Dr Francis Buchanan FRS FRSE FLS FAS FSA DL known as Francis Hamilton but referred to as Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, was a Scottish physician who made significant contributions as a geographer and botanist while living in India. The standard botanical author abbreviation Buch.-Ham. is applied to plants and animals he described, though today the form "Hamilton, 1822" is more seen in ichthyology and is preferred by Fishbase. Francis Buchanan was born at Bardowie, Perthshire where Elizabeth, his mother, lived on the estate of Branziet. Francis Buchanan matriculated in 1774 and received an MA in 1779; as he had three older brothers, he had to earn a living from a profession, so Buchanan studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating MD in 1783. His thesis was on febris intermittens, he served on Merchant Navy ships to Asia, served in the Bengal Medical Service from 1794 to 1815. He studied botany under John Hope in Edinburgh. Hope was among the first in Britain to teach the Linnean system of botanical nomenclature, although he knew of several others having been trained under Antoine Laurent de Jussieu.
Buchanan's early career was on board ships plying between Asia. The first few years were spent as Surgeon aboard the Duke of Montrose sailing between Bombay and China under Captain Alexander Gray and Captain Joseph Dorin, he served on the Phoenix along the Coromandel Coast again under Captain Gray. In 1794 he served on the Rose, sailing from Portsmouth to Calcutta and reaching Calcutta in September, he joined the Medical Service of the Bengal Presidency. Buchanan's training was ideal as a Surgeon naturalist for a political mission to the Kingdom of Ava in Burma under Captain Symes; the Ava mission set sail on the Sea Horse and would pass the Andaman Islands and Ava before returning to Calcutta. In 1799, after the defeat of Tipu Sultan and the fall of Mysore, he was asked to survey South India resulting in A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore and Malabar, he wrote An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. He conducted two surveys, the first of Mysore in 1800 and the second of Bengal in 1807-14.
From 1803 to 1804 he was surgeon to the Governor General of India Lord Wellesley in Calcutta, where he organized a zoo, to become the Calcutta Alipore Zoo. In 1804, he was in charge of the Institution for Promoting the Natural History of India founded by Wellesley at Barrackpore. From 1807 to 1814, under the instructions of the government of Bengal, he made a comprehensive survey of the areas within the jurisdiction of the British East India Company, he was asked to report on topography, antiquities, the condition of the inhabitants, natural productions, agriculture (covering vegetables, manure, domestic animals, fences and landed property and common arts, commerce. His conclusions are reported in a series of treatises that are retained in major United Kingdom libraries, they include an important work on Indian fish species, entitled An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches, which describes over 100 species not recognised scientifically. He collected and described many new plants in the region, collected a series of watercolours of Indian and Nepalese plants and animals painted by Indian artists, which are now in the library of the Linnean Society of London He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in May, 1806 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in January 1817 He succeeded William Roxburgh to become the Superintendent of the Calcutta botanical garden in 1814, but had to return to Britain in 1815 due to his ill health.
In an interesting incident the notes that he took of Hope's botany lectures in 1780 were lent to his shipmate Alexander Boswell during a voyage in 1785. Boswell, lost the notes in Satyamangalam in Mysore and the notes went into the hands of Tipu Sultan who had them rebound. In 1800 they were found in Tippu's library by a major. Buchanan left India in 1815, in the same year inherited his mother's estate and in consequence took her surname of Hamilton, referring to himself as "Francis Hamilton Buchanan" or "Francis Hamilton"; however he is variously referred to by others as "Buchanan-Hamilton", "Francis Hamilton Buchanan" or "Francis Buchanan Hamilton". Francis Buchanan-Hamilton is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of South Asian turtle, Geoclemys hamiltoni. Vicziany, Marika. "Imperialism and Statistics in Early Nineteenth-Century India: The Surveys of Francis Buchanan". Modern Asian Studies. 20: 625–660. JSTOR 312628. Buchanan, Francis. A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore and Malabar.
London: T. Cadell & W. Davies / Black, Parry & Kingsbury. – in three volumes, publishers noted as booksellers to the Asiatic Society and the East India Company, respectively. Noltie, H. J. Indian botanical drawings 1793–1868. ISBN 1-872291-23-6 Works by Francis Hamilton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Francis Buchanan-Hamilton at Internet Archive
A mandala is a spiritual and ritual symbol in the Indian religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe. In common use, "mandala" has become a generic term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; the basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of a T. Mandalas have radial balance; the term appears in the Rigveda as the name of the sections of the work, Vedic rituals use mandalas such as the Navagraha mandala to this day. Mandalas are used in Buddhism. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction. A yantra is similar to a mandala smaller and using a more limited colour palette, it may be a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals, may incorporate a mantra into its design.
It is considered to represent the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. According to one scholar, "Yantras function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the spiritual aspect of human experience"Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, nondual realities; as Khanna describes: Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship that exists in the Tantras between the outer world and man's inner world, every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in inner–outer synthesis, is associated with the subtle body and aspects of human consciousness; the Rajamandala was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics, the Arthashastra. It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state. In historical and political sense, the term "mandala" is employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations.
It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed borders and a bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration. Empires such as Bagan, Champa, Khmer and Majapahit are known as "mandala" in this sense. In Vajrayana Buddhism, mandalas have been developed into sandpainting, they are a key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices. The mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana teachings; the mind is "a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe." The mandala represents the nature of Enlightened mind. An example of this type of mandala is Vajrabhairava mandala a silk tapestry woven with gilded paper depicting lavish elements like crowns and jewelry, which gives a three-dimensional effect to the piece.
A mandala can represent the entire universe, traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center, surrounded by the continents. One example is the Cosmological Mandala with Mount Meru, a silk tapestry from the Yuan dynasty that serves as a diagram of the Tibetan cosmology, given to China from Nepal and Tibet. In the mandala, the outer circle of fire symbolises wisdom; the ring of eight charnel grounds represents the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life". Described elsewhere: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human life". Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala palace itself a place populated by deities and Buddhas. One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment.
Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, the Buddhas Vairocana, Ratnasambhava and Amoghasiddhi; when paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms. Mandalas are used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation; the mandala is "a support for the meditating person", something to be contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes internalised in the minutest detail and can be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy... contained in texts known as tantras", instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn and visualised, indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use. By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience
Licchavi was an ancient kingdom on the Indian subcontinent, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley in modern-day Nepal from 400 to 750 CE. The Licchavi clan originated from Vaishali and Muzaffarpur in modern northern Bihar and conquered Kathmandu Valley; the language of Licchavi inscriptions is Vajjika, the particular script used is related to official Gupta scripts, suggesting that the other major kingdoms of the Classical Period to the south were a significant cultural influence. This was through Mithila, a region now situated in India with a small part in Nepal. A table of the evolution of certain Gupta characters used in Licchavi inscriptions prepared by Gautamavajra Vajrācārya can be found online, it is believed that a branch of the Lichhavi clan, having lost their political fortune in Bihar, came to Kathmandu and defeating the last Kirat King Gasti. In the Buddhist Pali canon, the Licchavi are mentioned in a number of discourses, most notably the Licchavi Sutta, the popular Ratana Sutta and the fourth chapter of the Petavatthu.
The Mahayana Vimalakirti Sutra spoke of the city of Vaisali as where the lay Licchavi bodhisattva Vimalakirti was residing. The earliest known physical record of the kingdom is an inscription of Mānadeva, which dates from 464, it mentions three preceding rulers, suggesting that the Licchavi dynasty began in the late 4th century. The Licchavi were ruled by a Maharaja, aided by a prime minister, in charge of the military and of other ministers. Nobles, known as samanta influenced the court whilst managing their own landholdings and militia. At one point, between 605 and 641, a prime minister called Amshuverma assumed the throne; the population provided conscript labour to support the government. Most local administration was performed by leading families; the economy was agricultural. Villages were grouped into dranga for administration. Lands were owned by nobles. Trade was very important,with many settlements positioned along trading routes. Tibet and India were both trading partners. Settlements filled the entire valley during the Licchavi period.
Further settlement was made east toward Banepa, west toward Tisting, northwest toward present-day Gorkha. The following list was adapted from The Licchavi Kings, by Tamot & Alsop, is approximate only with respect to dates. 185 Jayavarmā Vasurāja c. 400 Vṛṣadeva c. 425 Shaṅkaradeva I c. 450 Dharmadeva 464-505 Mānadeva I 505-506 Mahīdeva 506-532 Vasantadeva Manudeva 538 Vāmanadeva 545 Rāmadeva Amaradeva Guṇakāmadeva 560-565 Gaṇadeva 567-c. 590 Bhaumagupta 567-573 Gaṅgādeva 575/576 Mānadeva II 590-604 Shivadeva I 605-621 Aṃshuvarmā 621 Udayadeva 624-625 Dhruvadeva 631-633 Bhīmārjunadeva, Jiṣṇugupta 635 Viṣṇugupta - Jiṣṇugupta 640-641 Bhīmārjunadeva / Viṣṇugupta 643-679 Narendradeva 694-705 Shivadeva II 713-733 Jayadeva II 748-749 Shaṅkaradeva II 756 Mānadeva III 826 Balirāja 847 Baladeva 877 Mānadeva IV History of Nepal Nepal Mahajanapadas Vaishali Tamot and Alsop, Ian. "A Kushan-period Sculpture, The Licchavi Kings", Asianart.com History of Nepal, Thamel.com "Nepal: The Early Kingdom of the Licchavis, 400-750", Library of Congress Countryreports.org Vajrācārya, Gautamavajra, "Recently Discovered Inscriptions of Licchavi, Nepal", Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973
Dolakha known as Dolkha or Dholkha, a part of Province No. 3, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Charikot as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,191 km² and has a population of 204,229 in 2001 and 186,557 in 2011, it is a district with a strong religious affiliation. It is popularly known amongst most Nepalese for the temple of Dolakha Bhimeshawor.city The name Dolkha arose from the Sherpa community. In Sherpa's language "DO" means Stone "LA" means In "KHA" means Face; the Bhimeshwar temple is located in Dolakha Bazar of Bhimeshwar. The main statue of this temple is God Bhim. Bhimsen or Bhimeshwar or Bhim of Dolakha and is noted as one of the most popular throughout the country Nepal, he was the second prince of Panch Pandav and notably worshiped by the traders or merchandisers as their will God. In Dolakha, the roofless temple constitutes the idol of Bhimsen, triangular in shape and made of rough stone; the idol in the temple is said to resemble three different gods: Bhimeshwar in the morning, Mahadeva during the day and the Narayana in the evening.
Local legend has it that ages ago, 12 porters coming from elsewhere stopped at this spot and they made three stone stoves to cook rice. After a few minutes, it was noticed that one side of the rice grains was cooked but the other side was raw; when the Porter flipped the cooked side up, the cooked rice became raw again when it came in contact with the triangular-shaped black-stone. One of the porters became angry and stabbed the stone with "Paneu", which cut the stone and out of the cut flowed blood coated with milk, they realized that the stone is God Bhim. Worshippers started pouring in to pray God Bhim onwards. There are many faith-challenging incidents about the Bhimsen of Dolakha; the miraculous things of Bhimsen statue of Dolakha include sweating fluid like drops of warm water. People believe that if any bad incident is happening or going to happen in near future in the country Bhimsen himself tries to protect his people by warning them through sweating etc. From the point of view of Shree Bhimeshwar Shivapuran, there was a kingdom of Bhima, blessed by God Brahma at the side of a mountain peak.
The people, who lived in the Bhima's kingdom had to live sorrowful lives from the Bhima and so they prayed to god Shiva to save their lives. God Shiva came from Gaurishanker and killed the king Bhima. According to the history after Bhima's death, the statue of God at that spot was named -Bhimeshwar. Dolakha is known to have other holy temple like Kalinchowk Bhagawati, it is known to be the most powerful goddess temple in Nepal. It is situated in high mountains, it is situated in the altitude of about 3842m and the pilgrims are known to walk a long and dangerous walking route via the mountains to the temple before. But, from 2018 the government have started a new cable car service for the comfort of the pilgrim; the temple is believed to have strong spiritual power and known to fulfill the prayer of the pilgrims. The district consists of 9 Municipalities, out of which two are urban municipalities and seven are rural municipalities; these are as follows: Bhimeswor Municipality Jiri Municipality Kalinchok Rural Municipality Melung Rural Municipality Bigu Rural Municipality Gaurishankar Rural Municipality Baiteshwor Rural Municipality Sailung Rural Municipality Tamakoshi Rural Municipality Prior to the restructuring of the district, Dolakha consisted of the following municipalities and Village development committees: Zones of Nepal Dolakha Newar Language Thangmi language "Districts of Nepal".
Shah dynasty was the ruling Chaubise Thakuri dynasty from the Indian subcontinent. Shah dynasty traces their historical ancestor to King of Kaski, Kulamandan Khan, whose grandson Dravya Shah captured the throne of Gorkha from Khadka kings with the help of accomplices from six resident clans of Gorkha to become the King of Gorkha; the Shah descendants claimed to be of Bramhakshatriya origin. Dravya Shah was the youngest son of Yasho Brahma Shah, Raja of Lamjung and grandson of Kulamandan Khand, Raja of Kaski, he became the king of Gorkha with the help of accomplices. He ascended the throne of Gorkha on 1559 A. D. 19th century writer Daniel Wright describes the coronation of Dravya Shah as: On Wednesday the 8th of Bhadon Badi, Saka 1481 Rohini Nakshatra being an auspicious day, Drabya Shah aided by Bhagirath Panth, Ganesa Pande, Gangaram Rana, Busal Arjyal, Khanal Bohra and Murli Khawas of Gorkha, concealed himself in a hut. Ganesa Pande had collected all the people of who wore the brahmanical thread such as the Thapas, Busals and Maski Ranas of the Magar tribe, they went by the Dahya Gauda route and the Durbar.
Drabya Shah killed the Khadka Raja his own hand, during the battle ensued. At the same auspicious moment Drabya took his seat on the gaddi; the local Ghale people had chosen their king from the winners of an annual running race. Dravya Shah was not a physically robust man but he tricked his way to the win, he was backed by the Bhattarai, Adhikari and Acharya clans who were Brahmin. By 1570, when Dravya Shah died, the running race a memory among the people. Dravya Shah used the army of the Magar to invade neighboring states and his successors continued this aggression to increase the territory belonging to Gorkha. Kaji Ganesh Pande was his first minister of Gorkha. In 1743, Prithvi Narayan Shah became the ruler of Gorkha, he declared war with other principalities. In September 1768, he established the unified kingdom of Gorkha, he became the first king of large Gorkha Kingdom. He, his sons and their successors continued fighting and defeating other kingdoms and enlarging the kingdom of Gorkha. In 1814, the Anglo–Nepalese War between Gorkha and the East India Company began.
By 1815, the Shah king had been defeated. By 1816, Gorkha had lost one-third of its territory; the Shah kings continued to rule as an absolute monarch until 1946 when the political order changed from absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. In 1846, the Rana dynasty gained power in Nepal; the Ranas reduced the King's status to a figurehead position. The Ranas ruled Nepal as hereditary prime ministers though in the name of the figurehead king. In 1950, the Shah king King Tribhuvan was forced into exile in India, he and his family, including the crown prince Mahendra, were saved. After India became a secular state in 1950, the remaining rajas retired, Nepal was the only remaining Hindu kingdom. In 1951, with the help of India, a popular politician common man Matrika Prasad Koirala became the prime minister of Nepal. Tribhuvan returned to Kathmandu; the Shah dynasty regained control and the prime minister, Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, resigned. King Tribhuvan ruled until 1955 and King Mahendra ruled until 1972.
Mahendra's son, became king. In 1990, under King Birendra, Nepal became a constitutional monarchy. King Birendra believed in cooperation between the absolute power of the monarchy and democratic governance, his brother and his wife Queen Aishwarya staunchly opposed this. On 1 June 2001, a number of members of the Shah dynasty were murdered in the royal palace. A High Commission report concluded; this remains controversial. Among the dead were the Crown Prince's father, King Birendra and his brother, Prince Nirajan. After the attack, Dipendra was declared king for a short time, he died a few days later. Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Dipendra's uncle, took the throne. In February 2005, he dismissed the parliament. On 24 December 2007, the Nepalese Constituent Assembly met, it was decided by majority vote that the monarchy would be abolished in 2008 after the Constituent Assembly elections. On 28 May 2008, the Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic and the monarchy was abolished, removing the Shah dynasty from power.
Kul Bahadur Gurung said of the 601 member assembly, 560 voted in favour, 4 were against and 37 were absent or abstained. After this Assembly agreement involving the Nepali Congress, the Communist Party of Nepal and the Communist Party of Nepal, Gyanendra stepped down. Gyanendra vacated his palace in Kathmandu which became a museum; until they could find permanent accommodation, the royal couple were offered residence as commoners at the Nagarjuna Palace, a former royal summer residence. The Nagarjuna palace lies in forested hills about eight kilometres northwest of Kathmandu; the following is list of all ten kings of Gorkha hill principality Family tree of the all Shah kings of Nepal except Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah, brother of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah: Line of succession to the former Nepalese throne Nepalese royal massacre Wright, History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press Royal Court of Nepal Nepalese government website. The Royal House of Nepal Royal Ark website. Gregson J. "Massac
The Trishuli River is one of the major tributaries of the Narayani River basin in central Nepal. It enters Nepal at Gyirong Town; the Trishuli is named after the trishula or trident of Shiva, a powerful god in the Hindu pantheon, There is a legend that says high in the Himalayas at Gosaikunda, Shiva drove his trident into the ground to create three springs – the source of the river and hence its name Trisuli. The stream in Tibet crosses the Nepalese border at Gyirong Town, with the Kyirong gorge opens out at Ragma. Thereafter, it flows through Nepal and joins at Devghat the Narayani River, which at a lower stage flows into India and joins the Ganges. More than 60 per cent of the total drainage basin of the Trishuli lies in Tibet with about 9 per cent being covered by snow and glaciers. 85 per cent of its catchment area of 4,640 square kilometres lies above 3,000 metres out of which 11 per cent lies above 6,000 metres. It has been gauged at Betrawati at an elevation of 600 metres; the average lowest and the melt season discharges of this river are close to average discharges recorded on the Narayani River.
Trisuli is Nepal’s most popular rafting river with impressive gorges, exciting rapids, some easier sections and easy accessibility from Kathmandu and Pokhara. Rafting in Trisuli is one of the most popular outdoor activities in Nepal. Trishuli River is made up of snow melt of Langtang Himal. Easy access to the Prithivi Highway makes “breaking off” the journey easy. Chitwan National Park is easily accessible
Johann Grueber was an Austrian Jesuit missionary and astronomer in China, noted explorer. He joined the Society of Jesus in 1641 and went to China in 1656, where he was active at the court of Peking as professor of mathematics and assistant to Father Adam Schall von Bell. In 1661 his superiors sent him, together with the Belgian Father Albert Dorville, to Rome in order to defend Schall's work on the Chinese calendar; as it was impossible to journey by sea on account of the blockade of Macau by the Dutch, they conceived the daring idea of going overland from Peking to Goa by way of Tibet and Nepal. This led to Grueber's memorable journey, which won him fame as one of the most successful explorers of the seventeenth century, they first travelled on the borders of Kan-su. They crossed the difficult mountain passes of the Himalayas, arrived at Kathmandu and thence descended into the basin of the Ganges: Patna and Agra, the former capital of the Mughal empire; this journey lasted 214 days. Dorville died at Agra, a victim of the hardships.
Jesuit Father Heinrich Roth, a Sanskrit scholar, substituted for Dorville and with Grueber carried on the overland journey through Persia and Turkey, reaching Rome on the 2 February 1664. Their journey showed the possibility of a direct overland connection between China and India, the value and significance of the Himalayan passes. Biographer Richard Tronnier says: "It is due to Grueber's energy that Europe received the first correct information concerning Thibet and its inhabitants". Although Oderico of Pordenone had traversed Tibet, in 1327, visited Lhasa, he had not written any account of this journey. Antonio de Andrada and Manuel Marquez had pushed their explorations as far as Tsaparang on the northern Setledj. Emperor Leopold I requested that Grueber return to China via Russia in order to explore the possibility of another land route through central Asia, but the journey ended at Constantinople as Grueber fell sick, he was obliged to return. Though in poor health Grueber lived another 14 years as preacher and spiritual guide in the Jesuit schools of Trnava and Sárospatak where he died in 1680.
An account of this first journey through Tibet in modern times by a European was published by Athanasius Kircher to whom Grueber had left his journals and charts, which he had supplemented by numerous verbal and written additions. In the French edition of "China" is incorporated a letter of Grueber written to the Duke of Tuscany. For letters of Grueber see "Neue Welt-Bott", no. 34. Carlieri, Notizie varie dell' Imperio della China Ashley, Collection of voyages, IV, 651sq George Bogle. Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, ed. by C. R. Markham. Von Richthofen, China, 761, etc. with routes and plate, the best monograph Tronnier, Die Durchquerung Tibets seitens der Jesuiten Joh. Grueber und Albert de Dorville im Jahre 1661 in Zeitschr, d. Ges.fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1904, pp. 328–361 Wessels, C. Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, The Hague, 1924, pp. 164–203. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Johann Grueber". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Johann Grueber". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton