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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas. Neon is a colorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air, it was discovered in 1898 as one of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air, after nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed. Neon was the second of these three rare gases to be discovered and was recognized as a new element from its bright red emission spectrum; the name neon is derived from the Greek νέον, neuter singular form of νέος, meaning new. Neon is chemically inert, no uncharged neon compounds are known; the compounds of neon known include ionic molecules, molecules held together by van der Waals forces and clathrates. During cosmic nucleogenesis of the elements, large amounts of neon are built up from the alpha-capture fusion process in stars. Although neon is a common element in the universe and solar system, it is rare on Earth, it composes about 18.2 ppm of air by a smaller fraction in Earth's crust.

The reason for neon's relative scarcity on Earth and the inner planets is that neon is volatile and forms no compounds to fix it to solids. As a result, it escaped from the planetesimals under the warmth of the newly ignited Sun in the early Solar System; the outer atmosphere of Jupiter is somewhat depleted of neon, although for a different reason. Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in low-voltage neon glow lamps, high-voltage discharge tubes and neon advertising signs; the red emission line from neon causes the well known red light of helium–neon lasers. Neon has few other commercial uses, it is commercially extracted by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Since air is the only source, it is more expensive than helium. Neon was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in London. Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of air until it became a liquid warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off; the gases nitrogen and argon had been identified, but the remaining gases were isolated in their order of abundance, in a six-week period beginning at the end of May 1898.

First to be identified was krypton. The next, after krypton had been removed, was a gas which gave a brilliant red light under spectroscopic discharge; this gas, identified in June, was named "neon", the Greek analogue of the Latin novum suggested by Ramsay's son. The characteristic brilliant red-orange color emitted by gaseous neon when excited electrically was noted immediately. Travers wrote: "the blaze of crimson light from the tube told its own story and was a sight to dwell upon and never forget."A second gas was reported along with neon, having the same density as argon but with a different spectrum – Ramsay and Travers named it metargon. However, subsequent spectroscopic analysis revealed it to be argon contaminated with carbon monoxide; the same team discovered xenon by the same process, in September 1898. Neon's scarcity precluded its prompt application for lighting along the lines of Moore tubes, which used nitrogen and which were commercialized in the early 1900s. After 1902, Georges Claude's company Air Liquide produced industrial quantities of neon as a byproduct of his air-liquefaction business.

In December 1910 Claude demonstrated modern neon lighting based on a sealed tube of neon. Claude tried to sell neon tubes for indoor domestic lighting, due to their intensity, but the market failed because homeowners objected to the color. In 1912, Claude's associate began selling neon discharge tubes as eye-catching advertising signs and was more successful. Neon tubes were introduced to the U. S. in 1923 with two large neon signs bought by a Los Angeles Packard car dealership. The glow and arresting red color made neon advertising different from the competition; the intense color and vibrancy of neon equated with American society at the time, suggesting a "century of progress" and transforming cities into sensational new environments filled with radiating advertisements and "electro-graphic architecture". Neon played a role in the basic understanding of the nature of atoms in 1913, when J. J. Thomson, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, channeled streams of neon ions through a magnetic and an electric field and measured the deflection of the streams with a photographic plate.

Thomson observed two separate patches of light on the photographic plate, which suggested two different parabolas of deflection. Thomson concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas were of higher mass than the rest. Though not understood at the time by Thomson, this was the first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. Thomson's device was a crude version of the instrument. Neon is the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three stable isotopes: 21Ne and 22Ne. 21Ne and 22Ne are primordial and nucleogenic and their variations in natural abundance are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be radiogenic; the causes of the variation of 20Ne in the Earth have thus been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions generating nucleogenic neon isotopes start from 24Mg and

Tomislav Draganja

Tomislav Draganja is a Croatian tennis player. Draganja competes on the ATP Challenger Tour Draganja focuses on doubles, where he has a career high ATP doubles ranking of 115 achieved on 26 February 2018. Draganja has won 4 Challenger doubles titles and 9 ITF Futures doubles titles on the ITF Men's Circuit. Draganja made his ATP main draw debut in doubles at the 2016 Croatia Open Umag, receiving doubles main draw wildcard alongside Nino Serdarušić, his older brother is a professional tennis player Marin Draganja. Tomislav Draganja at the Association of Tennis Professionals Tomislav Draganja at the International Tennis Federation

Bijection, injection and surjection

In mathematics, injections and bijections are classes of functions distinguished by the manner in which arguments and images are related or mapped to each other. A function maps elements from its domain to elements in its codomain. Given a function f: X → Y: The function is injective, or one-to-one, if each element of the codomain is mapped to by at most one element of the domain, or equivalently, if distinct elements of the domain map to distinct elements in the codomain. An injective function is called an injection. Notationally: ∀ x, x ′ ∈ X, f = f ⇒ x = x ′. Or, equivalently, ∀ x, x ′ ∈ X, x ≠ x ′ ⇒ f ≠ f; the function is surjective, or onto, if each element of the codomain is mapped to by at least one element of the domain. That is, the image and the codomain of the function are equal. A surjective function is a surjection. Notationally: ∀ y ∈ Y, ∃ x ∈ X such that y = f; the function is bijective if each element of the codomain is mapped to by one element of the domain. That is, the function is both injective and surjective.

A bijective function is called a bijection. An injective function need not be surjective, a surjective function need not be injective; the four possible combinations of injective and surjective features are illustrated in the adjacent diagrams. A function is injective if each possible element of the codomain is mapped to by at most one argument. Equivalently, a function is injective. An injective function is an injection; the formal definition is the following. The function f: X → Y is injective, if for all x, x ′ ∈ X, f = f ⇒ x = x ′; the following are some facts related to injections: A function f: X → Y is injective if and only if X is empty or f is left-invertible. Since every function is surjective when its codomain is restricted to its image, every injection induces a bijection onto its image. More every injection f: X → Y can be factored as a bijection followed by an inclusion as follows. Let fR: X → f be f with codomain restricted to its image, let i: f → Y be the inclusion map from f into Y.

F = i o fR. A dual factorisation is given for surjections below; the composition of two injections is again an injection, but if g o f is injective it can only be concluded that f is injective. Every embedding is injective. A function is surjective. In other words, each element in the codomain has non-empty preimage. Equivalently, a function is surjective. A surjective function is a surjection; the formal definition is the following. The function f: X → Y is surjective, if for all y ∈ Y, there is x ∈ X such that f = y; the following are some facts related to surjections: A function f: X → Y is surjective if and only if it is right-invertible, that is, if and only if there is a function g: Y → X such that f o g = identity function on Y. By collapsing all arguments mapping to a given fixed image, every surjection induces a bijection defined on a quotient of its domain. More every surjection f: X → Y can be factored as a non-bijection followed by a bijection as follows. Let X/~ be the equivalence classes of X under the following equivalence relation: x ~ y if and only if f = f.

Equivalently, X/~ is the set of all preimages under f. Let P: X → X/~ be the projection map which sends each x in X to its equivalence class ~, let fP: X/~ → Y be the well-defined function given by fP = f. F = fP o P. A dual factorisation is given for injections above; the composition of two surjections is again a surjection, but if g o f is surjective it can only be concluded that g is surjective. A function is bijective if it is both surjective. A bijective function is a bijection (one-to-one correspondenc

Yuri Krotkov

Yuri Vasilevich Krotkov was a Russian dramatist. Working as a KGB agent, he defected to the West in 1963. Born in Kutaisi, Krotkov received his BA in literature from the University of Moscow, he worked for Radio Moscow. After World War II, he was an information officer in Germany as a KGB agent. By 1956, he was a screenwriter in Moscow and still a KGB agent, he was selected as one of the principal agents in the seduction/compromise operation against Maurice Dejean, the French ambassador to the USSR, his wife. Krotkov was tasked with seducing the wife. On 13 September 1963, feeling guilty for the suicide of French military attaché Louis Guibaud, driven by a similar seduction/compromise operation, he defected in London, England. In 1964, he vouched for Yuri Nosenko, his information led to the exposure of John Watkins. In 1969, he became a novelist, he wrote I Am From Moscow, The Red Monarch: Scenes From the Life of Stalin, The Nobel Prize. In November 1969, Krotkov testified before the U. S. Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security that Wilfred Burchett had been his agent when he worked as a KGB controller.

However, he named implausibly, Jean-Paul Sartre and John Kenneth Galbraith as KGB agents, casting a great deal of doubt on his testimony. He claimed that Burchett had proposed a "special relationship" with the Soviets at their first meeting in Berlin in 1947. Krotkov reported that Burchett had worked as an agent for both Vietnam and China and was a secret member of the Communist Party of Australia. For his part, Burchett critic Tibor Méray alleged that he was an undercover party member but not a KGB agent; the returning dissident Vladimir Bukovsky was able to gain access to secret documents in Moscow in 1992, was able to copy them, including those concerning Burchett. According to communist propaganda expert Herbert Romerstein, these documents reveal that in July 1957 the KGB advised the Central Committee of the Communist Party that their agent Burchett had become Moscow correspondent of pro-communist newspaper National Guardian; as the newspaper could not afford to pay him a salary, KGB requested an immediate payment of 20,000 rubles and a monthly subsidy of 3000 rubles.

Burchett resigned from National Guardian in 1979 when the newspaper took the side of Chinese and Cambodian communists against the Soviet and Vietnamese communists. Robert Manne gave a similar account in 2013. Manne writes: "Every detail in the KGB memorandum is consistent with the Washington testimony of Yuri Krotkov, it now turns out that he was not a liar and a perjurer, but a truth-teller." KGB archives indicate that in 1957 Burchett was receiving monetary compensation for his services as a journalist, but do not contain evidence of espionage or acting as an agent for the Soviet state. List of Eastern Bloc defectors False Friend - TIME

The Immortals (2015 film)

The Immortals directed by Shivendra Singh Dungarpur premiered at the 20th Busan International Film Festival in October 2015 and was shown at the 17th Jio MAMI Mumbai Film Festival. It was screened as the opening film in the Documentary Section at the 21st Kolkata International Film Festival. "The Immortals" was selected for the National Competition Section at the 14th Mumbai International Film Festival 2016 and won the Special Jury Award, presented to Shivendra Singh Dungarpur at the closing ceremony on 3 February 2016. The Immortals will be screened at the 30th edition of the Il Cinema Ritrovato Festival in Bologna in June 2016; this film is a personal journey travelling through time and space to unravel hidden stories and rediscover objects and images that at one time were an integral part of the lives of these artists through which their creations came into being. It is a visual exploration of physical artifacts, personal spaces and living memories where the image speaks for itself, recreating the impression of each artist whilst telling the story of Indian cinema.

The film depicts the paradox of India’s relationship with cinema: the romance and the power, the neglect and the worship. Dadasaheb Phalke’s car abandoned by the side of a road. L. Saigal’s harmonium fallen silent like his voice. Http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/hindi/bollywood/news/Items-belonging-to-filmmaking-legends-tell-their-stories/articleshow/49000421.cms http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/the-past-master/article7662523.ece http://scroll.in/article/756589/new-documentary-weaves-together-a-history-of-indian-cinema-through-objects-and-fragmented-memories

Red Sea Station

The Red Sea Station was one of the geographical divisions into which the Royal Navy divided its worldwide responsibilities. At various times it has been referred to as Red Sea Division, Egypt Division and Red Sea and the Red Sea and Canal Area it operated from 1846 until 1959 when it was unified with the Senior Naval Officer, Persian Gulf to create the Arabian Seas and Persian Gulf Station; the Royal Navy established a Red Sea formation as early as 1846, administered by the Royal Indian Navy. It was subordinate to the Commander-in-Chief, East Indies until 1883, when it became part of the Mediterranean Station. In 1914 the station came under command of the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet until the end of the war. Following the war it was reabsorbed back within the East Indies until 20 October 1941. On 21 October 1941 a change in naval command happened when the Mediterranean Fleet's responsibilities were extended to include the Red Sea and Aden; the Eastern extent of this change was extended to include the Gulf Aden.

The Red Sea Division of the Red Sea Station was located between the Gulf of Aden and Suez however it excluded the Port of Suez. Rear-Admiral Ronald Hallifax took command as Red Sea. On 14 November 1941 the Senior Naval Officer-in-Charge, Suez, based at Port Tawfik was placed under the command of Admiral Hallifax whilst the Senior British Naval Officer, Suez Canal Area, based at Ismailia remained responsible dealing with all British naval policy questions in regards to the Suez Canal Company.. In January 1944 the station was transferred back under the East Indies. In 1958-59, when the Commander-in-Chief East Indies hauled down his flag for the last time, it was unified with the Persian Gulf Division to create the Arabian Seas and Persian Gulf Station reporting to the joint services Middle East Command in Aden. Incomplete list of post holders included: Post holders included: Note:Command is known as Egypt Division and Red Sea. Incomplete list of post holders included: Incomplete list of post holders included: Included: Commodore Young-Jamieson's broad pennant was borne in HMS Stag, the name used for the base for British naval personnel in Egypt.

First established at Port Said, it was commissioned on 8 January 1940. There were outposts at Adabya, Ismailia, Port Tewfik, it was paid off in May 1949. HMS Euphrates at Basra reported to Flag Officer, Red Sea and Canal Area, from its establishment in 1942. Allen's Indian Mail and Register of Intelligence, for British and Foreign and India and China and all parts of the East. London, England: W. H. Allen and Company. 1846. Brown, David; the Royal Navy and the Mediterranean: Vol. II: November 1940-December 1941. Cambridge, England: Routledge. ISBN 9781136341274. Harley, Simon. "Egypt - The Dreadnought Project". Www.dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley and Lovell. Houterman, Jerome N... "Royal Navy, Mediterranean Fleet 1939-1945". Www.unithistories.com. Houterman and Koppes, Netherlands. Jr, Harold E. Raugh. British Military Operations in Egypt and the Sudan: A Selected Bibliography. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9781461657002. Kindell, Don. "Admiralty War Diaries: Loss of HMS Khartoum, June 1940". Www.naval-history.net.

Gordon Smith. Low, Charles Rathbone. History of the Indian Navy:. London, England: R. Bentley and Son. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation in World War 2, 1939-1945". Naval-history.net. Gordon Smith