Kaunas is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic and cultural life. Kaunas was the biggest city and the centre of a county in Trakai Municipality of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1413. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate from 1843 to 1915. During the interwar period, it served as the temporary capital of Lithuania, when Vilnius was seized by Poland between 1920 and 1939. During that period Kaunas was celebrated for its rich cultural and academic life, construction of countless Art Deco and Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural-style buildings as well as popular furniture, the interior design of the time, a widespread café culture; the city interwar architecture is regarded as among the finest examples of European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label. It contributed to Kaunas being named as the first city in Central and Eastern Europe to be designated as a UNESCO City of Design. Kaunas has been selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2022, together with Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
The city is the capital of Kaunas County, the seat of the Kaunas city municipality and the Kaunas District Municipality. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaunas. Kaunas is located at the confluence of the two largest Lithuanian rivers, the Nemunas and the Neris, is near the Kaunas Reservoir, the largest body of water in the whole of Lithuania; the city's name is of Lithuanian origin and most derives from a personal name. Before Lithuania regained independence, the city was known in English as Kovno, the traditional Slavicized form of its name. An earlier Russian name was Ковно Kovno, although Каунас Kaunas has been used since 1940; the Yiddish name is קאָװנע Kovne, the names in German include Kaunas and Kauen. The city and its elderates have names in other languages. An old legend claims; these Romans were led by a patrician named Palemon, who had three sons: Barcus and Sperus. Palemon fled from Rome. Palemon, his sons and other relatives travelled to Lithuania. After Palemon's death, his sons divided his land.
Kunas got the land. He built a fortress near the confluence of the Nemunas and Neris rivers, the city that grew up there was named after him. A suburban region in the vicinity is named "Palemonas". On 30 June 1993, the historical coat of arms of Kaunas city was re-established by a special presidential decree; the coat of arms features a white aurochs with a golden cross between its horns, set against a deep red background. The aurochs was the original heraldic symbol of the city, established in 1400; the heraldic seal of Kaunas, introduced in the early 15th century during the reign of Grand Duke Vytautas, is the oldest city heraldic seal known in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The current emblem was the result of much study and discussion on the part of the Lithuanian Heraldry Commission, realized by the artist Raimondas Miknevičius. An auroch has replaced a wisent, depicted in the Soviet-era emblem, used since 1969. Blazon: Gules, an aurochs passant guardant argent ensigned with a cross Or between his horns.
Kaunas has a greater coat of arms, used for purposes of Kaunas city representation. The sailor, three golden balls, Latin text "Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terram" in the greater coat of arms refers to Saint Nicholas, patron saint of merchants and seafarers, regarded as a heavenly guardian of Kaunas by Queen Bona Sforza. According to the archeological excavations, the richest collections of ceramics and other artifacts found at the confluence of the Nemunas and the Neris rivers are from the second and first millennium BC. During that time, people settled in some territories of the present Kaunas: the confluence of the two longest rivers of Lithuania area, Lampėdžiai, Kaniūkai, Marvelė, Romainiai, Petrašiūnai, Sargėnai, Veršvai sites. A settlement had been established on the site of the current Kaunas old town, at the confluence of two large rivers, at least by the 10th century AD. Kaunas is first mentioned in written sources in 1361. In 1362, the castle was destroyed by the Teutonic Order.
Commander Vaidotas of the Kaunas castle garrison, with 36 men, tried to break through, but was taken prisoner. It was one of the largest and important military victories of the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century against Lithuania; the Kaunas castle was rebuilt at the beginning of the 15th century. In 1408, the town was granted Magdeburg rights by Vytautas the Great and became a centre of Kaunas Powiat in Trakai Voivodeship in 1413. Vytautas ceded Kaunas the right to own the scales used for weighing the goods brought to the city or packed on site, wax processing, woolen cloth-trimming facilities; the power of the self-governing Kaunas was shared by three interrelated major institutions: vaitas, the Magistrate, the so-called Benchers' Court. Kaunas began to gain prominence, since it was at an intersection of a river port. In 1441 Kaunas joined the Hanseatic League, Hansa merchant office Kontor was opened—the only one in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the 16th century, Kaunas had a public school and a hospital and was one of the best-formed towns in
The Lithuania–Russia border is an international border between the Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave of the Russian Federation and Republic of Lithuania. The 227 kilometres long border passes through the Curonian Spit and Curonian Lagoon, follows along the Neman River, Šešupė, Širvinta and Lake Vištytis. There is a tripoint between Lithuania and Poland with a stone monument at 54°21′48″N 22°47′31″E. Most of the border follows lakes. On land, border stations are equipped with engineering and technical facilities. Most other land areas have no fence. Crossing the border into Lithuania requires a Schengen visa, into Russia requires a Russian visa. In early 2017, with increasing military activity and political tensions in the area, the government announced plans to reinforce the Kaliningrad/Ramoniškiai area border crossing with a fence 6 ft in height, funded by NATO, characterized by some officials as a token effort and waste of money. Historical borders between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Tsardom of Russia varied throughout history, at times bore little resemblance to the modern borders.
The modern Lithuanian-Russian border was established after World War I. For the most part it follows the older border between former German province of East Prussia to the south with Russia to the north. In 1923, the Klaipėda Region was transferred to Lithuania, in 1939, Lithuania was forced to return it to Germany. In 1945 the south side of the border was taken over by the Soviet Union as the Kaliningrad Oblast, the north side as Lithuanian part of the Soviet Union Until 1991, this boundary was an internal border of the Soviet Union between the RSFSR and the Lithuanian SSR. In 1991 Russia and Lithuania were recreated as countries. In opposite to before 1917, Russia was now on the south side. In 1997, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania signed a border agreement, which eliminated absurdities of the border. For example, Lake Vištytis was divided between the states as before the entire area of the reservoir was part of the Russian Federation; therefore and swimmers on the Lithuanian side inadvertently crossed the international border.
In return, Russia received the appropriate territorial compensation in other areas. The treaty entered into force in 2003. At the Russian-Lithuanian border smuggling takes place and semi-legal "shuttle" trade cheaper Russian and Belarusian products, which are exported to Lithuania for resale. Popular are cigarettes
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Šilutė is a city in the south of the Klaipėda County, Lithuania. The city was part of the Klaipėda ethnographic Lithuania Minor. Šilutė was the interwar capital of Šilutė County and is the capital of Šilutė District Municipality. Šilutė's origin dates to an inn catering to travelers and their horses, located halfway between Memel and Tilsit. The German name of Heydekrug referred to a Krug in the Heide; the inn was known for being in the region where most people spoke the Memelland-Samogitian dialect Šilokarčema. A famous fish market was opened in Šilutė 500 years ago, when Georg Tallat purchased the inn together with the land and fishing rights in 1511; the town was a gathering place for peasants from nearby Samogitia and Curonian and Prussian fishermen from Rusnė, Karklė, Lesnoye. Next to the inn a church of Werden was built in 1550. Heydekrug sought city rights, but was opposed by Memel and Tilsit in 1721 and 1725. In 1722 Heydekrug in 1818 the capital of Landkreis Heydekrug; the settlement was amalgamated with the villages of Werden and Cynthionischken in 1910, although it still did not receive city rights.
Following World War I, the town became part of Lithuania when it acquired the Klaipėda Region in 1923. The town was reclaimed by Nazi Germany in 1939. In 1941 the town received city rights. During World War II, the Stalag Luft VI prisoner-of-war camp was located near Heydekrug. There remain many old buildings in Šilutė: an old post office, a fire station, a court building and prison, a bridge across the Sziesze, an estate of H. Scheu, an old market square, a harbor, railway station and a bridge, the Vydūnas gymnasium; the town, a regional center, has a well-developed infrastructure. There is an amateur theatre, a museum, three churches, a few hotels, many cafés, bars. There are large industrial enterprises in Šilutė as well: Šilutės Rambynas, producing butter and cheese, is one of the oldest factories in the area. Newly founded enterprises are prospering: Šilutės Girnos. In order to speed up capital investments, the region council has established land tax bonuses for investors. Šilutė maintains sister city relationships with the following cities: Ljungby, Sweden Emmerich, Germany Ostróda, Poland Slavsk, Russia Gdańsk, Poland Saldus, Latvia Cittaducale, Italy Vellinge, Sweden Alanya, Turkey Hermann Sudermann and novelist Vydūnas Prussian-Lithuanian teacher, poet and philosopher Katharina Szelinski-Singer, sculptor Cornell Borchers, actress Herbert Schernus German choral conductor Hans-Georg Reimann former East German race walker Doris Nefedov maiden name Treitz, German singer under the stage name "Alexandra" Raimondas Rumšas, cyclist, 3rd place in 2002 Tour de France Mindaugas Timinskas, basketball player Deividas Dulkys, basketball player Evaldas Petrauskas, boxer.
3rd place in 2012 Summer Olympics Municipal website
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Treaties of Tilsit
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Emperor Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River; the second was signed with Prussia on 9 July. The treaties were made at the expense of the Prussian king, who had agreed to a truce on 25 June after the Grande Armée had captured Berlin and pursued him to the easternmost frontier of his realm. In Tilsit, he ceded about half of his pre-war territories. From those territories, Napoleon had created French sister republics, which were formalized and recognized at Tilsit: the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Free City of Danzig. Napoleon not only cemented his control of Central Europe but had Russia and the truncated Prussia ally with him against his two remaining enemies, Great Britain and Sweden, triggering the Anglo-Russian and Finnish War.
Tilsit freed French forces for the Peninsular War. Central Europe became a battlefield again in 1809, when Austria and Great Britain engaged France in the War of the Fifth Coalition. Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the Congress of Vienna would restore many Prussian territories; the treaty ended war between Imperial Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that rendered the rest of continental Europe powerless. The two countries secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes. France pledged to aid Russia against the Ottoman Empire while Russia agreed to join the Continental System against the British Empire. Napoleon convinced Alexander to enter into the Anglo-Russian War and to instigate the Finnish War against Sweden to force Sweden to join the Continental System. More the tsar agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia, occupied by Russian forces as part of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812; the Ionian Islands and Cattaro, captured by Russian admirals Ushakov and Senyavin, were to be handed over to the French.
In recompense, Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburg and several other small states ruled by the Tsar's German relatives. The treaty with Prussia stripped the country of about half its territory: Cottbus passed to Saxony, the left bank of the Elbe was awarded to the newly created Kingdom of Westphalia, Białystok was given to Russia, most of the Polish lands in Prussian possession since the Second and Third Partitions became the quasi-independent Duchy of Warsaw. Prussia was to reduce the army to 43,000 and on 9 March 1808, France fixed its tribute to be levied from Prussia at 154,500,000 francs, deducting 53,500,000, raised so far during the ongoing French occupation, the sum was lowered in two steps to 120 million francs by 1 November 1808. Talleyrand had advised Napoleon to pursue milder terms; until 1812, the French occupants requisitioned in money and kind from various corporations and persons by billetting soldiers on cities, further contributions additionally amounting to between 146 and 309 million francs, according to different calculations.
The Prussian government indebtedness soared between 1806 and 1815 by thaler 200 million to altogether 180.09 million interest-bearing debts, 11.24 million non-interest-bearing unconsolidated treasury notes and another 25.9 million former provincial debts assumed by the royal government. The cities' debts those of Berlin billetted on, were not assumed by the Prussian government. Since the creditors deemed Prussia to be over-indebted in 1817, the 4-per cent state bonds were traded at the bourses with a disagio of 27 to 29 per cent, in 1818 with a discountor of 35 per cent, causing the effective interest to rise to 6.15 per cent. At restructuring part of the debts in 1818 by a £5 million loan at 5% at the London financial market, the Prussian government had to accept a disagio of 28⅓%, thus paying an annual effective rate of 6.98%. When the Treaty was being formulated, it was noted by an observer that the Prussian king was pacing on the bank of the Neman river. Hence, many observers in Prussia and Russia viewed the treaty as unequal and as a national humiliation.
The Russian soldiers refused to follow Napoleon's commands, as the Lisbon Incident demonstrated to all Europe. Napoleon's plans to marry the tsar's sister were stymied by Russian royalty. Cooperation between Russia and France broke down in 1810 when the tsar began to allow neutral ships to land in Russian ports. In 1812, Napoleon crossed invaded Russia, ending any vestige of alliance; the Prussian state was diminished by nearly half under the terms of the treaty of Tilsit from 5,700 Prussian square miles to 2,800. Instead of 9.75 million inhabitants, no more than 4.5 million remained within the new boundaries of Prussia. The state revenue, which amounted to forty million dollars per annum, was decreased in a still greater proportion. All that Prussia had gained by the partitions of Poland was taken from it. Saxony, a former confederate of Prussia, was the recipient of the provinces; the followin
Neman, prior to 1946 known by its German name Ragnit, is a town and the administrative center of Nemansky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, located in the historic East Prussia, on the steep southern bank of the Neman River, where it forms the Russian border with the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania, 130 kilometers northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 11,798 . Ragnita, founded in 1288, was a settlement of the Baltic tribe of Skalvians, it was contested by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since its creation in the 13th century, on April 23, 1289 it was conquered by the Teutonic Knights, who built a Gothic castle there, which became the seat of a Komtur. The stronghold was called Landeshut, but the name did not become popular and the name Ragnit, after a local river, a tributary of the Memel, continued to be used. Although the settlement had an important castle not only guarding the Prussian lands of the State of the Teutonic Order from the north but serving as a military base for the Knights' campaigns into adjacent Samogitia, it was living in the shadow of the nearby city of Tilsit.
After the dissolution of the Order's State under its last Grand Master Albrecht von Hohenzollern, Ragnit on April 10, 1525 became a part of the Duchy of Prussia, ruled by the House of Hohenzollern as a fief of the Polish Crown until 1657. The duchy was inherited by the Hohenzollern margraves of Brandenburg in 1618, becoming an integral part of Brandenburg-Prussia, whereby remote Ragnit retained its status as a regional capital. Ragnit was devastated by Tatars during the Second Northern War in 1656 and again by Swedish forces during the Scanian War in 1678, while the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg had achieved full sovereignty over his Prussian lands by the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau, his son and successor Elector Frederick III elevated himself to a King in Prussia in 1701. He granted Ragnit town privileges on April 6, 1722, it was again destroyed during the Seven Years' War, this time by Russian forces in 1757. Incorporated into the Province of East Prussia from 1815, Ragnit became a part of the German Empire upon the Prussian-led unification of Germany in 1871.
On November 1, 1892, a railroad line linking the town with Tilsit was opened. It was built to develop the wood industry in the area, but the development did not start and the area's economy remained dominated by food production; when Germany had to cede the Klaipėda Region north of the Neman River to the Conference of Ambassadors according to the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, Ragnit became a border town. In 1922, it lost its status as an administrative capital in favor of Tilsit. During World War II, on January 19, 1945, Ragnit was captured without a fight by the 3rd Belorussian Front of the Red Army in the course of the East Prussian Offensive. According to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, the town became a part of Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian SFSR, it was renamed Neman in 1946. Most of the local inhabitants who had not fled during the Soviet conquest of East Prussia were subsequently expelled to the western parts of Germany. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Neman serves as the administrative center of Nemansky District.
As an administrative division, it is, together with nineteen rural localities, incorporated within Nemansky District as the town of district significance of Neman. As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Neman is incorporated within Nemansky Municipal District as Nemanskoye Urban Settlement. Despite being a part of German-speaking states, for centuries Ragnit was an important center of Lithuanian culture. From 1549 to 1563, famous Lithuanian writer and translator Martynas Mažvydas was priest and Archdiacon of Ragainė. While living in Ragainė he wrote "The Song of St. Ambrosy", translated "The Form of Baptism" from German into Lithuanian, published "The Prussian Agenda" into the prayer "Paraphrasis". One of his major works was "The Christian Songs". In the 19th century, after the January Uprising when the Lithuanian language was banned from the office in all of Russian-ruled Lithuania, books in that language were printed in Ragnit and smuggled to Russia by the Lithuanian book smugglers.
According to German data 17,500 Lithuanians lived in the Ragnit district in 1890. In 2010 Lithuanians composed 2.8% of the town population, being the third largest ethnic group after Russians and Belarusians. Martynas Mažvydas, Lithuanian priest, translator Johann Friedrich Domhardt, Agriculturalist Johann Friedrich Reiffenstein, German painter, antiquarian Julius Bacher, German novelist Martynas Jankus, Lithuanian printer, publicist Erich Klossowski, German-Polish art historian, painter Walter Bruno Henning, German scholar Neman is twinned with: Jurbarkas, Lithuania Lida, Belarus Ostróda, Poland Preetz, Germany Evacuation of East Prussia Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официал