This is about the historical calendar era. For the "Śaka calendar" of 1957, see Indian national calendar; the Shaka era is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78. It is known in Indian languages as Shalivahana Śaka or RTGS: Mahasakkarat "Greater Era"); the origin of the Shaka era is controversial. There are two Shaka era system in scholarly use, one is called Old Shaka Era, whose epoch is uncertain sometime in the 1st millennium BCE because ancient Buddhist and Hindu inscriptions and texts use it, but this is a subject of dispute among scholars; the other is called Saka Era of 78 CE, or Saka Era, a system, common in epigraphic evidence from southern India. A parallel northern India system is the Vikrama Era, used by the Vikrami calendar linked to Vikramaditya; the beginning of the Shaka era is now equated to the ascension of king Chashtana in 78 CE. His inscriptions, dated to the years 11 and 52, have been found at Andhau in Kutch region; these years are interpreted as Shaka years 11 and 52.
A more common view was that the beginning of the Shaka era corresponds to the ascension of Kanishka I in 78 CE. However, the latest research by Henry Falk indicates that Kanishka ascended the throne in 127 CE. Moreover, Kanishka was not a Kushana ruler. Other historical candidates have included rulers such as Vima Kadphises and Nahapana. According to historian Dineshchandra Sircar, the inaccurate notion of "Shalivahana era" appears to be based on the victory of the Satavahana ruler Gautamiputra Satakarni over some Shaka kings. Sircar suggests that the association of the northern king Vikramaditya with Vikrama era might have led the southern scholars to fabricate a similar legend of their own. Another similar account claims that the legendary emperor Vikramaditya defeated the Shakas in 78 CE, the Shaka era marks the day of this conquest; this legend has been mentioned in the writings of Brahmagupta, Al-Biruni, others. However, this is an obvious fabrication. Over time, the word "Shaka" became generic, came to be mean "an era".
The earliest known users of the era are the Shaka rulers of Ujjain. From the reign of Rudrasimha I, they recorded the date of minting of their coins in the Shaka era written on the obverse behind the king's head in Brahmi numerals; the use of the calendar era survived into the Gupta period and became part of Hindu tradition following the decline of Buddhism in India. It was in widespread use by the 6th to 7th centuries, e.g. in the works of Varāhamihira and Brahmagupta, by the 7th century appears in epigraphy in Hindu Southeast Asia. The calendar era remained in use in India and Southeast Asia throughout the medieval period, the main alternative era in traditional Hindu timekeeping being the Vikram Samvat era, it was used by Javanese courts until 1633, when it was replaced by Anno Javanico, a hybrid Javanese-Islamic system. It was adopted as the era of the Indian national calendar in 1957; the Shaka era is the vernal equinox of the year AD 78. The year of the modern Shaka Calendar is tied to the Gregorian date of 22 March every year, except in Gregorian leap years when it starts on 21 March.
Vikram Samvat Indian national calendar
Tansen referred to as Tan Sen or Ramtanu, was a prominent figure of North Indian classical music. Born in a Hindu family, he learned and perfected his art in the northwest region of modern Madhya Pradesh, he began his career and spent most of his adult life in the court and patronage of the Hindu king of Rewa, Raja Ramchandra Singh, where Tansen's musical abilities and studies gained widespread fame. This reputation brought him to the attention of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, who sent messengers to Raja Ramchandra Singh, requesting Tansen to join the musicians at the Mughal court. Tansen did not want to go, but Raja Ramchandra Singh encouraged him to gain a wider audience, sent him along with gifts to Akbar. In 1562, about the age of 60, the Vaishnava musician Tansen joined the Akbar court, his performances became a subject of many court historians. Numerous legends have been written about Tansen, mixing facts and fiction, the historicity of these stories is doubtful. Akbar considered him as a Navaratnas, gave him the title Mian, an honorific, meaning learned man.
Tansen was a composer and vocalist, to whom a large number of compositions have been attributed in northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. He was an instrumentalist who popularized and improved musical instruments, he is among the most influential personalities in North Indian tradition of Indian classical music, called Hindustani. His 16th century studies in music and compositions inspired many, he is considered by numerous North Indian gharana as their lineage founder. Tansen is remembered for his epic Dhrupad compositions, creating several new ragas, as well as for writing two classic books on music Sri Ganesh Stotra and Sangita Sara. Tansen's date and place of birth are unclear, but most sources place his birth about 1500 CE, or between 1493 and 1506, his biography is unclear and many conflicting accounts exist, with some common elements. Historical facts about Tansen are difficult to extract from the extensive and contradictory legends that surround him. According to the common elements in the various stories, Tansen's name as a child was Ramtanu.
His father Mukund Pandey was a wealthy poet and accomplished musician, who for some time was a Hindu temple priest in Varanasi. Tansen perfected his art in the region around Gwalior, in modern Madhya Pradesh, he began his career and spent most of his adult life in the court and patronage of the Hindu king of Rewa, Raja Ramchandra Singh, where Tansen's musical abilities and studies gained him widespread fame and following. He was a close confidant of Raja Ramchandra Singh, they used to make music together. Tansen's reputation brought him to the attention of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, who sent messengers to Raja Ramchandra Singh, requesting Tansen to join the musicians at the Mughal court. Tansen refused to go, sought to retire instead into solitude, but Raja Ramchandra Singh, encouraged him to gain wider audience, sent him along with gifts to Akbar. In 1562, about the age of sixty, Tansen still a Vaishnava musician arrived for the first time in Akbar's court. Tansen's influence was central to create the Hindustani classical ethos.
A number of descendants and disciples trace him to be their lineage founder. Many gharanas of Hindustani classical music claim some connection to his lineage. To these gharanas, Tansen is the founder of Hindustani classical music; the legendary oral versions about Tansen's early life and schooling differ depending on whether the story has origins in Hindu legends or Muslim legends. In Hindu versions, the Hindu bhakti saint and poet-musician Swami Haridas was the major influence on Tansen. In Islamic biographies, the Sufi Muslim mystic named Muhammad Ghaus is said to have influenced Tansen. According to Bonnie Wade – a professor of Music specializing in South Asia Studies, Swami Haridas is accepted to have been Tansen's teacher, it is clear that Tansen connected with Muhammad Ghaus as well, but the evidence suggests that Tansen is less affiliated with either religion, more with music. Tansen showed musical talent at the age of 6. At some point, he was discipled for some time to Swami Haridas, the legendary composer from Vrindavan and part of the stellar Gwalior court of Raja Man Singh Tomar, specialising in the Dhrupad style of singing.
His talent was recognised early and it was the ruler of Gwalior who conferred upon the maestro the honorific title'Tansen'. Haridas was considered to be a legendary teacher in that time, it is said. From Haridas, Tansen acquired not only his love for dhrupad but his interest in compositions in the local language; this was the time when the Bhakti tradition was fomenting a shift from Sanskrit to the local idiom, Tansen's compositions highlight this trend. At some point during his apprenticeship, Tansen's father died, he returned home, where it is said he used to sing at a local Shiva temple. Hagiographies mention; the interaction with Ghaus brought Sufi influences on Tansen. Late into his life, he continued to compose in Brajbhasha invoking traditional motifs such as Krishna and Shiva; the presence of musicians like Tansen in Akbar's court was an attempt to accept and integrate the Hindu and Muslim traditions within the Mughal Empire. Tansen became one of the treasured Navaratnas of Akbar's court.
He received the honorific title Mian there, the name Mian Tansen. Tansen's musical compositions covered many themes, employed Dhrupad. Most of these we
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Indian Gorkhas known as Nepali-Indians, are Nepali language-speaking Indians. The term "Indian Gorkha" is used to differentiate the Gorkhas of India from the Gurkhas of Nepal. Indian Gorkhas are citizens of India as per the gazette notification of the Government of India on the issue of citizenship of the Gorkhas of India. However, the Indian Gorkhas are faced with a unique identity crisis with regard to their Indian citizenship because of the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship that permits "on a reciprocal basis, the nationals of one country in the territories of the other the same privileges in the matter of residence, ownership of property, participation in trade and commerce and other privileges of a similar nature"; the Indian Gorkhas are a mixture of tribal-ethnic clans. The caste groups include the Khas-Parbatiyas including Bahun, Chhetri khas, Damai, etc. There is a considerable presence of Newar. Gurung, Tamang, Bhujel, Limbu, Yakkha and Yolmo ethnic groups. Although each of them have their own language, the lingua franca among the Gorkhas is the Nepali language with its script in Devnagari, is one of the official languages of India.
As per the 2011 Census, a total of 2,926,168 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. The largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,155,375, Assam - 596,210, Uttarakhand - 106,399, Sikkim - 382,200, Arunachal Pradesh - 95,317, Himachal Pradesh - 89,508, Maharashtra - 75,683, Meghalaya - 54,716, Manipur - 63,756, Nagaland - 43,481, Mizoram - 8,994. Apart from this, there are additional speakers of languages such as Limbu, Rai and Tamang. So the combined strength of Nepali and the other four Gorkha languages comes to 3,018,813; as per the 2001 Census, a total of 2,871,749 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. As per the 1991 Census, this figure was 2,076,645; the largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,022,725, Assam - 564,790, Uttarakhand - 355,029, Sikkim - 338,606, Arunachal Pradesh - 94,919, HP - 70,272, Maharashtra - 63,480, Meghalaya - 52,155, Manipur - 45,998, Nagaland - 34,222, Mizoram - 8,948. As per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are West Kameng - 13,580 Lohit - 22,200, Dibang Valley - 15,452.
Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Koronu, Sunpura and Roing. As per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are West Kameng - 14,333 Lohit - 22,988, Dibang Valley - 14,271. Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Koronu, Sunpura and Roing. During the 1991 Census, the districts with the largest concentrations were Sonitpur - 91,631, Tinsukia - 76,083, Karbi Anglong - 37,710; as per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are Sonitpur - 131,261 Tinsukia - 87,850, Karbi Anglong - 46,871. Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Sadiya, Na Duar, Helem and Umrangso; as per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are Sonitpur - 135,525 Tinsukia - 99,812, Karbi Anglong - 51,496. Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Sadiya, Na Duar, Helem and Umrangso; this is how the previous censuses counted the number of Nepali speakers in Assam: 1901: 21,347 1911: 47,654 1921: 70,344 1931: 88,306 1951: 101,338 1961: 215,213 1971: 349,116 1991: 432,519 2001: 564,790 2011: 596,210 & 600,287 including the other four Gorkha languages.
As per the 2001 Census, there are a total of 1,034,038 Nepalis in WB, of which 1,022,725 are speakers of the Nepali language and 11,313 are speakers of languages such as Tamang and Sherpa. Districts with the largest Nepali populations are Darjeeling - 748,023 and Jalpaiguri - 234,500. About 7.56 % of the Nepalis were Dalit, belonging to castes such as Sarki. The two tribes classified as Scheduled Tribe constituted 16% of the Nepali population according to the census; the remaining 76% belonged to general category. As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 1,161,807 speakers of various Nepalese languages. Out of this 7.24% was Dalit and 16.62% were tribal Tamang/Limbu. Remaining 76.14% were General category. As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 453,819 speakers of various Nepalese languages. Out of this, 20.14% were tribal Limbu/Tamang, 6.23% were Dalit and 73.63% were General category. According to the census, there are a total of 53,703 Limbu and 37,696 Tamang in Sikkim, of whom a majority speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue.
Small numbers of Bhotia and Lepcha speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue. As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 69,598 Bhotia in Sikkim, but only 58,355 were
Dharmaditya Dharmacharya was a Nepalese author, Buddhist scholar and language activist. He worked to develop Nepal Bhasa and revive Theravada Buddhism when Nepal was ruled by the Rana dynasty and both were dangerous activities, was jailed. Dharmacharya campaigned for Nepal Era as the national calendar, he wrote and published the first magazine in Nepal Bhasa and was a major influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance. Because of his service to the language, he has been called the "fifth pillar" of Nepal Bhasa along with the Four Pillars of Nepal Bhasa. Dharmacharya was born at Chikan Bahi, Lalitpur District to father Vaidya Vrishman Vandya and mother Muni Thakun Vandya, he studied at Durbar High School in Kathmandu and did his matriculation from Kolkata and enrolled at the University of Calcutta for higher studies. On his visits to Kathmandu during the holidays, he organized Buddhist programs and exhibitions of religious pictures he had collected in Kolkata. In 1924, he established the Buddha Dharma Support Association at the home of Dharma Man Tuladhar.
He encouraged its members to read Buddhist books and translated articles in English and Pali into Nepal Bhasa. Upon his return to Kolkata, he established the Nepalese Buddhist Association to help Nepalese traders who had fallen into difficulty besides teaching them Buddhist principles. In 1928, he helped organize the All India Buddhist Conference. In an effort to promote Buddhism among the Nepalese in Darjeeling, he brought out Himalaya Bauddha in the Nepali language and Buddhist India in English in 1927 which he and B. M. Barua edited. Dharmacharya was a cultural nationalist and dedicated himself to promoting Nepal Bhasa and obtaining international recognition for it. In 1925, he published Buddha Dharma wa Nepal Bhasa from India, it was the first magazine to be published in Nepal Bhasa. It contained articles on Buddhism and provided writers in Nepal a place to publish their compositions which they couldn't do at home because of the government's dislike of the language. In order to support the emerging Nepal Bhasa movement in Nepal and promote the language at home and abroad, he established the first Nepal Bhasa literary organization Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Mandal in Kolkata in 1926.
Dharmacharya returned to Kathmandu with a master's degree in Pali. He joined the Industry Council as an administrative officer and got married to Asta Maya and settled down into the life of a householder. In 1940, Dharmacharya was arrested in a crackdown against democracy activists and social reformers, he was jailed for three months with other Nepal Bhasa writers. Following the incident, he remained inactive in social work for more than five years, he spent the part of his life lecturing and writing. In 1956, Dharmacharya was decorated with the title of Patron of the Language by Chwasa Pasa. A statue of Dharmacharya has been erected at Pulchok, Lalipur
Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road. These events are classified as long-distance according to athletics terminology, with races ranging from 5 kilometers to 42.2 kilometers in the marathon. They may involve large numbers of runners or wheelchair entrants; the three most common IAAF recognized distances for "road running" events are 10K runs, half marathons and marathons. Despite this, there are far more 5K road race events, due to their popularity for charity races and similar, less competitive reasons to hold an event. Road running may offer those involved a range of challenges and interests such as dealing with hills, sharp bends, varied surfaces, inclement weather, involvement in a large group. Aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to use oxygen, is the biggest factor contributing to success; the impact of running on roads puts more stress on the feet and lower back than running on dirt or grass. It can compensate by providing a level surface.
It may put less strain on the Achilles tendon. Before engaging in road running, one should choose a shoe that best suits one's foot type and running style. Road running is one of several forms of road racing, which include road bicycle racing and motor vehicle road racing. Race courses are held on the streets of major cities and towns, but can be on any road; the IAAF recognizes nine common distances for road races: 10 kilometres, 15 kilometres, 20 kilometres, half-marathon, 25 kilometres, 30 kilometres, marathon, 100 kilometres, Ekiden marathon relay. Other common distances include 5 kilometres, 8 kilometres, 12 kilometres, 10 miles; some major events have unique distances. The "Round the Bays" run in Auckland, New Zealand is 8.4 kilometres. Most road race courses are certified to be accurate to within 0.1%, that is, to within 10 m for a 10 km race. Certified courses are intentionally lengthened by one metre per km to ensure that they are not short of the stated distance. A Jones Counter attached to a bicycle is used to measure course length.
Remeasurement to verify the length is undertaken. Running that covers a distance farther than a marathon is called ultrarunning; such events can be measured by time. Examples include the London to Brighton run in England, just over 54 miles, the Comrades Marathon run between Pietermaritzburg and Durban in South Africa, about 89 kilometres, the Badwater Ultramarathon between Death Valley and Mount Whitney in the United States, 135 miles. Beyond the ultramarathon lie the multiday and stage races; these events include current events such as the Self-Transcendence 6- & 10-day Race and 3100 mile races in New York, Trans-America, Trans-Gaul, Trans-Korea, Trans-Europe race and the cross Germany race - the Deutschlandlauf. In these events runners have to complete as many miles as possible in the given time limit - the go-as-you-please style or have to complete a given distance in a set time such as the daily stages of the trans-country races where cut-offs are enforced. Road running is unique among athletic events because in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to participate in the same event as members of running clubs and current world-class champions.
Sometimes race times are recorded manually by race organizers, most road races feature electronic timing using transponders. Road races are community-wide events that highlight or raise money for an issue or project. In the US, Susan G. Komen's Race for the Cure is held nationwide to raise breast cancer awareness; this race is run in Germany and Puerto Rico. Race for Life holds races throughout the UK to raise money for Cancer Research UK. First person "race reports" appear on the Dead Runners Society electronic mailing list. Dublin, Ireland's Women's Mini-Marathon is said to be the largest all-female event of its kind in the world; the international governing body for road racing is the IAAF. National governing bodies which are affiliated to the IAAF are responsible for road races held in their country. Of the thousands of road races held each year, 238 races, including some premier ones, are members of the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. Many race organizers are members of the Road Runners Club of America.
In addition, the USA Track & Field plays a role in selecting representatives for certain international competitions under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978. Competitors from around the world participate in. Kenyans and Ethiopians are renowned for their skill and it is rare for a race's top finishers not to include competitors from these countries. Elite level road running series include the World Marathon Majors, the Great Run series, IAAF Road Race Label Events. Marathon and half marathon eventsWorld Marathon Cup World Half Marathon Championships European Marathon Cup Europe
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons