Nancy Elizabeth Lieberman, nicknamed "Lady Magic", is a former professional basketball player who played and coached in the Women's National Basketball Association and works as a broadcaster for the New Orleans Pelicans of the National Basketball Association, as well as head coach of the Power in the BIG3, where she led them to the 2018 BIG3 Championship. Lieberman is regarded as one of the greatest figures in American women's basketball. In 2000, she was inducted into the Nassau County Sports Hall of Fame. Lieberman is a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame, the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame the St. Louis Jewish Sports Hall of Fame, the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame. Lieberman was born in New York, to Jerome and Renee Lieberman, she was Jewish. Her family lived in Brooklyn when she was born, but soon moved to Far Rockaway, New York where she grew up with her older brother Clifford, she lost great-grandparents in the Holocaust, her paternal grandparents had concentration camp numbers on their wrists.
Her mother brought up the children after a divorce. While growing up, she was interested in a variety of sports, playing baseball and football with boys, before settling on basketball as her primary sport, she played basketball on pickup teams with boys, not playing on a girls' team until she was a high school sophomore. While attending Far Rockaway High School in Queens, New York, she established herself as one of the top women's basketball players in the country by earning one of only 12 slots on the USA's National Team. In 1975, Lieberman was named to the USA Team designated to play in the World Championships and Pan American Games, where she brought home a gold medal Lieberman's mother, was not supportive of her daughter's passion for basketball. During one instance when Lieberman was practicing dribbling techniques indoors, because it was cold outside, her mother demanded she stop dribbling because of all the noise; when she did not stop, her mother punctured the basketball with a screwdriver.
Lieberman found another ball and continued. This continued. Nancy decided she had better go outside before she ran out of basketballs. During the school year, she played for her high school team, but in the summer, played with an AAU team in Harlem, the New York Chuckles, she told former Knick Walt Frazier that he was her hero and that it was because of him that she wore No. 10, saying: "You might not know this, but you thought you were affecting young guys but you were affecting young, white Jewish women, not just boys." As she describes it, "So my mother, this little Jewish lady from New York, goes up to Ali, tells him that her daughter is the greatest of all time. Ali just looks at her and says,'Lady, there's only one greatest of all time and that's me.'"In 2010, she said in an interview, "I am 100% Jewish. My father’s parents were religious, we had two sets of silverware when we went and ate over there. My mother’s side observed the major holidays, it was more relaxed. I went to Hebrew school as well."
In 2011, she visited Israel with her mother. I know as a Jewish woman how important it is for me to be connected to this culture and to this community." At age 17, Lieberman was named to the USA Basketball team roster. She would play for the team in the 1975 USA Women's Pan American Team, three years younger than the next youngest teammates; the games were planned for Santiago, Chile Sao Paulo and held in Mexico City, Mexico in October. The Pan Am team had failed to win the gold in 1967 and 1971; this year, the team would be more successful, compiling a 7–0 record, winning the gold medal for the first time since 1963. Lieberman continued with the USA team to the 1976 Olympics in Montreal in the first-ever Women's Olympic Basketball Team Competition. Shortly after turning 18, Lieberman became the youngest basketball player in Olympic history to win a medal as the United States captured the Silver Medal. Lieberman was named to the team representing the US at the 1979 William Jones Cup competition in Taipei, Taiwan.
The USA team won all six games en route to the gold medal. Lieberman earned a spot on the Jones Cup All-Tournament TeamLieberman finished her USA Basketball career with the Pan American Team, at the 1979 games in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Although the team would win most of their games with ease, including a 38-point win over Brazil in the semi-final, they were unable to beat the team from Cuba, lost the title match 91–86, settling for the silver medal. From 1976 to 1980, Lieberman attended Old Dominion University in Norfolk and played on the women's basketball team there. During that time and her team won two consecutive AIAW National Championships and one WNIT Championship in 1978, she was the first two-time winner of the prestigious Wade Trophy, a national "player of the year" award in college women's basketball, was selected as the Broderick Award winner for basketball as the top women's player in America. Lieberman won three consecutive Kodak All-America awards. Lieberman was one of six young adults to win the Young American Award from the Boy Scouts of America in 1980.
Lieberman earned the nickname "Lady Magic," a nod to Earvin "Magic" Johnson of NBA fame. Lieberman set, she led the team in assists each of the four years she was on the team—in her sophomore year she averaged 8.9 per game. Lieberman amassed 2,430 points along with 1,167 rebound
Anne Theresa Donovan was an American women's basketball player and coach. From 2013 to 2015, she was the head coach of the Connecticut Sun. In her playing career, Donovan won a national championship with Old Dominion University, won two Olympic gold medals, went to three Final Fours overall, she was enshrined in the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1995, became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. As a professional basketball coach, she guided the Seattle Storm to their first title in 2004, becoming the first woman to coach a WNBA Championship team, she is the only person to have both played for a national women's college title and coached a team to a professional title. After coaching the Indiana Fever and the Charlotte Sting earlier in her career, Donovan joined the New York Liberty as an assistant coach in the spring of 2009 took over as interim head coach of the Liberty on July 31, 2009, she went back to college to Seton Hall for two seasons before resigning to take the Connecticut Sun head coaching job for two seasons.
Donovan was the coach of the Olympic gold medal-winning 2008 United States Women's Basketball team. Donovan attended Paramus Catholic High School in New Jersey. At 6'6", Donovan led her high school team to consecutive undefeated seasons, including two state championships, she averaged 25 points per 17 rebounds her senior year. Donovan, at 6'8", was the most recruited female player in the nation going into college. Two years earlier, Anne's sister Mary received only a handful of offers before going to Penn State. In 1979, Anne received offers from more than 250 schools, including a recruiting pitch from Penn State's Joe Paterno. Despite the personal plea, she chose to follow Nancy Lieberman to ODU. At Old Dominion University, the center led the Lady Monarchs to the 1979–80 Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women basketball championship, she was the first female Naismith College Player of the Year in 1983. Donovan won the 1983 Honda Sports Award and WBCA Player of the Year award for basketball.
She set ODU career marks for points and blocked shots, seasonal marks for most games played, most minutes played, most field goals, field goal percentage. She averaged a double-double with 20 points and 14 1/2 rebounds per game. Donovan's 50 points in a single game against Norfolk State on December 11, 1980 is a school record, while her 801 career blocked shots is best in NCAA history. At ODU, Donovan helped, she had seventeen rebounds in their win over Tennessee. In 1981, ODU finished third in the AIAW National Tournament; the first two NCAA Women's Final Fours were hosted by ODU at Scope in Va.. In 1982, Old Dominion lost to Kansas St. in the East Regional Semifinals. In Donovan's senior year, the Lady Monarchs advanced to the 1983 Final Four in their hometown, but lost 71–55 in the National Semifinals to rival Louisiana Tech. Source As there were few professional opportunities for women basketball players in the U. S. Donovan played pro ball for Chanson V-Magic in Shizuoka and Modena, Italy from 1984 to 1989.
Upon her retirement as a player, she became an assistant coach at ODU from 1989 to 1995 head coach at East Carolina University from 1995 to 1998, reaching the Colonial Athletic Association finals against her alma mater, Old Dominion. Her coaching career moved to the professional ranks via a brief stint with the American Basketball League's Philadelphia Rage in 1997–98; as the ABL folded, she joined the rival WNBA as an assistant coach for the expansion Indiana Fever. With coach Nell Fortner leading the U. S. Olympic team, Donovan served as interim head coach for the Fever for the 2000 season, she led the Charlotte Sting to the WNBA Finals in 2001, losing to the Los Angeles Sparks. In 2002, she led the Sting o an 18-14 record, losing to the Washington Mystics in the first round of playoffs. Donovan was inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1995, as part of the inaugural class of the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame in 1999. In 2003, Donovan was hired as the second head coach of the Seattle Storm, inheriting a team with two number one draft picks from 2001 and 2002, the Australian Lauren Jackson and University of Connecticut star Sue Bird.
In her first year, Donovan's team narrowly missed the playoffs, but in 2004, after Donovan became director of player personnel and added Betty Lennox, the Storm earned the city of Seattle its first national championship in 25 years. In the 2005 season, in which Donovan became the first female coach to win 100 games, the Storm made the playoffs but lost in the first round. At season's end, Donovan's contract was extended to keep her in Seattle for several years. With her 120th victory on August 6, 2006, she became the coach with the third-most WNBA victories, passing former Los Angeles Sparks coach Michael Cooper, she trails only Van Richie Adubato in victories. On November 30, 2007, Donovan resigned from her position of head coach of the Seattle Storm. On April 28, 2009, Donovan was appointed as an assistant coach for the New York Liberty, she assumed the position of interim head coach of the Liberty on July 31, 2009, replacing former head coach Pat Coyle. On March 31, 2010, she accepted the women's basketball head coaching position at Seton Hall University on March 29, 2010, although she completed the 2010 season with the Liberty.
On November 6, 2010, Donovan recorded her first win as the head coach of Seton Hall's women's team as the Pirates defeated the Temple Owl
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Women's Basketball Hall of Fame
The Women's Basketball Hall of Fame honors those who have contributed to the sport of women's basketball. The Hall of Fame opened in 1999 in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, it is the only facility of its kind dedicated to all levels of women's basketball. Knoxville is known for having a large women's basketball following as well as being the home of the University of Tennessee's Lady Vols basketball team coached by women's coach Pat Summitt, part of the first class inducted. With the 2017 Induction, the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame celebrated its 19th anniversary and added six new members to its hall, honoring 157 inductees. Inductees may be nominated in the following categories: Coach, Veteran Coach, International Player, Veteran Player and Official; the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame is home to the world's largest basketball sitting on the north rotunda of the hall, measuring 30 feet tall and weighing 10 tons. The WBHOF Basketball Courts in the north rotunda of the hall allow one to test one's basketball skills on three different courts representing the hall's mission statement of "honoring the past, celebrating the present, promoting the future" of women's basketball.
The courts are home to a timed dribbling course and a passing skills area. There is a photo area where you can pretend to be players from different eras in history. Pat Summitt Rotunda is located at the entrance of the WBHOF; this area remembers founding board Class of 1999 inductee Pat Summitt. The courtyard outside of the Pat Summitt Rotunda is shaped like a basketball and is made of numerous bricks with personalized inscriptions. Many of the bricks are engraved to honor guests, inductees and a host of other who have chosen to leave their legacy at the hall of fame; the Hall of Honor is the location within the Hall of Fame that recognizes the achievements of each of the inductees. As you enter the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame the first thing you see; this 17-foot-tall bronze statue exemplifies our mission to "honor the past, celebrate the present and promote the future: of women's basketball. The sculptor of the Eastman is Elizabeth MacQueen; each year, the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame presents its current class of Inductees with a replica of the Eastman statue, known as the "Eastman".
The All American Red Heads played for 50 years, from 1936 to 1986, still the longest running women's professional team. The Red Heads were founded by Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Olson in Cassville, Missouri. C. M. Olson was the former coach-owner of a male exhibition basketball team called Olson's Terrible Swedes. Known for their on-court antics, this inspired C. M. Olson's wife and the women who worked in her beauty salons to form a professional basketball exhibition team. In 1954, Coach Orwell Moore and his wife Lorene "Butch" Moore bought the Red heads and moved the team to Caraway, Arkansas. Lorene Moore played on the team for eleven years, scoring 35,426 points during her career; the Red Heads were so popular that during the years 1964-1971 there may have been as many as three Red Head teams traveling the country. In 1972, the Red Heads won 500 out of 642 games played against men's team. Throughout the years the All American Red Heads played in all 50 states as well as Mexico and the Philippines; the team has been featured in national magazines such as Life, Sports Illustrated and Women's Sports, they were considered as the greatest women's basketball team in the world.
Coach Moore retired and disbanded the Red Heads in 1986 after 50 years of play The All American Red Heads still have annual reunions today. The Edmonton Commercial Graduates Basketball Club was founded in 1915 by John Percy Page; the origins of the club can be traced to the McDougall Commercial Girls High School Basketball team in Edmonton, Canada. When team members graduated high school, they convinced coach John Percy Page to continue the team as a Club sport. Membership with the Club was exclusive, only 38 women wore the Grad jersey. Winnie Martin was the First Captain of the Edmonton Grads, playing from 1915-1924; the Grads played 522 games in Canada, the United States and Europe. The Club tallied a 502-20 record in 25 years of play The Edmonton Commercial Graduates are considered the greatest women's team assembled. Financially restrained, members chipped in to raise funds for national play, their strong dedication to the game and will to persevere in a time when women's basketball was ignored makes the Edmonton Grads praiseworthy John Percy Page coached the club to 18 Canadian Championships The Club attended four sets of Olympic Games: Paris in 1924, Amsterdam in 1928, Los Angeles in 1932, Berlin in 1936 where they received 4 unofficial Olympic titles The Club played its last game on June 5, 1940, defeating a Chicago team 62-52 Dr. James A. Naismith was quoted to say, "There is no team that I mention more in talking about the game.
My admiration is not only for your remarkable record of games won but for your record of clean play, versatility in meeting teams at their own style, more for your unbroken record of good sportsmanship." Claude Hutcherson, a Wayland graduate and owner of Hutcherson Air Service, provided air transportation for the Queens to games in Mexico in 1948. That encounter blossomed into a full sponsorship of the team in 1950, a change that brought with it a new mascot - the Hutcherson Flying Queens. Five decades Wayland is still atop the world of women's basketball for they still remain the only women's team in history to win 1,300 games. Long before Connecticut became a dominant power in women's basketball, the Flying Queens of Wayland Baptist thriv
Peabody College of Education and Human Development is one of ten colleges and schools that comprise Vanderbilt University. Peabody College provides graduate and professional education. Peabody's faculty are organized across five departments, include researchers in education, public policy, human development, special education, educational leadership, organizational development. Peabody has a long history as an independent institution before becoming part of Vanderbilt University in 1979; the college was ranked sixth among graduate schools of education in the United States in the 2020 rankings by U. S. News & World Report, it was ranked as the top graduate school of education in the nation during the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 editions of those rankings. Peabody College traces its history to 1785, when Davidson Academy was chartered by the state of North Carolina, of which Tennessee was a part. In 1806 the school moved to downtown Nashville and was rechartered under the name Cumberland College until 1826.
In 1827, the name was changed to the University of Nashville. In 1875, when the university was receiving financial assistance from the Peabody Education Fund started by George Peabody, the state legislature amended the charter to establish a State Normal School; the University of Nashville's operations were split into three separate entities. Its medical school became part of the newly established Vanderbilt University, its preparatory school became independent as Montgomery Bell Academy, retaining the board of trustees from the University of Nashville. The literary arts collegiate program received the donation from the Peabody Education Fund, began emphasizing teacher preparation. In 1889 it was renamed Peabody Normal College. After 1911, the George Peabody College for Teachers was moved from downtown Nashville to its present location directly across the street from the campus of Vanderbilt University; the location on what was Nashville's western fringe was selected amidst high hopes for collaborations between the two institutions.
The land for the new campus, donated to Peabody College, included the site of the campus of the former Roger Williams University, a school for African American students which burned around 1906. Peabody was at that time a college for whites, although its "demonstration school" became one of the first high schools in Nashville to be desegregated in the early 1960s. Peabody's first African American student, Tommie Morton-Young, graduated in 1955; the design of the Peabody campus was inspired by the classical lines of Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia's Academical Village and the architecture of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. In contrast to the main Vanderbilt University campus, characterized by collegiate gothic architecture, Peabody's buildings and campus layout are examples of Palladian and Neoclassical styles of architecture. Peabody became a renowned school of education in the South. Notable faculty during the twentieth century included Joseph Peterson, Susan Gray, Nicholas Hobbs.
Hobbs helped to establish and directed the John F. Kennedy Center for Education and Human Development at Peabody College; the Kennedy Center was founded in 1965 as one of twelve original university-based centers funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development following the signing of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963. Peabody seemed financially strong, due in part to an endowment, funded in part by its namesake, George Peabody, it had shared some facilities with Vanderbilt for many years, notably the Joint Universities Library, located across the street from Peabody's main academic buildings, indeed closer to Peabody than to much of the main Vanderbilt academic quadrangle. Peabody students were eligible for participation in Vanderbilt ROTC and the Vanderbilt Marching Band. In the early 1970s Peabody students became eligible to participate on Vanderbilt athletic teams; this was said to be a concession to the fact that Peabody had no intercollegiate athletics of its own, but cynics noted that Peabody did have a major in physical education, a major taken by scholarship athletes but one which had not been available at Vanderbilt, was seen by many as an attempt to get players onto Vanderbilt sports teams, notably football, who were not eligible for admission to Vanderbilt.
In 1954, Nancy Reed won the women's individual intercollegiate golf championship. The 50-acre campus with its 22 main buildings was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965 for its early association with George Peabody's funding efforts. Peabody College and Vanderbilt University had collaborated in a number of ways since 1914, when classes were first offered on Peabody's campus next to Vanderbilt. By the late 1970s a series of serious financial missteps had left Peabody's finances in such poor shape that the school's choices seemed to be reduced to two: either negotiating a merger with Vanderbilt or closing entirely; the former path was chosen, Peabody became a part of Vanderbilt in 1979. For many years following the merger, Peabody maintained a considerable separate identity within Vanderbilt, but this is now somewhat diminished. In 2008, Peabody became the site of The Martha Rivers Ingram Commons, the housing for all first-year Vanderbilt students. In an organizational sense, Peabody College constitutes a vital part of today's Vanderbilt.
As one of the university's ten schools, it not only trains undergraduate and graduate students – Peabody offers 6 Ph. D. programs, 3 Ed. D. program tracks, a
USA Softball is the governing body for the United States national softball team. In addition, it oversees more than 150,000 amateur teams nationwide, it is a 501 non-profit organization. USA Softball was founded in 1933 as the Amateur Softball Association with a tournament held in Chicago, organized by Leo Fischer and Michael J. Pauley; the following year, the 1934 National Recreation Congress recognized the ASA. Shortly afterward, the ASA was located in New Jersey. A world amateur softball tournament was held by the ASA at Chicago's Soldier Field that started on September 7, 1939; the ASA relocated to its new headquarters in Oklahoma City on January 1, 1966. On June 30, 2016, the Amateur Softball Association of ASA/USA Softball announced that it would be changing its organizational and trade name to "USA Softball," effective on January 1, 2017, along with a new logo. Since 2005, the organization has run the World Cup of Softball; the USA Softball Hall of Fame Complex hosts the NCAA Women's College World Series and the Big 12 Conference softball championship.
In 1978, the United States Olympic Committee named USA Softball the national governing body of softball in the United States. Due to this designation, USA Softball is responsible for training and promoting the six USA softball national teams that compete in events such as the Olympics, Pan American Games, World Championships and other international and domestic events. In 1996, the USA softball women's national team became the first American softball team to compete in the Olympics; the USA softball youth program began in 1974. Over 80,000 teams, 1.3 million players, 300,000 coaches participate in USA Softball's youth division on an annual basis. The USA Softball adult program began in 1934. With over 170,000 teams, 2.5 millions players, 500,000 coaches involved on an annual basis, the adult program is the largest USA Softball program. USA Softball provides programs of competition for adults including fast pitch, slow pitch and modified pitch for men and women; the National Softball Hall of Fame was dedicated May 1973, in Oklahoma City.
It has 337 members with 125 deceased, including players, managers and other suitable individuals. USA Softball publishes an updated rule book for softball each year, used by adult and youth recreational leagues in the United States and abroad; the USA Softball rules were used for the softball competition when it was an Olympic sport between 1996 and 2008. Official website
Amateur Athletic Union
The Amateur Athletic Union is an amateur sports organization based in the United States. A multi-sport organization, the AAU is dedicated to the promotion and development of amateur sports and physical fitness programs, it has more than 700,000 members nationwide, including more than 100,000 volunteers. The AAU was founded on January 21, 1888, by James E. Sullivan with the goal of creating common standards in amateur sport. Since most national championships for youth athletes in the United States have taken place under AAU leadership. From its founding as a publicly supported organization, the AAU has represented US sports within the various international sports federations; the AAU worked with the United States Olympic Committee to prepare U. S. athletes for the Olympic Games. As part of this, the AAU Junior Olympic Games were introduced in 1949, with athletes aged 8 to 16 years, or older in certain sports, can participating. Many future World and Olympic champions have appeared in these events, which are still held every year.
In the 1970s, the AAU received growing criticism. Many claimed. Women were banned from participating in certain competitions and some runners were locked out. There were problems with sporting goods that did not meet the standards of the AAU. During this time, the Olympic Sports Act of 1978 organized the United States Olympic Committee and saw the re-establishment of independent associations for the Olympic sports, referred to as national governing bodies; the rise of professionalism in all sports in the latter half of the 20th century hurt the AAU's viability. As a result, the AAU lost its influence and importance in international sports, focused on the support and promotion of predominantly youthful athletes, as well as on the organization of national sports events; the AAU was founded in 1888 by William Buckingham Curtis to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early years the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the United States in the international sports federations.
The AAU worked with the Olympic movement to prepare athletes for the Olympic Games. After the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 broke up the AAU's responsibility as the national Olympic sports governing body, the AAU focused on providing sports programs for all participants of all ages beginning at the local and regional levels; the philosophy of the AAU is "Sports for All, Forever." In 1923 the AAU sponsored the First American Field championships for women. The AAU is divided into 56 distinct district associations, which annually sanction 34 sports programs, 250 national championships, over 30,000 age division events; the AAU events have over 50,000 volunteers. The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 was precipitated by grumblings of the inefficiency of the AAU to manage the multitude of sports at the Olympic level. USA Gymnastics was formed as a feeder program in 1963 as a response to perceived poor performance by the American performers in the Olympics and at World Championships; the USWF was formed in 1968 as an effort to take wrestling as an independent governing body.
Their position was supported when FILA the world governing body refused to accept membership of "umbrella" sports organizations like the AAU. After years of grumbling by athletes, the International Track Association was formed after the 1972 Olympics to provide track and field athletes an opportunity to make money from their sporting efforts. Participants in the professional league were "banned for life" from the Olympics and their record-breaking performances were never accepted. In the early 1970s, The AAU became the subject of criticism, notably by outspoken track star Steve Prefontaine, over the living conditions for amateur athletes under the AAU, as well as arbitrary rules. Congress adopted the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 in response to such criticisms removing the organization from any governance role; the AAU now continues as a voluntary organization promoting youth sports. In 2008, The AAU found itself under scrutiny over the privacy of information of athletes. A local news station near the AAU Headquarters found boxes of personal information thrown out in dumpsters, raising questions about the organization's handling of private data.
In 2015, Kobe Bryant criticized the AAU, describing it as "Horrible, terrible AAU basketball. It's stupid, it doesn't teach our kids how to play the game at all so you wind up having players that are big and they bring it up and they do all this fancy crap and they don't know how to post. They don't know the fundamentals of the game. It's stupid." Kobe, who moved to Italy at age 6 because of his father playing basketball there, stated that the AAU has been "treating like cash cows for everyone to profit off of". Steve Kerr has spoken out against the AAU, stating that the AAU's structure devalues winning, with many teams playing about as many as four times a day and some players changing teams as early as from one morning to an afternoon the same day. Kerr states that "The process of growing as a team basketball player — learning how to become part of a whole, how to fit into something bigger than oneself — becomes lost within the AAU fabric."In the wake of sexual scandals that hit two U. S. universities, Penn State and Syracuse, involving acts of sexual abuse with children, charges have reached the AAU in Memphis, through the alleged misconduct of President Robert W.
"Bobby" Dodd. In 2016, the AAU was sued for allowing Rick Butler, a youth volleyball coach accused of sexually abusing his players in the past, coach an under-18 team in the AAU Girls' Junior National Volleyball