Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Expo 2015 was a universal exposition hosted by Milan, Italy. It opened on May 1 at 10:00 CEST and closed on October 31. Milan hosted an exposition for the second time; the Bureau International des Expositions general assembly in Paris decided in favour of Milan on March 31, 2008. On November 23, 2010, the event was announced by the BIE. Expo 2015's theme was "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life". Expo 2015's theme was "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life", encompassing technology, culture and creativity and how they relate to food and diet; the exposition developed themes introduced in earlier expos in light of new global scenarios and emerging issues, focusing on the right to healthy and sufficient food for the world's inhabitants. Futuristic concerns about food security are compounded by forecasts of increasing uncertainty about the quantity of food which will be available globally; the exposition had seven sub-themes: Science for food safety and quality Innovation in the agro-food supply chain Technology for agriculture and biodiversity Dietary education Solidarity and cooperation on food Food for better lifestyles Food in the world's cultures and ethnic groups The Expo 2015 site is about 15 kilometres northwest of Milan, in the municipalities of Rho and Pero, covers an area of 1.1 km2.
It is adjacent to the Fiera Milano fairgrounds, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas, which may be considered the cornerstone of the area's urban redevelopment. It had long been an industrial zone before its conversion to logistical and municipal services and agriculture; the fairgrounds and the Expo site were connected by a pedestrian bridge adjacent to the Rho-Pero high-speed rail station. Originally-planned bicycle paths were never constructed, several motorways were built to allow access to the site; the area is oblong in shape with an overall length of nearly 3 km, suggesting a boulevard along which the pavilions would be located. The design of pools and waterways in and around the Expo area was an element of primary importance; the initial plan had the following elements: 50 percent of the area occupied by pavilions, 35 percent dedicated to space around each pavilion and the remaining 15 percent a green perimeter around the site Piazza Italia and Piazza Expo at either end of the main boulevard, the former dominated by the 7,000-square-metre Italy pavilion and flanked by a second square A large, artificial lake surrounded by the 20 pavilions representing the Italian regions A 12,000-seat amphitheatre covering 9,000 m2 and a 6,000-seat, 6,000-square-metre auditorium Country pavilions in three sizes, depending on the financial resources of the participating country Three pavilions dedicated to geographic areas: Asia and Latin America and the CaribbeanA 100-hectare service area was planned near the main Expo site with hotels, parking facilities, stores, a convention centre, green areas, a business centre available to Expo participants and a 12-hectare Expo Village to house staff and security and administrative personnel.
The following thematic pavilions were planned: What the World Eats: At the base of the Expo tower and in the pedestrian bridge connecting the Rho-Pero fairgrounds to the expo site Science and Conscience Tales of Land and Water The Food Spiral The Right to Eat Well In the Realm of the Senses, in Piazza Italia Equilibrium The Art of Food Expo 2015's concept was presented on September 8, 2009. It was designed by a committee of four architects: Stefano Boeri, Richard Burdett, Mark Rylander and Jacques Herzog; the main idea was to trace two avenues, representing the ancient Roman layout of a cardo and a decumanus. The initial idea of a "classical" site composed of avenues and pavilions was replaced by the idea of a "light" Expo composed of exhibition areas arranged across the main boulevard; the exhibition areas, identical for each country, recreated the typical food cycle of each nation from production to consumption. The centre of the avenue was occupied by a table in front of the country pavilions extending the length of the site, where visitors could sample foods produced in each country's pavilion.
The area would be covered by tent-like structures to convey the idea of a global marketplace. A second idea was to build large greenhouses on the site to reproduce the earth's principal biomes; these would be thematic pavilions for the cultivation and production of basic foodstuffs used in the individual country pavilions. Each country would have a dedicated greenhouse in its exhibition area. In this version of the site, water remained an important element but was shifted toward the exterior as a large, navigable canal surrounding the site. A large lake was included in the design. Additional elements included a large, excavated amphitheatre and a hill, one at each end of the boulevard; the master plan for Expo 2015, coordinated by Stefano Boeri, was delivered to the BIE during its April 30, 2010 registration ceremony in Paris. Changes included: Each exhibiting country could rent areas ranging from 400 to 6,000 m2. Buildable areas were reduced to 30 percent of the area assigned to each exhibitor.
The large, but not navigable, canal around the area is maintained. Greenhouses would be in a 50,000 m2 zone; the circular canal became a theatre with a central stage. The green hill opposite the a
Apple Park is the corporate headquarters of Apple Inc. located at 1 Apple Park Way in Cupertino, United States. It opened to employees in April 2017, its research and development facilities are occupied by more than 2,000 people. It superseded the original headquarters at 1 Infinite Loop, which opened in 1993, its circular design and extreme scale have earned a media nickname of "the spaceship". Located on a suburban site totaling 175 acres, it houses more than 12,000 employees in one central four-story circular building of 2,800,000 square feet. Steve Jobs wanted the whole campus to look more like a nature refuge. Eighty percent of the site consists of green space planted with drought-resistant trees and plants indigenous to the Cupertino area, the center courtyard of the main building features an artificial pond. In April 2006, Apple's former CEO Steve Jobs announced to the city council of Cupertino that Apple had acquired nine contiguous properties to build a second campus, the Apple Campus 2.
The idea for a new headquarters was conceived by Apple's chief designer Jony Ive. Ive was Apple's immediate choice to design the project, going on to work closely together with Norman Foster across five years, designing every detail, from the glass panels to the elevator buttons. Purchases of the needed properties were made through the company Hines Interests, which in at least some cases did not disclose the fact that Apple was the ultimate buyer. Among the sellers of the properties were SummerHill Homes and Hewlett-Packard, among others; until April 2008, Apple had not sought the necessary permits to begin construction, so it was estimated that the project would not be ready in 2010 as proposed. In November 2010 the San Jose Mercury News revealed that Apple had bought an additional 98 acres no longer used by HP Inc. just north across Pruneridge Ave. This space had been the HP campus in Cupertino. On June 7, 2011, Steve Jobs presented to Cupertino City Council details of the architectural design of the new buildings and their environs.
On October 15, 2013, Cupertino City Council unanimously approved Apple's plans for the new campus after a six-hour debate. Shortly thereafter, demolition work began to prepare the site for construction. On February 22, 2017, Apple announced the official name of the campus to be "Apple Park", the auditorium to be named "Steve Jobs Theater". Expected to break ground in 2013 and open in 2015, the project experienced delays and started in 2014; the campus opened for workers despite continued construction work. This was followed by the first event in the Steve Jobs Theater, which took place on September 12, 2017. Apple Park Visitor Center opened on September 17, 2017; as a consequence of the presence of Apple Park in the area, surrounding streets have met with both increased tourism, along with rising real estate values of local housing drawing in Apple employees wanting to live near the workplace. Apple Park is located one mile east of the original Apple Campus. Apple has had a presence in Cupertino since 1977, why the company decided to build in the area rather than move to a cheaper, distant location.
The campus is next to a contaminated site under Superfund legislation with a groundwater plume. Steve Jobs, in his final public appearance before his death in October 2011: It's got a gorgeous courtyard in the middle, a lot more. It's a circle, so it's curved all the way round; this is not the cheapest way to build something. Every pane of glass in the main building will be curved. We have a shot, at building the best office building in the world. I do think that architecture students will come here to see it; the ring-shaped building, advertised as "a perfect circle," was not planned as such. The inner rim and outer rim on each floor are left open as walkways. There are eight buildings, separated by nine mini-atria; the campus is one mile in circumference, with a diameter of 1,512 feet. The one circular building houses most employees, it is four stories above three stories underground. Apple created life-size mock-ups of all parts of the building to analyze any design issues; the design hides the roads and parking spaces underground.
The campus uses only glass for its walls and views of the inner courtyard as well as of the landscape facing the exterior of the building. Around 83,000 square feet of space is for meetings and breakout spaces in the building; the inner part of the circular building contains a 30-acre park featuring a pond, with fruit trees and winding pathways inspired by California fruit orchards. Steve Jobs wanted no gap, or paintbrush stroke visible for a clean fit and finish. All interior wood used for furniture was harvested from a certain species of maple, with Apple working with construction companies from 19 countries for designs and materials. A breathing, hollow concrete slab acts as floor, HVAC system. A total of 4,300 such slabs were used; some of the slabs weigh 60,000 pounds. During construction, the building's structure was started by DPR/Skanska, but they were removed from the job for undisclosed reasons. Rudolph and Sletten and Holder Con
Steven Paul Jobs was an American business magnate and investor. He was the chairman, chief executive officer, co-founder of Apple Inc.. Jobs is recognized as a pioneer of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. Jobs was born in San Francisco and put up for adoption, he was raised in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended Reed College in 1972 before dropping out that same year, traveled through India in 1974 seeking enlightenment and studying Zen Buddhism, his declassified FBI report states that he used marijuana and LSD while he was in college, once told a reporter that taking LSD was "one of the two or three most important things" he had done in his life. Jobs and Wozniak co-founded Apple in 1976 to sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer. Together the duo gained fame and wealth a year with the Apple II, one of the first successful mass-produced personal computers. Jobs saw the commercial potential of the Xerox Alto in 1979, mouse-driven and had a graphical user interface.
This led to development of the unsuccessful Apple Lisa in 1983, followed by the breakthrough Macintosh in 1984, the first mass-produced computer with a GUI. The Macintosh introduced the desktop publishing industry in 1985 with the addition of the Apple LaserWriter, the first laser printer to feature vector graphics. Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985 after a long power struggle with the company's board and its then-CEO John Sculley; that same year, Jobs took a few of Apple's members with him to found NeXT, a computer platform development company that specialized in computers for higher-education and business markets. In addition, he helped to develop the visual effects industry when he funded the computer graphics division of George Lucas's Lucasfilm in 1986; the new company was Pixar. Apple merged with NeXT in 1997, Jobs became CEO of his former company within a few months, he was responsible for helping revive Apple, at the verge of bankruptcy. He worked with designer Jony Ive to develop a line of products that had larger cultural ramifications, beginning in 1997 with the "Think different" advertising campaign and leading to the iMac, iTunes, iTunes Store, Apple Store, iPod, iPhone, App Store, the iPad.
In 2001, the original Mac OS was replaced with a new Mac OS X, based on NeXT's NeXTSTEP platform, giving the OS a modern Unix-based foundation for the first time. Jobs was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in 2003, he died of respiratory arrest related to the tumor at age 56 on October 5, 2011. Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, to Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble, was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, his biological father, Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, grew up in Homs and was born into an Arab Muslim household. Jandali is the son of a self-made millionaire who did not go to college and a mother, a traditional housewife. While an undergraduate at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, he was a student activist and spent time in jail for his political activities. Although Jandali wanted to study law, he decided to study economics and political science, he pursued a PhD in the latter subject at the University of Wisconsin, where he met Joanne Carole Schieble, a Catholic of Swiss and German descent, who grew up on a farm in Wisconsin.
As a doctoral candidate, Jandali was a teaching assistant for a course Schieble was taking, although both were the same age. Mona Simpson, Jobs's biological sister, notes that her maternal grandparents were not happy that their daughter was dating Jandali: "it wasn't that he was Middle-Eastern so much as that he was a Muslim, but there are a lot of Arabs in Wisconsin. So it's not that unusual." Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs's official biographer, additionally states that Schieble's father "threatened to cut Joanne off completely" if she continued the relationship. Jobs's adoptive father, Paul Reinhold Jobs, grew up in a Calvinist household, the son of an "alcoholic and sometimes abusive" father; the family lived on a farm in Wisconsin. Paul bore an ostensible resemblance to James Dean, he joined the United States Coast Guard as an engine-room machinist. After World War II, Paul Jobs decided to leave the Coast Guard when his ship docked in San Francisco, he made a bet that he would find his wife in San Francisco and promptly went on a blind date with Clara Hagopian.
They were engaged ten days and married in 1946. Clara, the daughter of Armenian immigrants, grew up in San Francisco and had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. After a series of moves and Clara settled in San Francisco's Sunset District in 1952; as a hobby, Paul Jobs rebuilt cars, but his career was as a "repo man", which suited his "aggressive, tough personality." Meanwhile, their attempts to start a family were halted after Clara had an ectopic pregnancy, leading them to consider adoption in 1955. Schieble became pregnant with Jobs in 1954 when she and Jandali spent the summer with his family in Homs, Syria. Jandali has stated that he "was much in love with Joanne... but sadly, her father was a tyrant, forbade her to marry me, as I was from Syria. And so she told me she wanted to give the ba
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Eero Saarinen was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer noted for his neo-futuristic style. Saarinen is known for designing the Washington Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D. C. the TWA Flight Center in New York City, the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, he was the son of noted Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. Eero Saarinen was born on August 20, 1910, to Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen and his second wife, Louise, on his father's 37th birthday, they immigrated to the United States in 1923. He grew up in Bloomfield Hills, where his father taught and was dean of the Cranbrook Academy of Art, he took courses in sculpture and furniture design there, he had a close relationship with fellow students Charles and Ray Eames, became good friends with Florence Knoll. Saarinen began studies in sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, France, in September 1929, he went on to study at the Yale School of Architecture, completing his studies in 1934. Subsequently, he toured Europe and North Africa for a year and returned for a year to his native Finland.
After his tour of Europe and North Africa, Saarinen returned to Cranbrook to work for his father and teach at the academy. The firm was "Saarinen and Associates", headed by Eliel Saarinen and Robert Swansen from the late 1930s until Eliel's death in 1950; the firm was located in Bloomfield Hills, until 1961 when the practice was moved to Hamden, Connecticut. Saarinen first received critical recognition, while still working for his father, for a chair designed together with Charles Eames for the "Organic Design in Home Furnishings" competition in 1940, for which they received first prize; the "Tulip Chair", like all other Saarinen chairs, was taken into production by the Knoll furniture company, founded by Hans Knoll, who married Saarinen family friend Florence Knoll. Further attention came while Saarinen was still working for his father, when he took first prize in the 1948 competition for the design of the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis; the memorial wasn't completed until the 1960s.
The competition award was mistakenly sent to his father because both he and his father had entered the competition separately. When the Committee sent out the Letter stating Saarinen had Won the Gateway Arch Competition the Letter was mistakenly addressed to his Father. During his long association with Knoll he designed many important pieces of furniture including the "Grasshopper" lounge chair and ottoman, the "Womb" chair and ottoman, the "Womb" settee and arm chairs, his most famous "Tulip" or "Pedestal" group, which featured side and arm chairs, dining and side tables, as well as a stool. All of these designs were successful except for the "Grasshopper" lounge chair, although in production through 1965, was not a big success. One of Saarinen's earliest works to receive international acclaim is the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois; the first major work by Saarinen, in collaboration with his father, was the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, which follows the rationalist design Miesian style, incorporating steel and glass, but with the added accent of panels in two shades of blue.
The GM Technical Center was constructed in 1956, with Saarinen using models, which allowed him to share his ideas with others, gather input from other professionals. With the success of the scheme, Saarinen was invited by other major American corporations such as John Deere, IBM, CBS to design their new headquarters or other major corporate buildings. Despite their rationality, the interiors contained more dramatic sweeping staircases, as well as furniture designed by Saarinen, such as the Pedestal Series. In the 1950s he began to receive more commissions from American universities for campus designs and individual buildings. Saarinen served on the jury for the Sydney Opera House commission in 1957 and was crucial in the selection of the now internationally known design by Jørn Utzon. A jury which did not include Saarinen had discarded Utzon's design in the first round. After his father's death in July 1950, Saarinen founded his own architect's office, "Eero Saarinen and Associates", he was the principal partner from 1950 until his death in 1961.
Under Eero Saarinen, the firm carried out many of its most important works, including the Bell Labs Holmdel Complex in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, the Miller House in Columbus, the TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport that he worked on with Charles J. Parise, the main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport, the new East Air Terminal of the old Athens airport in Greece, which opened in 1967, etc. Many of these projects use catenary curves in their structural designs. In 1949-1950, Saarinen was hired by the then-new Brandeis University to create a master plan for the campus. Saarinen's plan A Foundation for Learning: Planning the Campus of Brandeis University, developed with Matthew Nowicki, called for a central academic complex surrounded by residen
Charles Luckman was an American businessman and architect, famous as the "Boy Wonder of American Business" when he was named president of the Pepsodent toothpaste company in 1939 at the age of 30. Through acquisition, he became president of Lever Brothers. Born to a Jewish family, Luckman had always wanted to be an architect; as a nine-year-old paper boy outside the Muehlebach Hotel in Kansas City, he asked a customer about the pretty lights and was told they were called "chandeliers." He asked, "Who does... Who decides on things like that?" "An architect," came the reply. "He designs the hotel and says to put the chandeliers there." Luckman wrote in his memoir, "Right and there I decided to become an architect." He trained at the University of Illinois where he was a member of the Professional Engineering Fraternity Theta Tau, the Social Fraternity Chi Psi but went into sales after graduating during the depths of the Great Depression. After nearly 20 years of great success in business, he helped plan Lever Brothers' New York skyscraper, Lever House, one of the first sealed glass towers that began the curtain wall trend.
The complex, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, was innovative in several other ways, as well, including a rare public plaza at ground level. Reminded of his architectural roots, Luckman resigned the presidency of Lever Brothers, moved to Los Angeles and began practicing architecture with fellow University of Illinois graduate William Pereira c. 1950 as Pereira & Luckman. Their partnership led to works such as CBS Television City and the master plans for Edwards Air Force Base and Los Angeles International Airport. Luckman and Pereira went separate ways in 1959. Luckman's firm went on to design the Prudential Tower in Boston, The Forum in Inglewood, the new Madison Square Garden in New York City, Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Aon Center in Los Angeles, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. In 1946, President Harry Truman appointed Luckman to serve on the President's Committee on Civil Rights. In 1947, President Truman asked him to help feed starving Europe. For this work, he was honored with Britain's Order of St. John, France's Legion of Honor, Italy's Star of Solidarity.
He was married to Harriet Luckman. Pereira & Luckman, 1950-1959 Farmers & Stockmen's Bank, Arizona, 1951 Gibraltar Savings & Loan Headquarters, Beverly Hills, California, 1951 Robinson's department store, Beverly Hills, 1951 Robinson's department store, California, 1951 Avco Research Center, Massachusetts, 1952 Beverly Hills Hotel Addition, Beverly Hills, 1952 Doheny Office Building, Beverly Hills, 1952 Hilton Hotels headquarters, Beverly Hills, 1952 Lear Industrial plant, Santa Monica, 1952 Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, 1952 CBS Television City, Los Angeles, 1953 Western Hydraulics plant, Van Nuys, California, 1953 Electronics and Radio Propagation Research Laboratories, Camp Pendleton, California, 1954 KTTV Television Station, Los Angeles, 1954 KEYT Television Station, Santa Barbara, California, 1954 National Bureau of Standards building, Colorado, 1954 Santa Rosa Hall - Dormitory, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1954 United States Navy training facility, San Diego, California, 1954 Wadsworth General Hospital, Veteran's Administration, Los Angeles, 1954 Western Hydraulics Plant 2, Van Nuys, California, 1954 William H.
Block Department Store, Indianapolis, 1954 WSBT Television Station, South Bend, Indiana, 1954 Marineland of the Pacific, Rancho Palos Verdes, California, 1954 Dormitories and Science Buildings, Occidental College, Los Angeles, 1955 Jet Production and Test Center, California, 1955 Service Bureau Office Building, Los Angeles, 1955 Fallbrook Hospital, California, 1956 General Telephone Company Administration Building, 1956 Whittier, Hunter Engineering plant, California, 1956 Prudential Tower, Boston, 1956 Southern California School of Theology, California, 1956 United States Air Force and Naval Bases, Cádiz, Spain, 1956 Braniff International Airways and Maintenance Base, Texas, 1956 First National Bank, Colorado, 1957 Motion Picture Country House and Hospital, Woodland Hills, California, 1957 Nellis Air Force Base buildings, Nevada, 1957 Beckman Corporation plant, Newport Beach, California, 1958 Berlin Hilton, Germany, 1958 Bullock's Fashion Square, Santa Ana, California, 1958 Chrysler Sales & Service Training Center, California, 1958 Convair Astronautics, San Diego, California, 1958 Disneyland Hotel, California, 1958 Firestone Tire company headquarters, Los Angeles, 1958 Ford Aeronutronics, Newport Beach, California, 1958 General Atomic, La Jolla, California, 1958 Grossmont Hospital, San Diego, California, 1958 IBM headquarters, Los Angeles, 1958 Los Angeles International Airport, 1958 Physical Plant Building B, University of Southern California, 1958 Robinson's department store, Palm Springs, California, 1958 Signal Oil headquarters, Los Angeles, 1958 Union Oil Center, Los Angeles, 1958 Valley Presbyterian Hospital, Van Nuys, California, 1958Charles Luckman & Associates 1959-1982 Robertson Gymnasium, Santa Barbara, 1959 Msgr.
Farrell High School, Staten Island, New York, 1961 Theme Building, Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California, 1961 Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1962–1963 Chula Vista Center, Chula Vista, California, 1962 9200 Sunset, West Hollywood, 1964 Prudential Tower, Boston, 196