Neoclassicism was a Western cultural movement in the decorative and visual arts, theatre and architecture that drew inspiration from the art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism was born in Rome thanks to the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals; the main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, up to the 21st century. European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c. 1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Rococo style. Rococo architecture emphasizes grace and asymmetry; each "neo"-classicism selects some models among the range of possible classics that are available to it, ignores others.
The Neoclassical writers and talkers and collectors, artists and sculptors of 1765–1830 paid homage to an idea of the generation of Phidias, but the sculpture examples they embraced were more to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. They ignored the works of Late Antiquity; the "Rococo" art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Wood's The Ruins of Palmyra. Greece was all-but-unvisited, a rough backwater of the Ottoman Empire, dangerous to explore, so Neoclassicists' appreciation of Greek architecture was mediated through drawings and engravings, which subtly smoothed and regularized, "corrected" and "restored" the monuments of Greece, not always consciously; the Empire style, a second phase of Neoclassicism in architecture and the decorative arts, had its cultural centre in Paris in the Napoleonic era. Neoclassicism is a revival of the many styles and spirit of classic antiquity inspired directly from the classical period, which coincided and reflected the developments in philosophy and other areas of the Age of Enlightenment, was a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style.
While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism, this is a great over-simplification that tends not to be sustainable when specific artists or works are considered. The case of the supposed main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this well; the revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology. The writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts, his books Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture and Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums were the first to distinguish between Ancient Greek and Roman art, define periods within Greek art, tracing a trajectory from growth to maturity and imitation or decadence that continues to have influence to the present day. Winckelmann believed that art should aim at "noble simplicity and calm grandeur", praised the idealism of Greek art, in which he said we find "not only nature at its most beautiful but something beyond nature, namely certain ideal forms of its beauty, which, as an ancient interpreter of Plato teaches us, come from images created by the mind alone".
The theory was far from new in Western art, but his emphasis on close copying of Greek models was: "The only way for us to become great or if this be possible, inimitable, is to imitate the ancients". With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe. "Neoclassicism" in each art implies a particular canon of a "classical" model. In English, the term "Neoclassicism" is used of the visual arts. This, dominant for several decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar. In music, the period saw the rise of classical music, "Neoclassicism" is used of 20th-century developments. However, the operas of Christoph Willibald Gluck represented a Neoclassical approach, spelt out in his preface to the published score of Alceste, which aimed to reform opera by removing ornamentation, increasing the role of the chorus in line with Greek tragedy, using simpler unadorned melodic lines.
The term "Neoclassical" was not invented until the mid-19th century, at the time the style was described by such terms as "the true style", "reformed" and "revival". Ancient models were very much involved, but the style could be regarded as a revival of the Renaissance, in France as a return to the more austere and noble Baroque of the age of Louis XIV, for which a considerable nostalgia had developed as France's dominant military and political position started a serious decline. Ingres's coronation portrait of Napoleon borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, to the disapproval of critics. Neoclassicism was strongest in architecture and the decorative
Franklin Delano Roosevelt High School is a public high school located in Hyde Park, New York in Dutchess County. Named for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who grew up in Hyde Park, the school serves about 1,300 students in grades 9 to 12 in the Hyde Park Central School District; the original high school building was built on land donated to the town by local farmer Ben Haviland. Construction began in 1938 and was one of three schools erected as a Depression-era Public Works Administration project in Hyde Park, it was called the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Junior-Senior High School and may be the only public high school in the United States built under the auspices of, named for, a sitting president. President Roosevelt dedicated the school to the town in 1940, the school graduated its first class in 1941; as enrollment increased, the town began construction on the current high school building which opened in 1965. An addition was added to the rear of the school in 1976; the outdoor athletic complex was upgraded in 2013 with a new multi-sport football field, grandstands and field facilities, a concession stand.
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