialsHistoricalMarysville MuseumTornadosIrving, KS Tornado Historical TornadoMapsMarshall County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Pawnee County, Nebraska
Pawnee County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,773, its county seat is Pawnee City. In the Nebraska license plate system, Pawnee County is represented by the prefix 54. Pawnee County was formed in 1854, it was named for the Pawnee Native American tribe. On May 30, 1879, the "Irving, Kansas Tornado" passed through Pawnee County; this tornado measured F4 on the Fujita scale, had a damage path 800 yards wide and 100 miles. Pawnee County lies on the south line of Nebraska, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Kansas. The Big Nemaha River flows southeastward through the NE corner of the county, smaller local drainages flow upward through the county to discharge into the Big Nemaha; the county's terrain consists of rolling hills, with its planar areas devoted to agriculture. The county has an area of 433 square miles, of which 431 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 3,087 people, 1,339 households, 850 families in the county.
The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 1,587 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.87% White, 0.19% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.03% from other races, 0.65% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,339 households out of which 24.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 5.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.50% were non-families. 32.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.86. The county population contained 22.70% under the age of 18, 5.10% from 18 to 24, 21.00% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 27.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 92.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $29,000, the median income for a family was $36,326. Males had a median income of $24,770 versus $17,976 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,687. About 6.80% of families and 11.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. Pawnee City Pawnee County voters have been Republican-leaning for decades. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected a Democratic Party candidate. List of people from Pawnee County, Nebraska National Register of Historic Places listings in Pawnee County, Nebraska Official website Pawnee County tourism website
The Great Plains is the broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U. S. and Canada. It embraces: The entirety of the U. S. states of Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota Parts of the states of Colorado, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Wyoming The southern portions of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and SaskatchewanThe region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, it covers much of Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, a narrow band of southern Manitoba. Despite covering a small geographic area, the Prairies are home to the majority of each of the three provinces' respective populations; the term "Great Plains" is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the more vast Interior Plains physiographic division, which covers much of the interior of North America.
It has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. In Canada the term is little used. There is no region referred to as the "Great Plains" in The Atlas of Canada. In terms of human geography, the term prairie is more used in Canada, the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or "the Prairies." The North American Environmental Atlas, produced by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, a NAFTA agency composed of the geographical agencies of the Mexican and Canadian governments, uses the "Great Plains" as an ecoregion synonymous with predominant prairies and grasslands rather than as physiographic region defined by topography. The Great Plains ecoregion includes five sub-regions: Temperate Prairies, West-Central Semi-Arid Prairies, South-Central Semi-Arid Prairies, Texas Louisiana Coastal Plains, Tamaulipas-Texas Semi-Arid Plain, which overlap or expand upon other Great Plains designations; the region is about 500 mi east to 2,000 mi north to south.
Much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late-19th century. It has an area of 500,000 sq mi. Current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the term "Great Plains", for the region west of about the 96th and east of the Rocky Mountains, was not used before the early 20th century. Nevin Fenneman's 1916 study Physiographic Subdivision of the United States brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was invariably called the High Plains, in contrast to the lower Prairie Plains of the Midwestern states. Today the term "High Plains" is used for a subregion of the Great Plains; the Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, which extend east to the Appalachian Plateau. The United States Geological Survey divides the Great Plains in the United States into ten physiographic subdivisions: Coteau du Missouri or Missouri Plateau, glaciated – east central South Dakota and eastern North Dakota and northeastern Montana.
The Great Plains consist of a broad stretch of country underlain by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian west to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 miles. It extends northward from the Mexican boundary far into Canada. Although the altitude of the plains increases from 600 or 1,200 ft on the east to 4,000–5,000 or 6,000 feet near the mountains, the local relief is small; the semi-arid climate opens far-reaching views. The plains are by no means a simple unit, they are of various stages of erosional development. They are interrupted by buttes and escarpments, they are broken by valleys. Yet on the whole, a broadly extended surface of moderate relief so prevails that the name, Great Plains, for the region as a whole is well-deserved; the western boundary of the plains is well-defined by the abrupt ascent of the mountains. The eastern boundary of the plains is more climatic than topographic; the line of 20 in. of annual rainfall trends a little east of northward near the 97th meridian.
If a boundary must be drawn where nature presents only a gradual transition, this rainfall line may be taken to divide the drier plains from the moister prairies. The plains may be described in northern, intermediate and southern sections, in relation to certain peculiar features; the northern section of the Great Plains, north of latitude 44°, including eastern Montana, north-eastern Wyomi