The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit; this differs from a tram or streetcar, which uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which rely on batteries. Power is most supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions. Around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Altogether, more than 800 trolleybus not more than about 400 concurrently; the trolleybus dates back to 29 April 1882, when Dr. Ernst Werner Siemens demonstrated his "Elektromote" in a Berlin suburb; this experiment continued until 13 June 1882, after which there were few developments in Europe, although separate experiments were conducted in the U. S. In 1899, another vehicle which could run either on or off rails was demonstrated in Berlin; the next development was when Lombard Gerin operated an experimental line at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 after four years of trials, with a circular route around Lake Daumesnil that carried passengers.
Routes followed in 6 places including Fontainebleau. Max Schiemann on 10 July 1901 opened the world's fourth passenger-carrying trolleybus system, which operated at Bielatal, in Germany. Schiemann built and operated the Bielatal system, is credited with developing the under-running trolley current collection system, with two horizontally parallel overhead wires and rigid trolleypoles spring-loaded to hold them up to the wires. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days there were many other methods of current collection; the Cédès-Stoll system was first operated near Dresden between 1902 and 1904, 18 systems followed. The Lloyd-Köhler or Bremen system was tried out in Bremen with 5 further installations, the Cantono Frigerio system was used in Italy. Throughout the period, trackless freight systems and electric canal boats were built. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
Though it was opened on 20 June, the public was not admitted to the Bradford route until the 24th. Bradford was the last to operate trolleybuses in the UK, the system closing on 26 March 1972; the last rear-entrance trolleybus in Britain was in Bradford and is now owned by the Bradford Trolleybus Association. Birmingham was the first to replace a tram route with trolleybuses, while Wolverhampton, under the direction of Charles Owen Silvers, became world-famous for its trolleybus designs. There were 50 trolleybus systems in the UK. By the time trolleybuses arrived in Britain in 1911, the Schiemann system was well established and was the most common, although the Cédès-Stoll system was tried in West Ham and in Keighley. Smaller trackless trolley systems were built in the US early as well; the first non-experimental system was a seasonal municipal line installed near Nantasket Beach in 1904. The trackless trolley was seen as an interim step, leading to streetcars. In the U. S. A. some systems subscribed to the all-four concept of using buses, trolleybuses and rapid transit subway and/or elevated lines, as appropriate, for routes ranging from the used to the heaviest trunk line.
Buses and trolleybuses in particular were seen as entry systems that could be upgraded to rail as appropriate. In a similar fashion, many cities in Britain viewed trolleybus routes as extensions to tram routes where the cost of constructing or restoring track could not be justified at the time, though this attitude changed markedly in the years after 1918. Trackless trolleys were the dominant form of new post-war electric traction, with extensive systems in among others, Los Angeles, Rhode Island, Atlanta; some trolleybus lines in the United States came into existence when a trolley or tram route did not have sufficient ridership to warrant track maintenance or reconstruction. In a similar manner, a proposed tram scheme in Leeds, United Kingdom, was changed to a trolleybus scheme to cut costs. Trolleybuses are uncommon today in North America, but they remain common in many European countries as well as Russia and China occupying a position in usage between street railways and diesel buses. Worldwide, around 300 cities or metropolitan areas are served by trolleybuses today.
Trolleybuses are used extensively in large European cities, such as Athens, Bratislava, Budapest, Kiev, Milan, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tallinn, Varna and Zurich, as well as smaller ones such as Arnhem, Coimbra, Kaunas, Limoges, Modena, Piatra Neamț, Plzeň, Prešov, Solingen, Szeged, Târgu Jiu and Yalta. See Trolleybus usage by country. Transit authorities in some cities have reduced or discontinued their use of trolleybuses in recent years, while othe
Plymouth is a port city situated on the south coast of Devon, England 37 miles south-west of Exeter and 190 miles west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city are the mouths of the river Plym and river Tamar, which are incorporated into Plymouth Sound to form a boundary with Cornwall. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age; this settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony, the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War, the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, exporting local minerals; the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval dockyard town.
In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz. the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth; the city's naval importance led to its being targeted by the German military and destroyed by bombing during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967; the city is home to 263,100 people, making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South West, after Bristol. It is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany and Spain, but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s, it has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe, HMNB Devonport, is home to the University of Plymouth.
Upper Palaeolithic deposits, including bones of Homo sapiens, have been found in local caves, artefacts dating from the Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age have been found at Mount Batten, showing that it was one of few principle trading ports of pre Roman Britannia dominating continental trade with Armorica. An unidentified settlement named TAMARI OSTIA is listed in Ptolemy's Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city. An ancient promontory fort was located at Rame Head at the mouth of Plymouth Sound with ancient hillforts located at Lyneham Warren to the east, Boringdon Camp and Maristow Camp to the north; the settlement of Plympton, further up the River Plym than the current Plymouth, was an early trading port. As the river silted up in the early 11th century and merchants were forced to settle downriver at the current day Barbican near the river mouth. At the time this village was called meaning south town in Old English; the name Plym Mouth, meaning "mouth of the River Plym" was first mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211.
The name Plymouth first replaced Sutton in a charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for the derivation of the name Plym. During the Hundred Years' War a French attack burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders. On 12 November 1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. In the late fifteenth century, Plymouth Castle, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; the castle served to protect Sutton Pool, where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament was passed for further fortifying Plymouth. A series of fortifications were built, including defensive walls at the entrance to Sutton Pool. Defences on St Nicholas Island date from this time, a string of six artillery blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe; this location was further strengthened by the building of a fort in 1596.
During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the major export commodity. Plymouth was the home port for successful maritime traders, among them Sir John Hawkins, who led England's first foray into the Atlantic slave trade, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Mayor of Plymouth in 1581 and 1593. According to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New World from Plymouth, establishing Plymouth Colony – the second English colony in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for four years by the Royalists; the last major attack by the Royalists was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by the Plymothians at Freedom Fields Park. The civil war ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored by King Charles II in 1660, who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on Drake's Is
Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP. Since the 6th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley; the Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt, making it the most important regional centre for several centuries. Stuttgart's roots were laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, as a stud farm for his warhorses.
Overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew and was granted a charter in 1320. The fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg, they made it the capital of their county and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918. Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years' War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile production during World War II. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became the major economic, industrial and publishing centre it is today. Stuttgart is a transport junction, possesses the sixth-largest airport in Germany. Several major companies are headquartered in Stuttgart, including Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, Dinkelacker. Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities, it is spread across a variety of hills and parks. This surprises visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the "cradle of the automobile"; the city's tourism slogan is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, the city unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas".
For business, it describes itself as "Where business meets the future". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area. Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to Dorling Kindersley's Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, "In the city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of Stuttgart's residents, 64% of the population below the age of five, are of immigrant background. Stuttgart nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" in reference to its location in the centre of Swabia and the local dialect spoken by the native Swabians, has its etymological roots in the Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud farm", because the city was founded in 950 AD by Duke Liudolf of Swabia to breed warhorses; the most important location in the Neckar river valley was the hilly rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. Thus, the first settlement of Stuttgart was a massive Roman Castra stativa built c. 90 AD to protect the Villas and vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from Mogontiacum to Augusta Vindelicorum.
As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there after the Limes moved further east. When they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery; when the Romans were driven back past the Rhine and Danube rivers in the 3rd century by the Alamanni, the settlement temporarily vanished from history until the 7th century. In 700, Duke Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding property. Archaeological evidence shows that Merovingian era Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did. Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall's archives as "Canstat ad Neccarum" in 708; the etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is mentioned as condistat in the Annals of Metz, it is derived from the Latin word condita, suggesting that the name of the Roman settlement might have had the prefix "Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer suggested that the Roman site corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to in an inscription found near Öhringen.
There have been attempts at a derivation from a Gaulish *kondâti- "confluence". In 950 AD, Duke Liudolf of Swabia, son of the current Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry during the Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres south of the old Roman castrum; the land and title of Duke of Swabia remained in Liudolf's hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four years later. In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to the Old Castle. Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy Roman Empire in the year 1108 AD
In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. The center of gravity of the engine itself is behind the rear axle; this is not to be confused with the center of gravity of the whole vehicle, as an imbalance of such proportions would make it impossible to keep the front wheels on the ground. Rear-engined vehicles always have a rear-wheel drive car layout, but some are four wheel drive; this layout has the following features: Packaging: since there is no need for a transmission tunnel, the floor can be flat. Rear traction: having the engine located over the driven wheels increases downward pressure, helpful for grip on loose surfaces, although can be prone to oversteer. Simplicity of manufacture: the engine is near the driven wheels, the transmission can be merged with the differential to save space; this layout was once popular in light commercial vehicles. Today most car makers have abandoned the layout although it does continue in some expensive cars, like the Porsche 911.
It is used in some racing car applications, low-floor buses, microcars such as the Smart Fortwo. Some electric cars feature both front engines, to drive all four wheels. Alpine A110 and A310 Benz Patent-Motorwagen BMW 600 and 700 Chevrolet Corvair Davrian DMC DeLorean Dune buggies such as the Meyers Manx Fiat 500, 600, 850, 126 and 133 FMR Tg500 Hillman Imp Hino Contessa Mercedes-Benz 130/150/170H Mitsubishi i and iMiev NSU Prinz Porsche 356, 911 and 959 Puma_ Renault 4CV, Floride, Caravelle, R8, R10 and the 3rd generation Twingo Renault Alpine A106, A108, A110, A310 and GTA/A610 SEAT 600, 850 and 133 Simca 1000 Škoda 1000/1100MB,MBX, 100/110, 110R, 105/120/125, 130/135/136, Rapid Smart Fortwo, Roadster and 2nd generation Smart Forfour Stout Scarab Subaru 360 Suzuki Fronte 360, Fronte 71 and 72, Fronte Coupé, Fronte LC20, Fronte 7-S / SS10 / SS20 and Cervo SS20 / SC100 Tata Nano, Tata Pixel and Tata Magic Iris Tatra 77, 87, 97, 600, 603, 613, 700 Tucker Torpedo Volkswagen Beetle, type 3'pontoon', Karmann Ghia and type 4, as well as the VW Bus and type 181'Thing' ZAZ Zaporozhets series
Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an electric or engine-driven air pump or compressor. This compressor pumps the air into a flexible bellows made from textile-reinforced rubber; the air pressure inflates the bellows, raises the chassis from the axle. Air suspension is used in place of conventional steel springs in heavy vehicle applications such as buses and trucks, in some passenger cars, it is used on semi trailers and trains. The purpose of air suspension is to provide a smooth, constant ride quality, but in some cases is used for sports suspension. Modern electronically controlled systems in automobiles and light trucks always feature self-leveling along with raising and lowering functions. Although traditionally called air bags or air bellows, the correct term is air spring. In 1901 an American, William W. Humphreys, patented an idea - a'Pneumatic Spring for Vehicles'; the design consisted of a left and right air spring longitudinally channeled nearly the length of the vehicle.
The channels were concaved to receive two long pneumatic cushions. Each one was provided with an air valve at the other end. From 1920, Frenchman George Messier provided aftermarket pneumatic suspension systems, his own 1922-1930 Messier automobiles featured a suspension "to hold the car aloft on four gas bubbles."During World War II, the U. S. developed the air suspension for heavy aircraft in order to save weight with compact construction. Air systems were used in heavy trucks and aircraft to attain self-levelling suspension. With adjustable air pressure, the axle height was independent of vehicle load. In 1946, American William Bushnell Stout built a non-production prototype Stout Scarab that featured numerous innovations, including a four-wheel independent air suspension system. In 1950, Air Lift Company patented a rubber air spring, inserted into a car's factory coil spring; the air spring expanded into the spaces in the coil spring, keeping the factory spring from compressing, the vehicle from sagging.
In 1954, Frenchman Paul Magès developed a functioning air/oil hydropneumatic suspension, incorporating the advantages of earlier air suspension concepts. Citroën replaced the conventional steel springs on the rear axle of their top-of-range model, the Traction Avant 15 Hydraulique. In 1955, the Citroën DS incorporated four wheel hydropneumatic suspension; this combined a soft, comfortable suspension, with controlled movements, for sharp handling, together with a self-levelling suspension. In 1956 air suspension was used on EMD's experimental Aerotrain. In the U. S. General Motors built on its World War II experience with air suspension for airplanes, it introduced air suspension as standard equipment on the new 1957 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham. An "Air Dome" assembly at each wheel included sensors to compensate for uneven road surfaces and to automatically maintain the car's height. For 1958 and 1959, the system continued on the Eldorado Brougham, was offered as an extra cost option on other Cadillacs.
In 1958, Buick introduced an optional "Air-Poised Suspension" with four cylinders of air for automatic leveling, as well as a "Bootstrap" control on the dashboard to raise the car 5.5 inches for use on steep ramps or rutted country roads, as well as for facilitating tire changes or to clean the whitewall tires. For 1959, Buick offered an optional "Air Ride" system on all models that combined "soft-rate" steel coil springs in the front with air springs in the rear. An optional air suspension system was available on the 1958 and 1959 Rambler Ambassadors, as well as on all American Motors "Cross Country" station wagon models; the "Air-Coil Ride" utilized an engine-driven compressor, air bags within the coil springs, a ride-height control, but the $99 optional system was not popular among buyers and American Motors discontinued it for 1960. Only Cadillac continued to offer air suspension through the 1960 model year, where it was standard equipment on the Eldorado Seville and Brougham. In 1960, the Borgward P 100 was the first German car with self-levelling air suspension.
In 1962, the Mercedes-Benz W112 platform featured an air suspension on the 300SE models. The system used a Bosch main valve with two axle valves on one on the rear; these controlled a cone-shaped air spring on each wheel axle. The system maintained a constant ride height utilizing an air reservoir, filled by a single-cylinder air compressor powered by the engine. In 1964, the Mercedes-Benz 600 used larger air springs and the compressed air system powered the brake servo. Rolls-Royce incorporated self-levelling suspension on the 1965 Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow, a system built under license from Citroën. In 1975, the Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9 incorporated a hydropneumatic suspension when the patents on the technology had expired. This design replaced the expensive and problematic compressed air system, still used on the 600 models until 1984. Air suspension was not included in standard production American-built cars between 1960 and 1983. In 1984, Ford Motor Company incorporated a new design as a feature on the Lincoln Continental Mark VII.
In 1986, Toyota Soarer introduced the first electronically controlled, a semi-active full air suspension. Dunlop Systems Coventry UK were pioneers of Elecronically Controlled Air Suspension for off-road vehicles - the term ECAS was trade marked; the system was first fitted to the 93MY Land Rover Range Rover. In 1989, Arnott Air Suspension Products is founded, eventuall
Bus manufacturing, a sector of the automotive industry, manufactures buses and coaches. Bus manufacturing had its earliest origins in carriage building. Other bus manufacturers had their origins in truck manufacturing. Chassis designs were shared between trucks and buses, but in years specific bus chassis have been developed, the midibus introduced a lighter weight bus chassis than normal trucks. Bus manufacture developed as chassis and body builds. Large bus operators or authorities would maintain separate stocks of bus bodies, would refurbish buses in a central works, refurbished chassis might receive a different body. One of the first integral type bus designs combining the chassis was the AEC Routemaster. In the 1980s, many minibuses were built by applying bus bodies to van chassis, so called'van derived' buses. Many of these have been replaced by purpose built designs, although for smaller minibuses this is still an option. In several parts of the world, the bus is still front-engined bonneted vehicle.
In the 1990s, bus manufacture underwent major change with the push toward low-floor designs, for improved accessibility. Some smaller designs achieved this by moving the door behind the front wheels. On most larger buses, it was achieved with various independent front suspension arrangements, kneeling technology, to allow an unobstructed path into the door and between the front wheel arches. Accordingly, these'extreme front entrance' designs cannot feature a front-mounted-engined or mid-engined layout, all use a rear-engined arrangement; some designs incorporate extendable ramps for wheelchair access. Further accessibility is being achieved for high-floor coaches, whereby new designs are featuring built-in wheelchair lifts. While the overwhelming majority of bus designs have been geared to internal combustion engine propulsion, accommodation has been made for a variety of alternative drivelines and fuels, as in electric, fuel cell and hybrid bus technologies; some bus designs have incorporated guidance technology.
There are three basic types of bus manufacturer: Chassis manufacturer - builds the underframe for body-on-frame construction Body manufacturer - builds the coachwork for body-on-frame construction Integral manufacturer - builds entire buses using no underframe at allManufacturers may be a combination of the above, offering chassis only or integral buses, or offering bodywork only as used on integral buses. The splitting of body and chassis construction allows companies to specialise in two different fields, it allows differing offerings of product to customers, who might prefer different chassis/body combinations. For the manufacturers, it lessens the exposure if the other goes out of business. Larger operators may split orders between different body/chassis combinations for shorter delivery schedules. Sometimes, a chassis and body builder will offer an exclusive combination of one body on one chassis, as a'semi-integral'; this combines the expertise of the two companies, saves the cost of making their chassis/body usable on different products.
Builders, such as Duple Metsec will assemble products into kits, for export and local assembly at a partner site. Large users of transit buses, such as public transport authorities, may order special features; this practice was notable in the Transport for London bus specification, predecessors. The Association of German Transport Companies was defining a VöV-Standard-Bus concept, followed between 1968 and 2000; the chassis combines: A structural underframe Engine and radiator Gearbox and transmission Wheels and suspension Dashboard, steering wheel, driver's seatChassis will be built as complete units, up to the point of being drive-able around the factory, or on the public highway to a nearby bodybuilder. The chassis can be mid-engined, or rear-engined. Most chassis will mount the radiator at the front, irrespective of engine position, for more efficient cooling. Chassis products will be available in different standard lengths produced in articulated variants, be used for both bus and coach bodywork, such as the Volvo B10M.
The same chassis may be used for single- or double-decker bus bodywork. Chassis builders may offer different options for gearbox and engine suppliers. Chassis may be built in multiple axle configuration; the bus body builder will build the body onto the chassis. This will involve major consideration of: Usage Seating capacity Staircase position/design Number and position of doorsBodywork is built for three general uses: Bus Dual Purpose CoachBus bodywork is geared to short trips, with many transit bus features. Coach bodywork is with luggage racks and under-floor lockers. Other facilities may include televisions. A dual purpose design is a bus body with upgraded coach style seating, for longer distance travel; some exclusive coach body designs can be available to a basic dual purpose fitment. In past double-deck designs, buses were built to a low bridge design, due to overall height restrictions. Bus manufacturers have to have consideration for some general issues common to body, chassis or integral builders.
Maximum weight Stability - a tilt test pass is required Maximum dimensions - length and width restrictions may apply Fuel consumption Emissions standards AccessibilityIn the 1990s onwards, some bus manufacturers have moved towards making transit bus interiors more comparable to private cars, to encourage public transpo