Teruel is a town in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, and is the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 35,675 in 2014 making it the least populated provincial capital in the country, Teruel is regarded as the town of mudéjar due to numerous buildings designed in this style. All of them are comprised in the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon which is a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO, Teruels remote and mountainous location 915 metres above sea level and its low population has led to relative isolation within Spain. A campaign group with the slogan Teruel existe was founded in 1999 to press for recognition and investment in the town. Due in part to the campaign, transport connections to Teruel are being improved with the construction of a motorway between Zaragoza and Sagunto, large parts of which are now open. However, Teruel remains the provincial capital in peninsular Spain without a direct railway link to the capital. According to the Köppen climate classification, Teruel has a humid subtropical bordering on a cold semi-arid climate, summer temperatures are mild, although there is much daily variation, and winters are cold, with low minimum temperatures sometimes dropping to −10 °C.
The lowest amount of rainfall is in winter and the greatest falls at the end of spring, the temperature records recorded at the Observatoire de Teruel 40.2 °C on August 10,2012 and −19 °C on December 26,2001. Teruel was founded in 1171 by Alfonso II, in the Middle Ages Teruel possessed a prominent Jewish community, which was robust during the centuries Muslims were in power and enjoyed several privileges. Later on after the Christian reconquest of Spain, the Jewish community paid a tax of 300 sueldos. Its members were engaged in commerce and industry, especially in wool-weaving, during the persecutions of 1391 many of them were killed, while others accepted Christianity in order to save their lives. Teruel was fought over in the Spanish Civil War and suffered much destruction, the Battle of Teruel in December 1937-February 1938, was one of the bloodiest of the war. The town changed several times, first falling to the Republicans. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to heavy artillery, the two sides suffered up to 140,000 casualties between them in the three-month battle.
The Nationalists won a decisive victory, one of Teruels best known monuments is very small statue of a bull on top of a tall column, known as El Torico. It is located in the square, Plaza Carlos Castell. It includes a mausoleum, Mausoleo de Los Amantes, housing the mummified bodies of Isabel de Segura and this story is known as los amantes de Teruel and has inspired writers and an opera composed by Tomás Bretón. Church of La Merced, with a tower in mudéjar style
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa.
Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive.
Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343
Francisco de Cubas
Francisco de Cubas y González-Montes was a Spanish architect and politician. He was known as the Marquis of Cubas after his noble title and he was from 1894 the Marquis of Fontalba. He studied at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and obtained scholarships that allowed him to complete his studies in Italy, upon his return to Spain in 1858, he won a medal at the National Exposition of 1858. His work represents some of the most well-known of 19th century architecture of Madrid and his work includes the Jesuit college known as the Colegio Nuestra Señora del Recuerdo, the University of Deusto in Bilbao, and the National Museum of Anthropology in Madrid. It includes the Palace of Arenzana in Madrid and the Church of Santa Cruz in Madrid and his most famous work is Almudena Cathedral, begun in 1883. The original plan had been to create a parochial church, Francisco de Cubas revised this plan, deciding instead to create an imposing Neo-Gothic cathedral, the style popular at that time, especially due to the influence of Viollet-le-Duc.
More representative of Francisco de Cubas’ vision is the Castle of Butrón in Gatica and he married the noblewoman Matilde de Erice y Urquijo in 1860. They are both buried in a chapel of the crypt of the Cathedral of Almudena
The horseshoe arch, called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Moorish architecture. Horseshoe arches can take rounded, pointed or lobed form, horseshoe arches are known from pre-Islamic Syria, where the form was used in the fourth century CE in the Baptistery of Mar Yaqub at Nisibin. However, it was in Spain and North Africa that horseshoe arches developed their characteristic form, prior to the Muslim invasion of Spain, the Visigoths used them as one of their main architectural features, which may come from at least the Roman period. Some tombstones from that period have been found in the north of Spain with horseshoe arches in them, the arch of the Church of Santa Eulalia de Boveda —part of a previous Roman temple— in Lugo, points in that direction. The Visigothic form was adopted and developed by the Umayyads, who accentuated the curvature of the horseshoe and this can be seen at a large scale in their major work, the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The Mozarabs adopted this style of arch into their architecture, horseshoe arches were used in the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan and, in a slightly pointed form, in the Mosque of Muhammad ibn Khairun, Tunisia.
Mudéjar style, developed from the 12th to the 17th centuries, in addition to their use across the Islamic world, horseshoe arches became popular in Western countries at the time of the Moorish Revival. They were widely used in Moorish revival synagogues, horseshoe arches are a feature of Indo-Saracenic architecture, a style associated with the British Raj
The Aguirre School, today known as the Casa Árabe, is a notable Neo-Mudéjar style building, located at Calle de Alcalá,62, Spain. It is named after Lucas Aguirre, a Spanish philanthropist who left funds for the construction of schools, since 2006 it has housed the Casa Árabe e Instituto Internacional de Estudios Árabes y del Mundo Musulmán. This Neo-Mudéjar style building was designed by Emilio Rodríguez Ayuso and built from 1881-1886, the same architect added an enclosure and garden
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Sociedad Estatal de Correos y Telégrafos, S. A. trading as Correos, is the national postal service of Spain, as recognized by the Universal Postal Union. The company is 100% state owned, through the State Industrial Holding Company, with 63,000 employees and 5.4 billion pieces of mail sent each year, Correos is one of the largest postal services in the world. Based in Madrid, it has over 10,000 postal centres all over Spain, in Spain was implemented on 1 January 1850. The last step for the reorganization of mail came in 1889 with the creation of the Body of Postal Workers. Coinciding with the reforms of the mid-nineteenth century liberal governments launched the telegraph service, following the French example, Spain had developed a line drawing of optical telegraphy between 1844 and 1855, for the exclusive use of the State. From that date, was developing the network that joined in 1863. At the end of the century the number of offices open to the public amounted to fifteen hundred. This new system revolutionized the world of communications, reducing the time the message a few minutes, the railway remained the principal means of carrying letters and packages throughout the peninsula until 1993 when the train service gave way to transport by road of the model