The Sapa Inca, Sapan Inka or Sapa Inka known as Apu, Inka Qhapaq, or Sapa, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cuzco and the Emperor of the Inca Empire and the Neo-Inca State. While the origins of the position are mythical and tied to the legendary foundation of the city of Cusco it seems to have come into being around 1100; the position was hereditary, with son succeeding father. The emperor was viewed as a god; the principal wife of the Inca was known as the Coya. There were two known dynasties, led by the Hanan moieties respectively; the latter was in power at the time of Spanish conquest. The last effective Sapa Inca of Inca Empire was Atahualpa, executed by Francisco Pizarro and his conquistadors in 1533, but several successors claimed the title. Chronicles identify the Inca as the highest ruler in similitude of the European kings of the Middle Ages. However, the access to this position was not linked to the inheritance of the eldest son, but to the choice of the gods by means of rigorous ordeals, to which the physical and moral aptitudes of the pretender were tested.
These trials were accompanied by a complex ritual through which the Sun nominated the one who should assume the Inca position. Inti, if he agreed, gave the power of the rain to the future Inca. With the passage of time, Incas named their favorite son as co-governor with the intention of securing his succession, for example, Huiracocha Inca associated Inca Urco to the throne; the Sapan Inca accumulated in his person the political, social and economic direction of the State. They ordered and directed the construction of great engineering works, such as Sacsayhuaman, a fortress that took 50 years to complete, but their most important work was the network of roads that crossed the entire empire and allowed a rapid journey for the administrators and armies provided with hanging bridges and tambos. They had to be well cared for, they founded military colonies to expand their culture and control and ensure the maintenance of this network. At the religious level, they promoted the cult of Inti, regarded as their father, organized the calendar.
At the political level, they sent inspectors to oversee the loyalty and efficiency of civil servants. The monarchs promoted a unified and decentralized government in which Cuzco acted as the articulating axis of the different regions or Suyu, they appointed trusted governors. At the economic level, they decided, they knew. These were the intermediaries. Traditionally, every time an Emperor died or resigned, his successor was disinherited from his father inheritance and formed his own lineage royal clan or Panaka, his father's lands and servants were passed to his other children remaining on the previous Panaka; the new Sapan Inka had to obtain land and spoils to bequeath to his own descendants. Each time they subdued a people, they demanded that the defeated leader surrender part of their land to continue in command; the Inca was divinized, both in his emblems. In public he carried the topayauri, suntur páucar and the mascaipacha carried in a llauto, otherwise the mascapaicha could be carried on a amachana chuku.8 In religious ceremonies he was accompanied by the sacred white sacred flame, the napa, covered with a red blanket and adorned with gold earrings.
Little is known of the rulers of the first dynasty of Sapa Incas. Evidently, they were affiliated with the Hurin moiety and their rule did not extend beyond the Kingdom of Cusco, their origins are tied to the mythical establishment of Cusco and are shrouded in foundation myth. The dynasty was founded by Manco Cápac, considered the son of the sun god Inti; as a rough guide to the reputation of the early Sapa Incas, in years capac meant warlord and sinchi meant leader. The second dynasty was affiliated with the Hanan moiety and was founded under Inca Roca, the son of the last Hurin Sapa Inca, Cápac Yupanqui. After Cápac Yupanqui's death, another of his sons, Inca Roca's half-brother Quispe Yupanqui, was intended to succeed him. However, the Hanan installed Inca Roca instead. Ninan Cuyochi, Inca for only a few days in 1527, is sometimes left off the list of Sapa Incas because news of his death from smallpox arrived in Cusco shortly after he was declared Sapa Inca, he had been with Huayna Cápac. The death of Ninan, the presumed heir, led to the Inca Civil War between Huáscar and Atahualpa, a weakness that the Spanish exploited when they conquered the Inca Empire.
This last Sapa Inca must not be confused with Túpac Amaru II, leader of an 18th-century Peruvian uprising. Pachacutec, a resurrected Sapa Inca king, over 500 years old, plays a major role in James Rollins' novel Excavation. Muisca Confederation Kingdom of Cusco Inca Empire Neo-Inca State Panakas
Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador, involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River. De Soto's North American expedition was a vast undertaking, it ranged throughout the southeastern United States, both searching for gold, reported by various Indian tribes and earlier coastal explorers, for a passage to China or the Pacific coast. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto was born in Extremadura, Spain, to parents who were both hidalgos, nobility of modest means; the region was poor and many people struggled to survive. He was born in the current province of Badajoz. Three towns—Badajoz and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace, he spent time as a child at each place.
He stipulated in his will that his body be interred at Jerez de los Caballeros, where other members of his family were buried. As he grew to adulthood, the Spanish took back control of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the defeat of the Moors. With discovery of new lands across the ocean to the west, young men were attracted to rumors of adventure and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with Pedrarias Dávila, appointed as the first Governor of Panama. In 1520 he participated in Gaspar de Espinosa's expedition to Veragua, in 1524, he participated in the conquest of Nicaragua under Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. There he acquired a public office in León, Nicaragua. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, ruthless schemes for the extortion of native villages for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmarks during the conquest of Central America, he gained fame as an excellent horseman and tactician.
During that time, de Soto was influenced by the achievements of Spanish explorers: Juan Ponce de León, the first European to reach Florida. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of Nicaragua, he led an expedition up the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula searching for a passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean to enable trade with the Orient, the richest market in the world. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Bringing his own men on ships which he hired, de Soto joined Francisco Pizarro at his first base of Tumbes shortly before departure for the interior of present-day Peru. Pizarro made de Soto one of his captains; when Pizarro and his men first encountered the army of Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Pizarro sent de Soto with fifteen men to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. When Pizarro's men attacked Atahualpa and his guard the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers; the Spanish captured Atahualpa.
De Soto was sent to the camp of the Inca army, where his men plundered Atahualpa's tents. During 1533, the Spanish held Atahualpa captive in Cajamarca for months while his subjects paid for his ransom by filling a room with gold and silver objects. During this captivity, de Soto taught him to play chess. By the time the ransom had been completed, the Spanish became alarmed by rumors of an Inca army advancing on Cajamarca. Pizarro sent de Soto with 200 soldiers to scout for the rumored army. While de Soto was gone, the Spanish in Cajamarca decided to kill Atahualpa to prevent his rescue. De Soto returned to report. After executing Atahualpa and his men headed to Cuzco, the capital of the Incan Empire; as the Spanish force approached Cuzco, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando and de Soto ahead with 40 men. The advance guard fought a pitched battle with Inca troops in front of the city, but the battle had ended before Pizarro arrived with the rest of the Spanish party; the Inca army withdrew during the night.
The Spanish plundered Cuzco, where they found much silver. As a mounted soldier, de Soto received a share of the plunder, which made him wealthy, it represented riches from Atahualpa's camp, his ransom, the plunder from Cuzco. On the road to Cuzco, Manco Inca Yupanqui, a brother of Atahualpa, had joined Pizarro. Manco had been hiding from Atahualpa in fear of his life, was happy to gain Pizarro's protection. Pizarro arranged for Manco to be installed as the Inca leader. De Soto joined Manco in a campaign to eliminate the Inca armies under Quizquiz, loyal to Atahualpa. By 1534, de Soto was serving as lieutenant governor of Cuzco while Pizarro was building his new capital on the coast. In 1535 King Charles awarded Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro's partner, the governorship of the southern portion of the Inca Empire; when de Almagro made plans to explore and conquer the southern part of the Inca empire, de Soto applied to be his second-in-command, but de Almagro tur
Cajamarca known by the Cajamarca Quechua name, Kashamarka, is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region as well as an important cultural and commercial center in the northern Andes. It is located in the northern highlands of Peru at 2,750 m above sea level in the valley of the Mashcon river. Cajamarca had an estimated population of about 226,031 inhabitants in 2015, making it the 13th largest city in Peru. Cajamarca has a mild highland climate, the area has a fertile soil; the city is well known for its dairy products and mining activity in the surroundings. Among its tourist attractions, Cajamarca has numerous examples of Spanish colonial religious architecture, beautiful landscapes, pre-Hispanic archeological sites and hot springs at the nearby town of Baños del Inca; the history of the city is highlighted by the Battle of Cajamarca, which marked the defeat of the Inca Empire by Spanish invaders as the Incan emperor Atahualpa was captured and murdered here. The etymology of the Quechua language name Kasha Marka, sometimes spelled Cashamarka or Qasamarka is uncertain.
It may mean'town of thorns'. Another theory suggests that it is a hybrid name that combines a Quechua kasha'cold' and the Spanish marca'place'. All sources agree; the city and its surroundings have been occupied by several cultures for more than 2000 years. Traces of pre-Chavín cultures can be seen in nearby archaeological sites, such as Cumbe Mayo and Kuntur Wasi. During the period between 1463 and 1471, Tupac Inca conquered the area and brought Cajamarca into the Tawantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. At the time, it was ruled by Tupac Inca's father Pachacuti; the city of Kasha Marka had been founded by other ethnic groups a century before its incorporation to the empire in the year 1320. In 1532 Atahualpa defeated his brother Huáscar in a battle for the Inca throne in Quito. On his way to Cusco to claim the throne with his army, he stopped at Cajamarca. Francisco Pizarro and his 168 soldiers met Atahualpa here after weeks of marching from Piura; the Spanish Conquistadors and their Indian allies captured Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca, where they massacred several thousand unarmed Inca civilians and soldiers, out of a ceremonial army of 80,000, in an audacious surprise attack of cannon, cavalry and swords.
As the two leaders faced off, the young captain Hernando De Soto rode on horseback directly up to Atahualpa to intimidate him. Having taken Atahualpa captive, they held him in Cajamarca's main temple. Atahualpa offered his captors a ransom for his freedom: a room filled with gold and silver, within two months. Although having complied with the offering, Atahualpa was brought to trial and executed by the Spaniards. Pizarro, De Soto, others shared in the ransom. In 1986 the Organization of American States designated Cajamarca as a site of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Americas. Cajamarca is situated at 2750 m above sea level on an inter-Andean valley irrigated by three main rivers: Mashcon, San Lucas and Chonta; the style of ecclesiastical architecture in the city differs from other Peruvian cities due to the geographic and climatic conditions. Cajamarca is further north with a milder climate. Cajamarca has six Christian churches of Spanish colonial style: San Jose, La Recoleta, La Immaculada Concepcion, San Antonio, the Cathedral and El Belen.
Although all were built in the seventeenth century, the latter three are the most outstanding due to their sculpted facades and ornamentation. The facades of these three churches were left unfinished, most due to lack of funds; the façade of the Cathedral is the most elegantly decorated, to the extent. El Belen has a completed façade of the main building; the San Antonio church was left incomplete. This church consists of a single nave with no lateral chapels, its facade is the most complete of the three, as it was the first to be built. Designated to be a parish church, the cathedral took 80 years to construct; the Cathedral shows. Side Portals: The side portals are made of pilasters on corbels, it bears the royal escutcheon of Spain. The portal is considered to have a seventeenth-century character, found in the rectangular emphasis of the design. Plan: The plan of the cathedral is based on a basilica plan, but the traditional dome over the crossing has been omitted. Façade: The façade is noted for the detailing of its sculptures and the artistry in carving.
Decorative details include grapevines carved into the spiral columns of the cathedral, with little birds pecking at the grapes. The frieze in the first story is composed of rectangular blocks carved with leaves; the detail of the main portal extends to flower cherubs' heads next to pomegranates. "The façade of Cajamarca Cathedral is one of the remarkable achievements of Latin American art." Construction began with the original plans made by Matias Perez Palomino. This church is similar in plan to the Cathedral. San Antonio is a larger structure and has incorporated the large dome over the crossing. Features of the church include large cruciform piers with Doric pilasters
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
Huayna Capac, Guayna Cápac, Guayna Capac, Huain Capac, Guain Capac, Guayana Capac, Wayna Kapa, Wayn Capac, Wayana Qhapaq, Wayna Kapak, Wayna Capac, or Wayna Qhapaq was the third Sapan Inka of the Inca Empire, born in Tumipampa sixth of the Hanan dynasty, eleventh of the Inca civilization. As other Sapa Inkas, Wayna Qhapaq subjects approached him adding epithets and titles when addressing him as Wayna Qhapaq Inka Sapa'lla Tukuy Llaqt'a Uya "Unique Sovereign Wayna Qhapaq Listener of All Peoples", His original name was Titu Kusi Wallpa, he was the successor to Tupaq Inka Yupanki. The exact place and date of Wayna Qhapaq's birth are unknown. Though he was raised in Cusco, he may have been born in 1468 in Tumebamba and have spent part of his childhood there, he was the son of Thupaq Inka who had extended Inca rule north into present-day Ecuador, a process continued by Wayna Qhapaq. Wayna Qhapaq's first wife was Koya "Queen" Kusi Rimay; the couple produced no male heirs but Wayna Qhapaq sired more than 50 sons and about 200 children:113 with other women.
Wayna Qhapaq took Rawa Okllo, as his royal wife. They had a son called Thupaq Kusi Wallpa known as Waskar. Other sons included Ninan Kuyuchi, Thupaq Wallpa, Manko Inka, Paullu Inka, Konono, Wanka Auqui, Kizu Yupanqui, Tito Atauchi, Waman Wallpa, Kusi Wallpa, Tilka Yupanqu.:109-112 Some of them held the title of Sapan Inka, although some were installed by the Spaniards. Among the daughters of Wayna Qhapaq were Azarpay, Kispe Sisa, Kura Okllu, Marca Chimbo, Pachacuti Yamqui, Kusi Warkay, others.:112In addition to Kusi Rimay and Rawa Okllo, Wayna Qhapaq had more than 50 wives including Osika, Anawarque, Kontarwachu and Añas Qolque.:143:109-112 As a "boy chief" or "boy sovereign", Wayna Qhapaq had a tutor, Wallpaya,:218 a nephew of Inka Yupanki. This tutor's plot to assume the Incaship was discovered by his uncle, the Governor Waman Achachi, who had Wallpaya killed. In the south, Wayna Qhapaq continued the expansion of Tawantinsuyu into present-day Chile and Argentina and tried to annex territories towards the north in what is now Ecuador and southern Colombia.
In Ecuador known as the Kingdom of Quito, Wayna Qhapaq absorbed the Quito Confederation into the Inca Empire after marrying the Quito Queen Paccha Duchicela Shyris XVI in order to halt a long protracted war. From this marriage Atawallpa was born in Ecuador. Atawallpa was to inherit the Kingdom of Quito, by the will of his father Wayna Qhapaq, Inca Emperor after defeating his brother, the Inca Emperor Waskar in the Inca Civil War, where Waskar Inka attempted to conquer the Kingdom of Quito after 7 years of peace. Wayna Qhapaq became fond of Ecuador and spent most of his time time there, founding cities like Atuntaqui; the capital city of the Tawantinsuyu was in Cuzco and Wayna Qhapaq rebuilt Quito to make it the "second capital" of the Inca Empire. As Sapa Inca, he built astronomical observatories in Ecuador such as Ingapirca. Wayna Qhapaq hoped to establish a northern stronghold in the city of Tumebamba, where the Cañari people lived. In the Sacred Valley, the sparse remains of one of Wayna Qhapaq's estates and his country palace called Kispiwanka can still be found in the present-day town of Urubamba, Peru.
In present-day Bolivia, Wayna Qhapaq was responsible for developing Cochabamba as an important agriculture and administrative center, with more than two thousand silos for corn storage built in the area. Further north in Ecuador, Wayna Qhapaq's forces attempted to expand into the lowlands of the Amazon basin, reaching the Chinchipe River, but they were pushed back by the Shuar. Wayna Qhapaq acquired a special fondness for its local highlights. Many Inca raft vessels were brought to the lake directly from Ecuador for his amusement. On its way to Cusco after Wayna Qhapaq's death in Quito, the procession carrying his body stopped in the vicinity of Shawsha, a city in the central Peruvian Andes, acknowledging the fondness for the area that he had felt for the region and because the local inhabitants had been some of the most loyal to its causes; the Inca empire reached the height of its size and power under his rule, stretching over much of present-day Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and southwestern Colombia.
It included varying terrain from high frozen Andes to the densest swamps. His subjects spanned more than two hundred distinct ethnic groups, each with their own customs and languages; the empire spanned 3,500 kilometres north to south comprising the Pacific Ocean coast on the west and the Andes in the southeast and the Amazon Basin on the east. Despite the geographical and cultural challenges, The Inca Empire or Tawantinsuyu was sophisticated for its time and place. At its height, it had monumental cities, marvellously-engineered fortresses of stone, roads cut through granite mountain slopes, massive agricultural terraces and hydraulic works. A dedicated ruler, Wayna Qhapaq did much to improve the lives of his people. In addition to building temples and other works, Wayna Qhapaq expanded the road network, he had storehouses built along it for food so that aid could be rushed to any who were in danger of starvation. Wayna knew of the Spanish arrival off the coast of his empire as early as 1515.
Wayna Qhapaq died in 1524. When Wayna returned to Qui
Quizquiz or Quisquis was, along with Chalcuchimac and Rumiñawi, one of Atahualpa's leading generals. In April 1532, along with his companions, Quizquiz led the armies of Atahualpa to victory in the battles of Mullihambato and Quipaipan, where he, along with Chalkuchimac defeated and captured Huáscar and promptly killed his family, seizing capital Cuzco. Quizquiz commanded Atahualpa's troops in the battles of Vilcaconga and Maraycalla being bested by the Spanish forces in both accounts. After the ensuing battles, Quizquiz fled further into the safety of the Andean mountains, but his forces soon demanded that he accept the Spanish demands, and, it being planting season, that they be able to return to their families. Quizquiz refused, his war-weary troops killed him in 1535. Quizquiz is a Quechua term, which stands for Little Bird par excellence. According to some authors instead, the surname means barber and derives from his duty to shave the King Huayna Capac that the General had exercised, both for dexterity, both for total confidence that it would not have liked to offer his throat to anyone else.
His first military experience was gained in the army of Huayna Capac, in campaigns in North, where he distinguished himself for his outstanding military skills. On the death of the eleventh Sapa Inca, Quizquiz remained in the wake of his son Atahualpa, assuming the chief command of the armies of Quito, contrasted with those of Cuzco devoted to Huáscar. Juan de Betanzos reports in his Narrative of the Incas that during the civil war Quizquiz led troops of 60,000 against Huáscar's troops; as supreme commander he organized, together with another prestigious general Chalcuchimac, war against Cuzco. Quizquiz was responsible for the significant defeat and capture of Huáscar, where Huáscar planned to use a decoy advance guard, to be joined by the body of the army, however this decoy was destroyed before the rest of the army could join it. Defeating in several battles the armies of Huáscar, they achieved the final victory with the storming of the Inca Empire capital; as he was proceeding to the consolidation of power for Atahuallpa in the region of Cuzco, the news came of the tragedy of Cajamarca and the capture of his master.
Atahuallpa had Chalcuchimac stay with half of his warriors in Jauja, Quizquiz with the other half in Cusco. Quizquiz was in Cusco at the time of the Spaniards' arrival; the inhabitants recognized. Collecting the ransom, Atahuallpa had convinced Francisco Pizarro to send three soldiers in the capital to check on the collection of gold; the three, Martín Bueno, Pedro Martin de Moguer and Pedro de Zárate, were treated honorably, despite their far from blameless behavior. The rude soldiers ventured to desecrate the temples and undermine the Virgins of the Sun, but the instructions from Atahuallpa did not allow any appropriate measures to be taken against the three. Pizarro selected Túpac Huallpa as the next Inca. Manco Inca joined Pizarro on his march to Cusco; the Spaniards occupied only three locations in Peru. One was the city of Cuzco itself, the second was the town of Jauja, entrusted to the treasurer Riquelme, the third was the recent settlement of San Miguel which ensured the flow of reinforcements by sea.
Quizquiz attacked Cusco first. The Spaniards "killed and wounded many of them." Quizquiz decided to attack the garrison of Jauja, on the road to Quito, but was "unable to prevail against the Spaniards" there as well. The rainy season had swelled rivers and was sufficient to demolish the bridges on the most tumultuous rivers to secure the rear from the arrival of Cuzco followers; the clash ensued between the army of Quito and fifty Spanish Juaja backed by thousands of indigenous friends. Quizquiz had developed strategies that worked against the Spanish, but he still had to learn to deal with the cavalry, his men carried out a pincer movement. The day, was not an easy one for the Spanish troops. Riquelme was himself wounded in the head and fell into the river, where he was rescued by a group of archers. One Spaniard was killed and all other reported injuries as their auxiliary natives were decimated by the troops of Quito. Northern troops still managed to pass Jauja, while regretting that it could not conquer the city defended by a small garrison.
Quizquiz had learnt from the experience and venturing in a ravine he fortified the slopes of the passage so that horses could not work he remained on hold. Reinforcements from Cuzco came upon a few weeks under the command of Hernando de Soto and Diego de Almagro, accompanied by many Indians, sent by Manco Inca Yupanqui, elected meanwhile supreme Inca. Learned that Quizquiz was close, the Spaniards threw themselves boldly forward, but this time the shrewd general was not waiting for them unprepared; the defenses worked fine and their charges shattered against the properly prepared fortifications. While worryingly studying what to do, the conquistador learned that the armies had abandoned their positions and headed north. Quizquiz wanted to regain the region of Quito; the Spanish moved in pursuit, but proceeding with great caution and fighting only limited clashes with the marching rearguard when it became clear that the enemy abandoned the region, desisted from following them. Quizquiz had solved the immediate problem of the pursuers.
He had to open a way through districts infested by hostile populations, related to the deceased Huáscar and hoping for a comeback thanks to the arrival of "white men" who
Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador known for his exploits in western South America. He participated with Francisco Pizarro in the Spanish conquest of Peru. From Peru Almagro led an expedition that made him the second European to set foot in central Chile. Back in Peru a longstanding conflict with Pizarro over the control of the former Inca capital of Cuzco erupted into a civil war between the two bands of conquistadores. In the battle of Las Salinas in 1538 Almagro was defeated by the Pizarro brothers and months he was executed; the origins of Diego de Almagro remain obscure. He was born in 1475 in the village of Almagro, 1 in Ciudad Real, where he took the surname for being the illegitimate son of Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. In order to save the honor of the mother, her relatives took her infant and moved him to the nearby town of Bolaños de Calatrava, being raised in this town and in Aldea del Rey, run by Sancha López del Peral; when he turned 4 he returned to Almagro, being under the tutelage of an uncle named Hernán Gutiérrez until he was 15 years old, when due to his uncle's hardness he ran away from home.
He went to the home of his mother, now living with her new husband, to tell her what had happened and that she was going to travel the world, asking for some bread to help her live in her misery. His mother, gave him a piece of bread and some coins and said: "Take, do not give me more pressure, go, God help in your adventure." He went to Seville and after stealing to survive the boy becomes a "criado" or servant and raised by Don Luis de Polanco, one of the four mayors of the Catholic Kings and his counselor, and, mayor of that city. While performing his duties as a servant, Almagro stabbed another servant for certain differences, leaving him with injuries so serious that they motivated that a trial against him be promoted. Being wanted for justice, Don Luis de Polanco, making use of his influence, got Don Pedro Arias de Avila to allow him to embark in one of the ships that would go to the New World from the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda; the Casa de Contratacion demanded that the men who crossed the Indies carry their own weapons and farming tools, which Don Polanco provided to his servant.
Diego de Almagro arrived in the New World on June 30, 1514, under the expedition that Ferdinand II of Aragon had sent under the guidance of Pedrarias Dávila. The expedition had landed in the city of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, where many other future conquistadors had arrived, among them Francisco Pizarro. There are not many details of Almagro's activities during this period, but it is known that he accompanied various sailors who departed from the city of Darien between 1514 and 1515. De Almagro returned and settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda, he made a living from agriculture. De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November 1515, commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave behind this mission to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa. Espinosa decided to undertake a new expedition, which departed in December 1515 with 200 men, including De Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, who for the first time was designated as a captain.
During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro and Hernando de Luque became close friends. During this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in charge of Acla. De Almagro wanted to have a ship built with the remaining materials of the Espinosa expedition, to be finished on the coast of the "Great South Sea", as the Pacific Ocean was first called by the Spanish. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was expected to participate in Balboa's expedition and returned to Darien. De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosa's parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboa's ships. De Almagro was recorded as a witness on the lists of natives. De Almagro remained as an early settler in the newly founded city of Panama. For four years he stayed there, working at those of Pizarro, he took an indigenous woman, as a common-law wife. In this period, his first son, el "Mozo", was born to them.
By 1524 an association of conquest regarding South America was formalized among Almagro and Luque. By the beginning of August 1524, they had received the requisite permission to discover and conquer lands further south. De Almagro would remain in Panama to recruit men and gather supplies for the expeditions led by Pizarro. After several expeditions to South America, Pizarro secured his stay in Peru with the Capitulation on 6 July 1529. During Pizarro's continued exploration of Incan territory, he and his men succeeded in defeating the Inca army under Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. De Almagro joined Pizarro soon afterward, bringing arms. After Peru fell to the Spanish, both Pizarro and De Almagro worked together in the founding of new cities to consolidate their dominions; as such, Pizarro dispatched De Almagro to pursue Quizquiz, fleeing to the Inca Empire's northern city of Quito. Their fellow conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar, who had gone forth without Pizarro's approval, had reached Quito and witnessed the destruction of the city by Inca general Rumiñawi.
The Inca warrior had ordered the city to be burned and its gold to be buried at an undisclosed location where the Spanish could never find it. The arrival of Pedro de Alvarad