The nervous system is a complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system; the CNS consists of spinal cord. The PNS consists of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. Spinal nerves are called mixed nerves; the PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic and enteric nervous systems. Somatic nerves mediate voluntary movement.
The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state; the enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of cell, called the neuron known as a "nerve cell". Neurons have special structures that allow them to send signals and to other cells, they send these signals in the form of electrochemical waves traveling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal from a neuron may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated.
The connections between neurons can form neural pathways, neural circuits, larger networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells, which provide structural and metabolic support. Nervous systems are found in most multicellular animals, but vary in complexity; the only multicellular animals that have no nervous system at all are sponges and mesozoans, which have simple body plans. The nervous systems of the radially symmetric organisms ctenophores and cnidarians consist of a diffuse nerve net. All other animal species, with the exception of a few types of worm, have a nervous system containing a brain, a central cord, nerves radiating from the brain and central cord; the size of the nervous system ranges from a few hundred cells in the simplest worms, to around 300 billion cells in African elephants. The central nervous system functions to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others and to receive feedback.
Malfunction of the nervous system can occur as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or toxicity, infection or of ageing. The medical specialty of neurology studies disorders of the nervous system and looks for interventions that can prevent or treat them. In the peripheral nervous system, the most common problem is the failure of nerve conduction, which can be due to different causes including diabetic neuropathy and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuroscience is the field of science; the nervous system derives its name from nerves, which are cylindrical bundles of fibers, that emanate from the brain and spinal cord, branch to innervate every part of the body. Nerves are large enough to have been recognized by the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but their internal structure was not understood until it became possible to examine them using a microscope; the author Michael Nikoletseas wrote: "It is difficult to believe that until year 1900 it was not known that neurons are the basic units of the brain.
Surprising is the fact that the concept of chemical transmission in the brain was not known until around 1930. We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the 1950s, it was in the 1960s that we became aware of how basic neuronal networks code stimuli and thus basic concepts are possible. The molecular revolution swept across US universities in the 1980s, it was in the 1990s that molecular mechanisms of behavioral phenomena became known." A microscopic examination shows that nerves consist of axons, along with different membranes that wrap around them and segregate them into fascicles. The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral ganglia. All animals more advanced; however sponges, unicellular animals, non-animals such as slime molds have cell-to-cell signalling mechanisms that are precursors to those of neurons.
In radially symmetric animals such as the jellyfish and hyd
Martin Marinčin is a Slovak professional ice hockey defenceman for the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League. He was drafted in the second round, 46th overall, by the Edmonton Oilers in the 2010 NHL Entry Draft. Having been drafted by the Edmonton Oilers in the second round, 46th overall, at the 2010 NHL Entry Draft, on 25 April 2011, the Oilers signed Marinčin to a three-year, entry-level contract. During the 2013–14 season, Marinčin was called up to the Oilers, on 5 December 2013, he made his NHL debut in a game against the Colorado Avalanche. On 27 June 2015, Marinčin was traded to the Toronto Maple Leafs in exchange for Brad Ross and a fourth-round pick in the 2015 NHL Entry Draft. On 5 October 2017, Marinčin was placed on waivers by the Maple Leafs. After clearing waivers the next day, he was loaned to the Maple Leafs' American Hockey League affiliate, the Toronto Marlies. On December 17, 2017, he was recalled to the Toronto Maple Leafs after Nikita Zaitsev was placed on the injured reserve with a lower body injury.
Marinčin appeared in two games with the Leafs before being sent down to the Marlies on January 5, 2018. On 29 June 2019, Marinčin agreed to a one-year $700,000 contract extension to remain with the Maple Leafs. On 10 January 2020, Marinčin agreed to another one-year $700,000 contract extension to remain with the Maple Leafs. Marinčin was chosen to play for Slovakia at the 2011 World Junior Championships. During a game against the United States, he was ejected for a hit to the head on forward Jason Zucker; this ejection carried an automatic one-game suspension, after a review of the play, Marinčin was suspended for an additional three games. Marinčin was named to the Slovak senior team to compete at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database
Full general elections were held in Belgium on 14 October 1894, with run-off elections held on 21 October 1894. The elections followed several major reforms: they were the first held under universal male suffrage for those over the age of 25; this followed the abolition of tax qualifications, increased the number of voters tenfold. Voting was made compulsory. Provincial senators were introduced in addition to the existing directly elected ones; the electoral reforms were implemented in 1893 under the Catholic government led by Auguste Beernaert, in power for nearly ten years, but who resigned because his proposal for proportional representation was rejected. A government led by Jules de Burlet took over in March 1894; the result was a victory for the Catholic Party, which won all seats in every Flemish arrondissement, in Brussels and in seven rural Walloon arrondissements, giving a total of 104 of the 152 seats in the Chamber of Representatives. The Belgian Labour Party gained parliamentary representation for the first time, winning all seats of Mons, Charleroi, Verviers, 6 seats in Liège and one in Namur.
Meanwhile, the Liberal Party, despite receiving more votes than the socialists, won only 20 seats and thus lost two-thirds of its seats. This was caused by the concentration of socialists in industrial Walloon areas, compared to the dispersed presence of liberal voters throughout the country; this highlighted the need for a proportional system, which would be introduced in 1899. 76 senators were directly elected and 26 senators were chosen by the provincial councils, giving a total of 102 senators. The distribution of seats among the electoral districts was as follows for the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate. There were no changes in districts and seat distribution compared to the previous election, except for the introduction of provincial senators
In contract bridge, Bergen raises are conventional treatments of responses to a major suit opening in a five-card major system. Developed by Marty Bergen and first published in April 1982, Bergen raises are based on the Law of total tricks, a hand evaluation concept which states that with a combined nine trumps in the partnership one should compete to at least the three-level regardless of combined high card strength. Bergen recommended that instead of the more rare occurrence in the use of the 3♣ and 3♦ response as a jump shift to show a strong hand, these bids should be redeployed to provide more precise information about the length and strength of support held by responder for partner's five-card major suit opening when responder has four-card support. Bergen raises are used in response to a 1♥ or 1♠ opening bid to show hands of specific length in trump support and strength as follows: 1NT followed by 3♥/3♠ on next round – invitational to game with three-card support 2♥/2♠ – weak with three-card support 3♣ – weak with four-card support 3♦ – a limit raise with four-card support.
Many partnerships which employ Bergen raises use Jacoby 2NT and splinter bids in response to major suit openings for game-forcing hands with trump support. A direct raise to game is preemptive on a shapely hand. Modifications to Bergen responses do exist. One such method is to reverse the meanings of the two minor suit responses at the three level, thereby creating a system of responses that denote progressively weaker hands on subsequent bids; some partnerships play an extension of Bergen Raises. This is called "BROMAD". There are several schemes, including one which keeps 3♣ and 3♦ and adds 2♣ and 2♦ with similar meanings, but with only three-card trump support. Others have one raise at each level for 7-10 HCP, use Jordan 2NT with four trumps and 11+ HCP. Bergen himself indicates that different partnerships have different preferences for which suit to use. In all cases, the direct raise shows a'pre-emptive' three-card raise, limited to 6 HCP
Volvo Trucks, stylized as VOLVO, is a global truck manufacturer based in Gothenburg, owned by AB Volvo. In 2016, it was the world’s second largest manufacturer of heavy-duty trucks. Volvo Group was reorganised on 1 January 2012 and as a part of the process, Volvo Trucks ceased to be a separate company and was instead incorporated into Volvo Group Trucks, with Volvo’s other truck brands, Renault Trucks, Mack Trucks and UD Trucks; the first Volvo truck rolled off the production lines in 1928, in 2016 Volvo Trucks employed more than 52,000 people around the world. With global headquarters in Gothenburg, Volvo manufactures and assembles its trucks in eight wholly owned assembly plants and nine factories owned by local interests. Volvo Trucks sells over 190,000 units annually. In 2017, Chinese company Geely purchased a 14% share of Volvo Trucks; when Volvo manufactured its first automobiles in 1927, the first truck was on the drawing table. In early 1928, the LV series 1 was presented to the public.
Though by modern standards it was a truck, it was an immediate success and 500 units were sold before the summer. It had a 2.0 L 4-cylinder engine rated at 28 hp. Volvo cabs are manufactured in the north of Sweden in Umeå and in Ghent, while the engines are made in the central town of Skövde. Among some smaller facilities, Volvo has assembly plants in Sweden, Belgium, USA, South Africa, China and Russia; some of the smaller factories are jointly owned. Its main parts distribution centre is located in Belgium; the sales side, with their corresponding offices and dealers, is split into seven sales areas – Latin America, North America, Europe North, Europe South, Africa/Middle East, Asia/Oceania. Plants where Volvo trucks are manufactured: Mack Truck, Pennsylvania, USA New River Valley, Virginia, USA Curitiba, Brazil Umeå, Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden Ghent, Belgium Kaluga, Russia Durban, South Africa Bangalore, India Bangkok, Thailand Brisbane, Australia Casablanca, Morocco Tunis, Tunisia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Tehran, Iran Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Wuhan, China Taipei, Taiwan In 1981, AB Volvo acquired the assets of White Trucks, forming Volvo White Truck Corporation in Greensboro, North Carolina.
As part of the acquisition, Volvo acquired the White and the dormant Sterling brands. Alongside the truck assets of White, Volvo acquired a nationwide distribution network. Prior to the acquisition, White's products included the White Road Boss conventional, the White Road Commander 2, the Road Xpeditor 2, the Autocar A-series, Autocar DC-series, the Autocar Construcktor 2, Western Star conventional/COE trucks. White operated plants in Utah and Virginia. Following the 1981 acquisition, Volvo upgraded the designs of Autocar product lines. In 1982, the White Integral Sleeper was introduced, joining the sleeper and passenger cab seamlessly. In 1983, the Road Boss was replaced by the White Conventional. In 1985, the Integral Tall Sleeper was developed as a raised-roof variant of the Integral Sleeper. In 1987, the White'Aero' truck was introduced, adopting a lowered hoodline, composite headlamps, a flush-mounted grille. In 1988, the WG was introduced; the Autocar DK severe-duty line was launched in 1983 and supplemented by the admired Autocar AT64F long-haul tractor.
In 1988, the DK was replaced by the Autocar ACM models. While the AC-series trucks were tough and reliable, they incorporated a number of Volvo components and, for some Autocar loyalists, marked a dilution of the Autocar brand. In 1986, Volvo commenced sales of trucks under its own brand in North America, introducing the FE-series low-cab COEs. While Western Star was spun off in 1981, its cabover model line continued to be produced by White and rebadged as a Western Star. On August 16, 1986, General Motors announced the formation of a joint venture with AB Volvo, with the latter holding an 85% stake. Named Volvo GM Heavy Truck Corporation, Volvo would take responsibility for development and production of heavy trucks of the joint venture, named WhiteGMC. All General Motors heavy product lines were discontinued. In 1995, Volvo GM ended the use of the WhiteGMC name, with all non-Autocar models adopting the Volvo name. In 1997, Volvo AB purchased the rest of its stake in Volvo GM, renaming it Volvo Trucks North America.
In 1996, Volvo released the Volvo VN-series, the first Volvo truck developed outside of White or General Motors. Designed for North America, the VN was more aerodynamic than its WIA predecessor; the previous-generation WG remained in production, with Autocar dropped as a separate brand name, becoming a sub-model of Volvo severe-service trucks. On April 25, 2000, AB Volvo acquired Renault Véhicules Industriels through a merger, making it the owner of Mack Trucks. Following the merger, Volvo became the largest European truck manufacturer and the second-largest truck manufacturer in the world. To secure approval of the merger, Volvo agreed to divest its low-cabover range (known as the
Vega is a fictional character from the Street Fighter fighting game series by Capcom. Vega is a mask-wearing, claw-wielding fighter from Spain who uses a personal fighting style combining Japanese ninjutsu and Spanish bullfighting, earning him the nickname of "Spanish Ninja". Vega first appears in the original Street Fighter II in 1991 as the second of four boss opponents the player faces at the end of the single-player mode, a group known as the Four Devas or Grand Masters. From Street Fighter II: Champion Edition onwards and the other three boss characters became playable, he reappears as a playable character in Street Fighter Alpha 3, Street Fighter EX2 and EX3, the Capcom vs. SNK series, SNK vs. Capcom: SVC Chaos, Street Fighter IV, Super Street Fighter IV, Street Fighter X Tekken, Ultra Street Fighter IV, Street Fighter V. Vega was designed by Akira Yasuda with the premise of the original Street Fighter's Geki character in mind, was conceived as a brief sketch of a masked man in a ripped shirt with long, frizzy hair.
As development progressed the design evolved into a large, unarmed man, retaining the mask and dressed as a matador. The design was changed again, revolving around the concept of a foreign soldier with a cross on his vest and armed with a broadsword, while still retaining the mask; this design was replaced in turn with another concept, a masked ninja in a bodysuit armed with a long metal claw on his right hand. The character's finalized appearance was a culmination of all of these, incorporating various aspects of each into the finished design; when the original Street Fighter II was being localized for the English language market, Capcom's North American marketing staff felt that the name of the game's final boss, did not sound threatening enough to North American audiences, was hence better suited for the bullfighter, as Vega is by itself a Spanish surname. Plus, afraid of a lawsuit from American boxer Mike Tyson, they felt inclined to change the name of this character as well. For international tournaments he is named Claw.
As a result, Claw's name was changed from Balrog to Vega for English-language appearances, while original Vega became M. Bison and original M. Bison became Balrog. Vega is one of the few Street Fighter characters to carry a weapon, a tekkō kagi, the only character to do so in Street Fighter II; this claw is useful for slashing attacks, yet curved in the end to prevent him from lethally stabbing his opponents. This claw gives him a long range compared to most characters, it is the same type of weapon worn by Geki in the original Street Fighter, though longer. Obsessively narcissistic and vain, Vega considers himself the epitome of perfection; as such, he wears his expressionless mask not to conceal his identity, but to protect his face from scarring or bruising during battle. Vega wears murrey and yellow ceremonial trousers, a red sash and white leggings of a matador, suggesting his involvement with bullfighting; this decorative garb offers matadors ease of movement, is ideal for Vega's acrobatic maneuvers.
Depending on the games' color palettes, Vega has blonde hair. In the various games in the Street Fighter II series, Vega's game sprite and character select profile shot depict him with brown hair, while his ending in Street Fighter II': Champion Edition and Super Street Fighter II depict him with blonde hair. In Street Fighter EX2 and Street Fighter Alpha 3, Vega is depicted with blonde hair in all iterations, his tattoos consist of two purple bands which circle his arm. In Capcom vs. SNK 2, in a victory pose, Vega will hold his arm out towards the opponent, with the tattoo coming to life and hissing at it. In the mobile puzzle game Street Fighter: Puzzle Spirits, he appears as a super-deformed character. Vega's backstory reveals; as he matured, Vega studied a Spanish cultural tradition. He traveled to Japan to learn ninjutsu, a style that he believed would mesh well with his natural grace and agility. Returning home, Vega combined bullfighting with ninjutsu and entered an underground cage fighting circuit, where he became one of the best.
For undisclosed reasons, his family's status dwindled, causing his mother to remarry for financial security. Vega's new stepfather, incensed that his wife only valued him for his money, murdered her right in front of Vega, who killed him in return; the incident warped his mind and caused him to develop a dual personality: suave nobleman by day, sadistic masked murderer by night. Brandishing a three-pronged, razor sharp claw gauntlet, Vega embarked on many murderous rampages, taking great pleasure in mutilating his victims those he perceived as "ugly"; the murder of his mother caused him to view "beauty" as a trait of heroism and strength, whereas "ugliness" represented cowardice and evil. Vega's insatiable bloodlust and brutal fighting skills caught the attention of criminal leader M. Bison, who accepted the young nobleman into Shadaloo as his personal assassin and one of his three Grand Master bodyguards. Vega accepted Bison's offer purely to improve his own aesthetic senses, his official tag partner in the crossover fighting game Street Fighter X Tekken is Balrog, although they are shown to loathe each other due to their clashing personalities.
Vega is one of the fastest characters in the Street Fighter series, one of the most fragile. His strength is in long-range attacks, with the reach advantage provided by his claw, his speed and jumps. Durin