Neo-noir is a revival of the genre of film noir. The term film noir was popularized in 1955 by French critics Raymond Étienne Chaumeton, it was applied to crime films of the 1940s and 1950s produced in the United States, which adopted a 1920s/1930s Art Deco visual environment. The English translation is dark movie, indicating something sinister and shadowy, but expressing a cinematographic style; the film noir genre includes stylish Hollywood crime dramas with a twisted dark wit. Neo-noir has a similar style but with updated themes, style, visual elements and media. Neo-noir film directors refer to'classic noir' in the use of tilted camera angles, interplay of light and shadows, unbalanced framing. Neo-noir is a contraction of the phrase'new film noir', using the Greek prefix for the word new rendered as neo. Noir is a French word that, when used in isolation in discussing film, is a shortcut for'film noir'; as a neologism, neo-noir is defined by Mark Conard as "any film coming after the classic noir period that contains noir themes and noir sensibility".

Another definition describes it as noir that synthesizes diverse genres while foregrounding the scaffolding of film noir. "Film noir" was coined by critic Nino Frank in 1946, popularized by French critics Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumeton in 1955. The term revived in general use beginning with a revival of the style; the classic film noir era is dated from the early 1940s to the late 1950s. The films were adaptations of American crime novels, which were described as "hardboiled"; some authors resisted these terms. For example, James M. Cain, author of The Postman Always Rings Twice and Double Indemnity, is considered to be one of the defining authors of hard-boiled fiction. Both novels were adapted as the former more than once. Cain is quoted as saying, "I belong to no school, hard-boiled or otherwise, I believe these so-called schools exist in the imagination of critics, have little correspondence in reality anywhere else."Typically American crime dramas or psychological thrillers, films noir had common themes and plot devices, many distinctive visual elements.

Characters were conflicted antiheroes, trapped in a difficult situation and making choices out of desperation or nihilistic moral systems. Visual elements included low-key lighting, striking use of light and shadow, unusual camera placement. Sound effects helped create the noir mood of nostalgia. Few major films in the classic film noir genre have been made since the early 1960s; these films incorporated both thematic and visual elements reminiscent of film noir. Both classic and neo-noir films are produced as independent features. After 1970 film critics took note of "neo-noir" films as a separate genre. Noir and post-noir terminology are rejected by both critics and practitioners. Robert Arnett stated, "Neo-noir has become so amorphous as a genre/movement, any film featuring a detective or crime qualifies." Screenwriter and director Larry Gross, identifies Alphaville, alongside John Boorman’s Point Blank and Robert Altman’s The Long Goodbye, based on Raymond Chandler's 1953 novel, as neo-noir films.

Gross believes that they deviate from classic noir in having more of a sociological than a psychological focus. Neo noir features characters who commit violent crimes, but without the motivations and narrative patterns found in film noir. Neo noir assumed global character and impact when filmmakers began drawing elements from films in the global market. For instance, Quentin Tarantino's works have been influenced by Ringo Lam's City on Fire; this was the case for the noir-inflected Reservoir Dogs, instrumental in establishing Tarantino in October 1992. List of neo-noir titles List of film noir titles Tech noir Arnett, Robert. "Eighties Noir: The Dissenting Voice in Reagan's America". Journal of Popular Film and Television. 34: 123–129. Conrad, Mark T.. The Philosophy of Neo-noir. Lexington, Ky.: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2422-0; the Philosophy of Neo-noir at Google Books. Hirsch, Foster. Detours and Lost Highways: A Map of Neo-Noir. New York: Proscenium Publishers. ISBN 0-87910-288-8.

Detours and Lost Highways: A Map of Neo-Noir at Google Books. Martin, Richard. Mean Streets and Raging Bulls: The Legacy of Film Noir in Contemporary American Cinema. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3337-9. Snee, Brian J.. "Soft-boiled Cinema: Joel and Ethan Coens' Neo-classical Neo-noirs". Literature/Film Quarterly. 37

Flag of the Falkland Islands

The current flag of the Falkland Islands was adopted on 25 January 1999 and consists of a defaced Blue Ensign, with the Union Flag in the canton and the Falkland Islands coat-of-arms in the fly. The Falkland Islands have been claimed and occupied by several nations throughout its history, who used their national flags on the islands, it wasn't until 1876 that the islands were given a flag of their own, which consisted of a Blue Ensign defaced with the seal of the islands - an image of HMS Hebe in Falkland Sound, overlooked by a bullock. A new coat-of-arms for the islands was introduced on 16 October 1925, consisting of the Desire and a sea lion in a shield surrounded by the motto of the islands, Desire the Right; this coat-of-arms replaced the image of the bullock and ship on the flag. On 29 September 1948, the flag was updated to include the new coat-of-arms superimposed upon a white disc; the flag was banned by the Argentine military junta from 2 April-14 June 1982, during their occupation of the islands, when it was replaced by the flag of Argentina.

In 1999 the size of the arms was increased and the white disc removed to create the current flag. The Falkland Islands Red Ensign was created by The Merchant Shipping Order 1998, No. 3147 of 1998, which came into force in 1999 and which contains a picture of the ensign containing the Falkland arms on a white disc. Red Ensign with the Falklands coat of arms superimposed is used as the islands' civil ensign; the plain red ensign was used by ships in the territorial waters around the Falklands. The Governor of the Falkland Islands uses a Union Flag defaced with the coat of arms, it was this flag, raised at Government House in Stanley by the Royal Marines at the end of the Falkland War, signifying the liberation of the islands. Since its approval, the Falklands flag has been used to represent the Falkland Islanders internationally. In 2011, in support of Argentina's claim to the islands, the members of Mercosur banned Falklands flagged vessels from entering their ports. Vessels flying the Falklands Civil Ensign are required to re-flag with the Red Ensign to enter Mercosur ports.

The flag was flown from several HM Government buildings in London, including 10 Downing Street and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in Whitehall, on 14 June 2012 to mark the 30th anniversary of the islands' liberation. For the majority of the Falkland Islands existence as a British territory, the appropriate civil ensign was the same as that of the United Kingdom, an undefaced red ensign; the first warrant issued for the use of a defaced red ensign was issued in 1998, to be effective on the 25th of January 1999. This warrant prescribed the coat of arms of the Falkland Islands within a white disc. However, a revision of territorial flags issued that year removed the white disc and enlarged the territorial emblems across the board. Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands List of Falkland Islands flags List of flags of the United Kingdom

Denver Avalanche

The Denver Avalanche was an American soccer team based out of Denver, Colorado that played in the Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1982. Their home arena was McNichols Sports Arena, they should not be confused with the Colorado Avalanche. In February 1980, the Major Indoor Soccer League awarded a franchise to Ron Maierhofer, to be named the Denver Avalanche; the team's first three players, all signed the same day were Tony Graham, Chris Cattaneo and Adrian Brooks. The team's first draft pick Erhardt Kapp passed on the Avalanche and signed with the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League instead; the team's first game, an exhibition match, took place on November 3, 1980, a 10–4 loss to the St. Louis Steamers. Coached by Dave Clements, the Avalanche finished the regular season out of playoff contention, but in 1982, they made the playoffs only to fall to the St. Louis Steamers in the first round. Clements was named the 1982 MISL Coach of the Year; the team entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1983.

All Star Game MVP 1980–1981: Adrian BrooksCoach of the Year 1981–1982: Dave Clements Coach: Dave Clements Assistant Coach: Peter Duerden Director of Player Development: Mike Ditchfield The Year in American Soccer – 1981 The Year in American Soccer – 1982 Denver Avalanche roster Page with team logo No Money Down: How to Buy a Sports Franchise by Ron Maierhofer