SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, became the largest empire of the world up until that time. The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in empires, was, according to many historians, the first real empire in history; the Assyrians were the first to be armed with iron weapons, their troops employed advanced, effective military tactics. Following the conquests of Adad-nirari II in the late 10th century BC, Assyria emerged as the most powerful state in the world at the time, coming to dominate the Ancient Near East, East Mediterranean, Asia Minor and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa and conquering rivals such as Babylonia, Persia, Lydia, the Medes, Cimmerians, Judah, Chaldea, the Kushite Empire, the Arabs, Egypt; the Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Old Assyrian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Empire of the Late Bronze Age. During this period, Aramaic was made an official language of the empire, alongside Akkadian.

Upon the death of Ashurbanipal in 631 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria proper. In 616 BC, king of the Medes and Persians, made alliances with Nabopolassar, ruler of the Babylonians and Chaldeans, the Scythians and Cimmerians against Assyria. At the Fall of Harran, the Babylonians and Medes defeated an Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria ceased to exist as an independent state. A failed attempt to reconquer Harran ended the Assyrian Empire. Although the empire fell, Assyrian history continued. Assyria was an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC; the earliest Assyrian kings such as Tudiya were minor rulers, after the founding of the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from 2334 BC to 2154 BC, these kings became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under one rule. The urbanised Akkadian-speaking nation of Assyria emerged in the mid 21st century BC, evolving from the dissolution of the Akkadian Empire.

In the Old Assyrian period of the Early Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia, competing for dominance with the Hattians and Hurrians of Asia Minor, the ancient Sumero-Akkadian "city states" such as Isin, Ur and Larsa, with Babylonia, founded by Amorites in 1894 BC, under Kassite rule. During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in Asia Minor, under the 20th century BC King Ilushuma, Assyria conducted many successful raids against the states of the south. Assyria fell under the control of the Amorite chieftain Shamshi-Adad I, who established a dynasty and was unusually energetic and politically canny, installing his sons as puppet rulers at Mari and Ekallatm. Following this it found itself under short periods of Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination in the 17th and 15th centuries BC followed by another period of power from 1365 BC to 1074 BC, that included the reigns of kings such as Ashur-uballit I, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Tiglath-Pileser I. Ashur-uballit extended Assyrian control over the rich farming lands of Nineveh and Arbela to the north.

Tiglath-Pileser controlled the lucrative caravan routes that crossed the fertile crescent from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Much campaigning by Tiglath-Pileser and succeeding kings was directed against Aramaean pastoralist groups in Syria, some of whom were moving against Assyrian centers. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Aramaean expansion had resulted in the loss of much Assyrian territory in Upper Mesopotamia. After the death of Tiglath-Pileser I in 1076 BC, Assyria was in comparative decline for the next 150 years; the period from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a Dark Age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Caucasus and Balkan regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people. Assyria was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as Egypt, Elam, Urartu and Media. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Assyria again became a great power, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and conquering Elam, Media, Mannea, Phoenicia/Canaan, Israel, Philistia, Moab, Cilicia, Chaldea, Commagene, Dilmun and Neo-Hittites.

Adad-nirari II and his successors campaigned on an annual basis for part of every year with an exceptionally well-organized army. He subjugated the areas under only nominal Assyrian vassalage and deporting Aramean and Hurrian populations in the north to far-off places. Adad-nirari II twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala river and the towns of Hit and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia, he made further gains over Babylonia under Nabu-shuma-ukin I in his reign. He was succeeded by Tukulti-Ninurta II in 891 BC, who further consolidated Assyria's position and expanded northwards into Asia Minor and the Zagros Mountains during his short reign; the next king, Ashurnasirpal II, embarked on a vast program of expansion. During his rule, Assyria recovered much of the territory that it had lost around 1100 BC at the end of the Middle Assyrian period. Ashurnasirpal II campai

Joe Porter (producer)

Joe Porter is a record producer and songwriter. As a producer, he has produced Thelma Houston, Lynne Randell, Rare Earth, Bobby Darin, O. C. Smith and many others. Porter is responsible for the orchestral disco version of "Bandstand Boogie" for the television show American Bandstand, he is married to percussionist Bobbye Hall. In July 1971, Porter took legal action against the music group Free Movement for breach of contract; this resulted from the group's taking hold of the name which Porter alleged belonged to him and failing to fulfill a songwriting agreement for which he was to get a percentage of their self composed songs. The case was dismissed, he had produced their 1971 song "Ive Found Someone Of My Own". Due to competition with Soul Train, American Bandstand may have updated their version of "Bandstand Boogie" to a disco version. Joe Porter was responsible for the new disco version which played during the opening and closing credits of the show from 1974 to 1977. Along with James Quill Smith, he co-wrote "How Does It Feel" for Terry Fischer.

Along with Ellen Weston and Lesley Gore, Gladys Knight & the Pips, he co-write "Give It To Me, Sweet Thing". He had a hand in writing songs for Bobbye Hall, he co-wrote most of the songs for Hall's album Body Language for Lovers. In 1970, Porter along with Jerry Styner produced Gil Bernal for Kenny Myers's Amaret Records label. For that label he produced 2 singles and an album for Dian Hart as well as the High Voltage album for Nick Anthony. In 1972, he produced Thelma Houston's 1972 Motown album MoWest. Production list - Singles Lynne Randell – "Wasn't It You" / "Grey Day" - Silvercloud Records – 105 - Dian Hart - "Johnny One Time" / "If's A Mighty Big Word" - Amaret 45-135 - Barbara McNair – "I Mean To Shine" / "I Mean To Shine" - Marina Records – MR-606 - Gladys Knight & the Pips – "Neither One of Us / "Can't Give It Up No More" - Soul – S35098F - Gladys Knight & the Pips* – "Between Her Goodbye And My Hello" / "This Child Needs Its Father" - Soul – S 35111F - The Miracles – "Where Are You Going To My Love"' "Up Again" - Tamla Motown – TMG 940 - Diana Trask – "Let's Get Down To Business" / "But He Was Good For Me" - ABC Records – ABC 4139 - David Castle – "Ten To Eight" / "Finally" - Parachute Records – RR 501 - Becky Lopez – "Sad" / "Sad" - Mercury – 6173 008 - O.

C. Smith – "Living Without Your Love" / "Can't Be The One To Say It's Over" - Shadybrook Records – SB-1049 -

Treason Act 1790

The Treason Act 1790 was an Act of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain which abolished burning at the stake as the penalty for women convicted of high treason, petty treason and abetting, procuring or counselling petty treason, replaced it with drawing and hanging. Identical provision was made for Ireland by the Treason by Women Act 1796. Section 1 The original penalty for high treason, petty treason or abetting counselling or procuring petty treason for women was to be drawn to the place of execution and burned to death; this was replaced, with effect from 5 June 1790, with drawing to the place of execution followed by hanging by section 1. The section was amended by the Forfeiture Act 1870. Section 2 This section made provision for women convicted of petty treason to suffer additional punishments which were provided for murder by the Murder Act 1751, ss. 1 - 10. This included provision for the disposal of the body; the repeal of this section for England and Wales on 1 July 1828 by section 1 of the Offences against the Person Act 1828 was consequential on the abolition of petty treason by sections 1 and 2 of that Act.

Section 3 This section allowed the King to alter the sentence of any woman condemned to burning having been convicted of those offences prior to 5 June 1790. By warrant under the hand of one of the principal Secretaries of State, the King had the discretionary authority to order that the condemned woman be hanged in the execution of that judgement; this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1871. Section 4 This section was a saving clause and provided that women convicted of those offences would still be liable to such forfeitures and corruption of blood as they would have been if they had been attainted of those offences before the passing of the Act; this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1960. Repeal The Act was repealed when the death penalty for treason was abolished by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Capital punishment in the United Kingdom High treason in the United Kingdom Treason Act James Holbert Wilson. Temple bar, the city Golgotha, by a member of the Inner Temple.

P. 4. The Treason Act 1790, from the National Archives