Bayonne, New Jersey
Bayonne bay-OWN is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Located in the Gateway Region, Bayonne is situated on a peninsula located between Newark Bay to the west, the Kill Van Kull to the south, New York Bay to the east; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 63,024, reflecting an increase of 1,182 from the 61,842 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 398 from the 61,444 counted in the 1990 Census. Bayonne was formed as a township on April 1, 1861, from portions of Bergen Township. Bayonne was reincorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 10, 1869, replacing Bayonne Township, subject to the results of a referendum held nine days later. At the time it was formed, Bayonne included the communities of Bergen Point, Constable Hook, Centreville and Saltersville. Bayonne is east of Newark, the state's largest city, north of Elizabeth in Union County and west of Brooklyn, it shares a land border with Jersey City to the north and is connected to Staten Island by the Bayonne Bridge.
While somewhat diminished, traditional manufacturing and maritime activities remain a driving force of the economy of the city, a portion of the Port of New York and New Jersey is located there. Inhabited by Native Americans, the region presently known as Bayonne was claimed by the Netherlands after Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River, named after him. According to Royden Page Whitcomb's 1904 book, First History of Bayonne, New Jersey, the name Bayonne is speculated to have originated with Bayonne, from which Huguenots settled for a year before the founding of New Amsterdam. However, there is no empirical evidence for this notion, considered apocryphal. Whitcomb gives more credence to the idea that Erastus Randall, E. C. Bramhall and B. F. Woolsey, who bought the land owned by Jasper and William Cadmus for real estate speculation, named it Bayonne for purposes of real estate speculation, because it was located on the shores of two bays and New York. Significant civil unrest arose during the Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915–1916, in which Polish American workers staged labor actions against Standard Oil of New Jersey and Tidewater Petroleum, seeking improved pay and working conditions.
Four striking workers were killed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 11.082 square miles, including 5.804 square miles of land and 5.278 square miles of water was water. The city is located south of Jersey City on a peninsula earlier known as Bergen Neck surrounded by Upper New York Bay to the east, Newark Bay to the west, Kill Van Kull to the south. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include: Bergen Point, Constable Hook and Port Johnson; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,024 people, 25,237 households, 16,050.732 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,858.3 per square mile. There were 27,799 housing units at an average density of 4,789.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.21% White, 8.86% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 7.71% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.00% from other races, 3.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.79% of the population.
Non-Hispanic Whites were 56.8% of the population. There were 25,237 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.4 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 87.9 males. The U. S. Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $53,587 and the median family income was $66,077. Males had a median income of $51,188 versus $42,097 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,698.
About 9.9% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 61,842 people, 25,545 households, 16,016 families residing in the city; the population density was 10,992.2 people per square mile. There were 26,826 housing units at an average density of 4,768.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.8% White, 5.50% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 7.46% from other races, 4.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.81% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, the most common reported ancestries of Bayonne residents were Italian and Polish. There were 25,545 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone who wa
David Horsley was an American pioneer of the film industry. He founded the Centaur Film Company and its West Coast branch, the Nestor Film Company, which established the first film studio in Hollywood in 1911. Born in Stanley, County Durham In 1884, the family moved to Bayonne, New Jersey where as a young man he built a bicycle business and ran a pool hall, it was that he met a former employee of Biograph Studios, Charles Gorman, along with his brother William Horsley, they formed the Centaur Film Company. By 1910 their operation was producing three films a week, including the Jeff comedies. David and William Horsley, along with other film independents, succeeded in defeating the monopolistic hold on the industry of Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company. However, weather conditions on the east coast made filming an uncertain proposition because camera technology at the time relied on sunshine. Frustrated, realizing that California afforded the opportunity to make films year round, David Horsley moved his operations to the west coast.
Among the first motion pictures filmed in Hollywood was taken on October 26, 1911 in the orchards of H J Whitley's estate. Although the movie never had a name it is a true piece of Hollywood history. In the fall of 1911, the Nestor Motion Picture Company opened the first motion picture studio in Hollywood in the Blondeau Tavern building at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. With Horsley was Al Christie who served as general manager in charge of Christie Comedies plus Charles Rosher who lent his expertise as the studio's full-time cameraman. Other east coast film companies recognized Horsley's advantage and followed his lead. In April 1912, the Universal Film Manufacturing Company was formed and David Horsley and other small studios merged, each accepting shares in Universal as payment for their business. Horsley received $175,000 in preferred stock and $204,000 in common stock in the new Universal Film Company and was appointed the company's treasurer. However, the peaceful merger soon turned sour and in 1913 Horsley sold his interest to Carl Laemmle.
A wealthy man, David Horsley travelled to his birthplace and around Europe. After returning to California, investing in a failed exotic animal show, David Horsley went back into the motion picture business with David Horsley Studios and using the animals from the failed show, established the Bostock Jungle Films Company. By the spring of 1917, he had outfitted his new operations in Los Angeles at Main and Washington streets however a series of setbacks cost Horsley his entire fortune and left him in debt. David Horsley died in Los Angeles, he is interred in Hollywood. His son, David Stanley Horsley, trained as a cinematographer and became an expert in special effects photography, working in the film industry for nearly thirty years. David Horsley at Find a Grave
Carl Laemmle was an American filmmaker and a founder of Universal Studios. He worked on over 400 films. Regarded as one of the most important of the early film pioneers, Laemmle was born in what is now Germany, he emigrated to the United States in 1884 and worked in Chicago for 20 years before he began buying nickelodeons expanding into a film distribution service, the Laemmle Film Service. Laemmle was born on 17 January 1867 to a Jewish family in Laupheim, in the German Kingdom of Württemberg; as a youth, he was an apprentice in Ichenhausen. He followed his older brother and emigrated to the United States in 1884, settling in Chicago, where he married Recha Stern, with whom he would have a son, Carl Laemmle, Jr. and a daughter, Rosabelle Laemmle Bergerman. Laemmle became a naturalized American citizen in 1889, he worked a variety of jobs, but by 1894 he was the bookkeeper of the Continental Clothing Company in Oshkosh, where he introduced a bolder advertising style. In 1906, Laemmle quit his job and started one of the first motion picture theaters in Chicago, branched out into film exchange services.
He challenged Thomas Edison's monopoly on moving pictures under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. As part of his offensive against Edison's company, Laemmle began advertising individual "stars," such as Mary Pickford and Florence Lawrence, thus increasing their individual earning power, thus their willingness to side with the "Independents."After moving to New York, Carl Laemmle got involved in producing movies, forming Independent Moving Pictures. On April 30, 1912, in New York, Laemmle of IMP, Pat Powers of Powers Motion Picture Company, Mark Dintenfass of Champion Film Company, William Swanson of Rex Motion Picture Company, David Horsley of Nestor Film Company, Charles Baumann and Adam Kessel of the New York Motion Picture Company, merged their studios and incorporated the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, with Laemmle assuming the role of president, they founded the Company with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based at the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1915, the studio moved to 235 acres of land in California. Universal maintained two East Coast offices: The first was located at 1600 Broadway, New York City; this building known as The Studebaker building, was razed around 2004-5. The second location to house Universal's executive offices was at New York City. Many years 445 Park Avenue was the location of Universal's executive offices. After moving to California, Laemmle purchased as a residence for his family the former home of film pioneer Thomas Ince on Benedict Canyon Drive, Beverly Hills; the house was razed in the early 1940s. Laemmle maintained a large apartment for himself and his two children at 465 West End Avenue, New York City, one block off Riverside Drive near the Hudson River. In 1916, Laemmle sponsored the $3,000 three-foot-tall solid silver Universal Trophy for the winner of the annual Universal race at the Uniontown Speedway board track in southwestern Pennsylvania. Universal filmed each race from 1916 to 1922. Carl Laemmle, although having made hundreds of movies in his active years as a producer, is best remembered for The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Phantom of The Opera, both with Lon Chaney Sr. in the title role, The Man Who Laughs.
In the early and mid-1930s, Laemmle's son, Carl Laemmle, Jr. produced a series of commercially successful films for the studio, among them several now-famous horror movies, such as Dracula and Frankenstein which became influential classics. Other films of note included 1936's Show Boat. Carl Laemmle and his son were both forced out of the company in 1936 during the Great Depression, he died from cardiovascular disease on September 24, 1939 in Beverly Hills, California, at the age of 72. Laemmle was entombed in the Chapel Mausoleum at Home of Peace Cemetery. Laemmle remained connected to his home town of Laupheim throughout his life, providing financial support to it and by sponsoring hundreds of Jews from Laupheim and Württemberg to emigrate from Nazi Germany to the United States in the 1930s, paying both emigration and immigration fees, thus saving them from the Holocaust. To ensure and facilitate their immigration, Laemmle contacted American authorities, members of the House of Representatives and Secretary of State Cordell Hull.
He intervened to try to secure entry for the refugees on board the SS St. Louis, who were sent back from Havana to Europe in 1939, where many died. Asked how to pronounce his name, he told The Literary Digest, "The name means little lamb, is pronounced as if it were spelled'lem-lee'."His niece, Rebekah Isabelle Laemmle, known professionally as Carla Laemmle, appeared in several films until her retirement from acting at the end of the 1930s. His great-grandniece, Antonia Carlotta, talks about him at length in her web series Universally Me, about the history of Universal Studios; the poet Ogden Nash observed the following about Laemmle's habit of giving his son and nephews top executive positions in his studios: "Uncle Carl LaemmleHas a large faemmle." Harold Robbins, a former Universal Studios employee, based a main character in the novel The Dream Merchants on Carl Laemmle. Laemmle was featured as an historic character in the movie The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones. David Menefee's novel, Sweet Memories, features Carl Laemmle as a character.
History of the Jews in Laupheim Laemmle T
The Moving Picture World
The Moving Picture World was an influential early trade journal for the American film industry, from 1907 to 1927. An industry powerhouse at its height, Moving Picture World reiterated its independence from the film studios. In 1911, the magazine bought out Film Index, its reviews illustrate the standards and tastes of film in its infancy, shed light on story content in those early days. By 1914, it had a reported circulation of 15,000; the publication was founded by James Petrie Chalmers, Jr. who began publishing in March 1907 as The Moving Picture World and View Photographer. In December 1927, it was announced that the publication was merging with the Exhibitor's Herald, when it was reported the combined circulation of the papers would be 16,881. In 1931, a subsequent merger with the Motion Picture News occurred, creating the Motion Picture Herald. A Spanish language version of the magazine, entitled Cine-Mundial, was published from 1916–1948; the Moving Picture World, archived issues at Media History Digital Library at archive.org Volume 3 Volume 17, Issues 1–6 Volume 25, Issues 4–6
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Mutt and Jeff
Mutt and Jeff is a long-running and popular American newspaper comic strip created by cartoonist Bud Fisher in 1907 about "two mismatched tinhorns". Historians regard Mutt and Jeff titled A. Mutt, as the first American newspaper cartoon published as a strip of panels, as opposed to a single panel, making it the first "comic strip" to pioneer that since-common format. Mutt and Jeff remained in syndication until 1983, employing the talents of several cartoonists, chiefly Al Smith who drew the strip for nearly fifty years; the series became a comic book published by All-American Publications and published by DC Comics, Dell Comics and Harvey Comics. It was published as cartoons, pop culture merchandise and reprints. Harry Conway "Bud" Fisher was a sports cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle in the early 1900s, a time when a newspaper cartoon was single panel, his innovation was to tell a cartoon gag in a sequence, or strip, of panels, creating the first American comic strip to pioneer that since-common format.
The concept of a newspaper strip featuring recurring characters in multiple panels on a six-day-a-week schedule had been created by Clare Briggs with A. Piker Clerk four years earlier, but that short-lived effort did not inspire further comics in a comic-strip format; as comics historian Don Markstein explained, Fisher's comic strip was similar to A. Piker Clerk, which cartoonist Clare Briggs... had done in the same daily format for The Chicago American in 1903. But tho Fisher was born in Chicago, it's unknown whether or not he saw the Briggs strip, so let's give him the benefit of the doubt and say he had an idea. Despite the Briggs primacy, A. Mutt is considered the first daily strip because it's the one that sparked a trend in that direction, which continues to this day. A. Mutt, the comic strip that would be better known by its title and Jeff, debuted on November 15, 1907 on the sports pages of the San Francisco Chronicle; the featured character had appeared in sports cartoons by Fisher, but was unnamed.
Fisher had approached his editor, John P. Young, about doing a regular strip as early as 1905, but was turned down. According to Fisher, Young told him, "It would take up too much room, readers are used to reading down the page, not horizontally."This strip focused on a single main character, until the other half of the duo appeared on March 27, 1908. It appeared only in the Chronicle, so Fisher did not have the extended lead time that syndicated strips require. Episodes were drawn the day before publication, referred to local events that were making headlines, or to specific horse races being run that day. A 1908 sequence about Mutt's trial featured a parade of thinly-disguised caricatures of specific San Francisco political figures, many of whom were being prosecuted for graft. On June 7, 1908, the strip moved off the sports pages and into Hearst's San Francisco Examiner where it was syndicated by King Features and became a national hit, subsequently making Fisher the first celebrity of the comics industry.
Fisher had taken the precaution of copyrighting the strip in his own name, facilitating the move to King Features and making it impossible for the Chronicle to continue the strip using another artist. A dispute between Fisher and King Features arose in 1913, Fisher moved his strip on September 15, 1915, to the Wheeler Syndicate, who gave Fisher 60% of the gross revenue, an enormous income in those times. Hearst responded by launching a lawsuit which failed. By 1916, Fisher was earning in excess of $150,000 a year. By the 1920s, merchandising and growing circulation had increased his income to an estimated $250,000. In 1918, Mutt and Jeff added a Sunday strip, as success continued, Fisher became dependent on assistants to produce the work. Fisher hired Billy Liverpool and Ed Mack, artists Hearst had at one point groomed to take over the strip, who would do most of the artwork. Other assistants on the strip included Ken Kling, George Herriman, Maurice Sendak. Fisher appeared to lose all interest in the strip during the 1930s, after Mack died in 1932, the job of creating the strip fell to Al Smith.
In c. 1944, the new Chicago-based Field Syndicate took over the strip. Mutt and Jeff retained Fisher's signature until his death, however, so it wasn't until December 7, 1954, that the strip started being signed by Smith. Al Smith received the National Cartoonists Society Humor Comic Strip Award in 1968 for his work on the strip. Smith continued to draw Jeff until 1980, two years before it ceased publication. In the introduction to Forever Nuts: The Early Years of Mutt & Jeff, Allan Holtz gave the following reason for the strip's longevity and demise: The strip's waning circulation got a shot in the arm in the 1950s when President Eisenhower sang its praises, again in the 1970s when a nostalgia craze swept the nation, it took the 1980s, a decade focused on the here and now, a final creative change on the strip when Al Smith had had enough, to allow the strip the rest it had deserved for decades. During this final period it was drawn by George Breisacher. Andrews McMeel Universal continues to syndicate Mutt and Jeff under the imprint Classic Mutt and Jeff under the copyright of Pierre S. de Beaumont, founder of the Brookstone catalog and retail chain.
De Beaumont inherited ownership of the strip from his mother, Aedita de Beaumont, who married Fisher in 1925. Augustus Mutt is a tall, dimwitted racetrack character—a fanatic horse-race gambler, motivated b