Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio; the development of archaeology was crucial in the emergence of Neoclassical architecture. Excavation sites like those in Pompeii and Herculaneum allowed architects to make in depth interpretations of Classical architecture and synthesize their own unique style. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Therefore, the style defined by symmetry, simple geometry, social demands instead of ornament.
Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture, its roots date back to the 17th century when Claude Perrault decided to revive Ancient Greek architecture. A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the Baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in the Louvre Colonnade. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in England and France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann; the style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden and Russia. International neoclassical
Namco Pac-Man is an 8-bit arcade game system board, first used by Namco in 1980. Three unauthorized Pac-Man sequels were developed by Bally Midway, Namco's old US distributor, on this board between 1981 and 1983. In 1984, Namco ended its partnership with Bally Midway. In 1985, Namco released Jump Shot and Shoot the Bull on this board. Main CPU: Zilog Z80 @ 3.072 MHzInstruction set: 8-bit & 16-bit instructions @ 460,000 instructions per second Sound chip: Namco WSG Sample-based synthesis: 3-channels of single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis, 4-bit waveform samples GPU: Namco NVC293 video shifter Video resolution: 224×288 or 288×224 Frame rate: 60.61 frames per second ROM: 16 KB, 22 KB, 32 KB RAM: 4 KB to 6 KB Main RAM: 2 KB Video RAM: 2 KB to 4 KB Color depth: 8-bit, 9-bit, 10-bit Colors on screen: 16, 32, 64 Graphical planes: Sprite layer: 8 sprites on screen, 64 sprites in memory, 16×16 pixels size, 4 colors per sprite, sprite flipping Tilemap background: 8×8 tiles, 4 colors per tile, scrolling Radar tilemap Pac-Man - the highest-grossing game of all time Rally-X - the first game to feature a bonus round New Rally-X Ms. Pac-Man - unauthorized game created by Midway Games.
Pac-Man - unauthorized game created by Bally Midway.
3 known as Three, is an American progressive rock band formed in Woodstock, New York in the early 1990s. The band was founded in 1994 as a three piece: Joey Eppard on guitar and lead vocals, Josh Eppard on drums and Chris Bittner on bass, they came to the attention of Universal Records after well-received performances at the Woodstock festival in 1994 getting signed in 1998, but following an unstable relationship with the label through its series of corporate mergers, the band was left with little prospect of releasing their album. The band decided to release it on Planet Noise Records, a small indie label, thenceforth managed themselves independently, until their 2005 signing with Metal Blade, on whose label they re-released Wake Pig in late 2005, their career has been marked by several line-up changes, most notably Josh Eppard's departure to join Coheed and Cambria. The band has toured nationally several times, have appeared on radio stations throughout the United States. Joey Eppard has an active solo career and released a solo album, Been to the Future, in 2002.
When questioned about the band's name in an interview with Rock Something, Joey Eppard stated that they considered changing the name of the band several times, but always decided to keep the name 3. According to the same interview, the name of the band stems from Joey Eppard's own "fascination" with the number: "It is a reference to the construct of our reality as having predominantly 3 aspects. For example, we live in a 3 dimensional universe on the third planet from the sun, experiencing time as past and future in a form that consists of mind and spirit." In separate tours in May and October 2007 the band toured with the British progressive rock group Porcupine Tree, on their Fear of a Blank Planet North American tour. 3 went on the road with 1980s rock band Scorpions, finished up the second leg of the Fear of a Blank Planet tour with Porcupine Tree. The music video for the song "All That Remains" was voted the No. 16 Video of 2007 on MTV2's Headbanger's Ball. It was directed and animated by David Brodsky.
They were a part of the "Progressive Nation'08" tour with Dream Theater and Between the Buried and Me. Their fifth studio album, Revisions, a compilation of re-recordings of never before released songs as well as selections from their first 2 studio albums, was released on October 27, 2009. At the time it was planned to be their final release on Metal Blade Records, they have started to play a couple of their new songs at their live shows dating back to tours from late 2008. The band was due to record and release their next studio album for Roadrunner Records, but were subsequently dropped before any production began, they have since re-signed with Metal Blade Records and released their sixth studio album The Ghost You Gave to Me on October 11, 2011. The band themselves describe their music as "dark yet uplifting, spiritual without any connection to religion", their music is punctuated by dark, sometimes incomprehensible lyrics rather detached from the accompanying music. Joey Eppard is considered a competent guitarist with a unique self-taught flamenco/slap hybrid guitar technique.
Over the course of 3's discography, the band has covered a wide variety of music genres. This spectrum of style includes the following songs as examples of each genre: hip hop, R&B, blues, funk, metal, pop rock, acoustic rock, progressive, experimental progressive, rock'n roll, soft rock, folk, progressive funk, progressive metal; the genre-defying diversity of their music is what gives them the self-proclaimed title of a hybrid band, though the band is in a state consisting of progressive metal on their newest album The Ghost You Gave To Me. However, though the album does focus on progressive metal, there remain many influences from other genres within the music, including some country vibes in the musicality of "The Barrier". Joey Eppard – lead vocals, acoustic & electric guitars Billy Riker – guitars, effects Chris "Gartdrumm" Gartmann – drums, backing vocals Daniel Grimsland – bass, backing vocals Josh Eppard – drums, backing vocals Chris Bittner – bass Jason Foster – guitars Joe Cuchelo – bass Joe Stote – keyboards, percussion Wake Pig sampler Sugarlife You Are The Alien One Way Town It's Alive Woodchuck Truck Crazy Eyes The End is Begun Paint by Number Summercamp Nightmare Wake Pig The End Is Begun Revisions The Ghost You Gave to Me Half Life These Iron Bones Where Woodstock Lives Metal Massacre Vol. 13 Official website 3 at AllMusic