Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects; the earliest Christian writings gave several titles to Jesus, such as Son of Man, Son of God and Kyrios, which were all derived from the Hebrew scriptures. These terms centered around two themes, namely "Jesus as a preexistent figure who becomes human and returns to God," and "Jesus as a creature elected and'adopted' by God."From the second to the fifth century, the relation of the human and divine nature of Christ was a major focus of debates in the early church and at the first seven ecumenical councils. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 issued a formulation of the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, one human and one divine, "united with neither confusion nor division". Most of the major branches of Western Christianity and Eastern Orthodoxy subscribe to this formulation, while many branches of Oriental Orthodox Churches reject it, subscribing to miaphysitism.
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects. "Ontological Christology" analyzes the being of Jesus Christ. "Functional Christology" analyzes the works of Jesus Christ, while "soteriological Christology" analyzes the "salvific" standpoints of Christology. Several approaches can be distinguished within Christology; the term "Christology from above" or "high Christology" refers to approaches that include aspects of divinity, such as Lord and Son of God, the idea of the pre-existence of Christ as the Logos, as expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John. These approaches interpret the works of Christ in terms of his divinity. According to Pannenberg, Christology from above "was far more common in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch and the second century Apologists." The term "Christology from below" or "low Christology" refers to approaches that begin with the human aspects and the ministry of Jesus and move towards his divinity and the mystery of incarnation.
A basic Christological teaching is that the person of Jesus Christ is both divine. The human and divine natures of Jesus Christ form a duality, as they coexist within one person. There are no direct discussions in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human, since the early days of Christianity, theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures, at times resulting in ecumenical councils, schisms. Historical christological doctrines which gained broader support are Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Monarchianism. Influential Christologies which were broadly condemned as heretical are Docetism and Nestorianism. In Christian theology, atonement is the method by which human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death. Atonement is the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the suffering and resurrection of Jesus, enabling the reconciliation between God and his creation.
Due to the influence of Gustaf Aulèn's Christus Victor, the various theories or paradigma's of atonement are grouped as "classical paradigm," "objective paradigm," and the "subjective paradigm": Classical paradigm:Ransom theory of atonement, which teaches that the death of Christ was a ransom sacrifice said to have been paid to Satan or to death itself, in some views paid to God the Father, in satisfaction for the bondage and debt on the souls of humanity as a result of inherited sin. Gustaf Aulén reinterpreted the ransom thory, calling it the Christus Victor doctrine, arguing that Christ's death was not a payment to the Devil, but defeated the powers of evil, which had held humankind in their dominion.. Theosis is a "corollary" of the recapitualtion. Objective paradigm: Satisfaction theory of atonement, developed by Anselm of Canterbury, which teaches that Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion as a substitute for human sin, satisfying God's just wrath against humankind's transgression due to Christ's infinite merit.
Penal substitution called "forensic theory" and "vicarious punishment,", a development by the Reformers of Anselm's satisfaction theory. Instead of considering sin as an affront to God's honour, it sees sin as the breaking of God's moral law. Penal substitution sees sinful man as being subject to God's wrath, with the essence of Jesus' saving work being his substitution in the sinner's place, bearing the curse in the place of man. Moral government theory, "which views God as both the loving creator and moral Governor of the universe." Subjective paradigm: Moral influence theory of atonement, developed, or most notably propagated, by Abelard, who argued that "Jesus died as the demonstration of God's love," a demonstration which can change the hearts and minds of the sinners, turning back to God. Moral example theory, developed by Faustus Socinus in his work De Jesu Christo servatore, who rejected the idea of "vicarious satisfaction." According to
Love of Christ
The love of Christ is a central element of Christian belief and theology. It refers to the love of Jesus Christ for humanity, the love of Christians for Christ, the love of Christians for others; these aspects are distinct in Christian teachings—the love for Christ is a reflection of his love for his followers. The theme of love is the key element of Johannine writings; this is evidenced in one of the most quoted scriptures in the Bible: ”For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have eternal life.” In the Gospel of John, the pericope of the Good Shepherd symbolizes the sacrifice of Jesus based on his love for people. In that gospel, love for Christ results in the following of his commandments, the Farewell Discourse stating: "If a man loves me, he will keep my word". In the First Epistle of John, the reflexive nature of this love is highlighted: "We love, because he first loved us", expressing the love of Christ as a mirroring of Christ's own love.
Towards the end of the Last Supper, Jesus gives his disciples a new commandment: "Love one another, as I have loved you... By this shall all men know that you are my disciples."The love of Christ is a motif in the Letters of Paul. The basic theme of the Epistle to the Ephesians is that of God the Father initiating the work of salvation through Christ, who willingly sacrifices himself based on his love and obedience to the Father. Ephesians 5:25 states "Christ loved the church, gave himself up for it". Ephesians 3:17-19 relates the love of Christ to the knowledge of Christ and considers loving Christ to be a necessity for knowing him. Many prominent Christian figures have expounded on the love of Christ. Saint Augustine wrote that "the common love of truth unites people, the common love of Christ unites all Christians". Saint Benedict instructed his monks to "prefer nothing to the love of Christ". Saint Thomas Aquinas stated that although both Christ and God the Father had the power to restrain those who killed Christ on Calvary, neither did, due to the perfection of the love of Christ.
Aquinas opined that, given that "perfect love" casts out fear, Christ had no fear when he was crucified, for his love was all-perfect. Saint Teresa of Avila considered perfect love to be an imitation of the love of Christ. I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep; the love of Christ for his disciples and for humanity as a whole is a theme that repeats both in Johannine writings and in several of the Pauline Epistles. John 13:1, which begins the narrative of the Last Supper, describes the love of Christ for his disciples: "having loved his own that were in the world, he loved them unto the end." This use of "to the end" in Greek may be translated as "to the utmost". In the First Epistle of John the reflexive nature of this love is highlighted: "We love, because he first loved us", expressing the origin of the love as a mirroring of Christ's love; the theology of the intercession of Christ from Heaven after he left the earth, draws upon his continued love for his followers and his ongoing desire to bring them to salvation as in 1 John 2:1-2 and Romans 8:34.
In many Christological models, the love of Christ for his followers is not mediated by any other means but is direct. It resembles the love of the shepherd for his sheep, the nourishment that the Vine provides for the branches. In other models, the love is delegated to the apostles who formed the early church, through them, it is passed to their successors; the pericope of the Good Shepherd appears about midway through the Gospel of John, in John 1-11 Jesus states that as the good shepherd he will lay down his life for his sheep. This concept is basis of Jesus' commands to Apostle Peter after his resurrection and before his Ascension to Heaven. In John 21:15-17, a resurrected Jesus asks Peter three times, "Do you love me?" And as a response, Jesus commands Peter three times to "feed my lambs", "tend my sheep" and "feed my sheep", implying that love for Christ should translate to loving actions and care for his followers. The basic theme of the Epistle to the Ephesians is that of God the Father initiating the work of salvation through Christ, not a passive instrument in this scenario but takes an active role in the work of salvation.
In Ephesians 5:1-2, Paul calls upon the Ephesians to be imitators of God: Be ye therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. Paul continues this idea in Ephesians 5:25 and states that: "Christ loved the church, gave himself up for it"; the discussion of the love expressed by Christ throughout the New Testament is part of the overall theme of the outpouring of love from a merciful God and Christ's participation in it. In John 14:31, Jesus explains that his sacrificial act was performed so "that the world may know that I love the Father, as the Father gave me commandment so I do." This verse includes the only direct statement by Jesus in the New Testament about his love for the Father. In the Book of Revelation, the imagery of the wedding feast of the Lamb represents the celebration of the culmination of this cycle of love and mercy of God, which begins in the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, ends in salvation. Let them prefer nothing to the love of Christ The theme of love is the key element of Johannine writings: "God loves Christ, Christ loves God, God loves humanity, Christians love God through their love for Christ".
Christians are bound together through their mutual love, a reflection of their love for Christ. The word "love
Church of the East
The Church of the East known as the Nestorian Church and the Persian Church, was an Eastern Christian denomination that in 410 organised itself within the Sasanian Empire and in 424 declared its leader independent of other Christian leaders. From the Persian Empire it spread to other parts of Asia in the Middle Ages, it was the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, using the East Syriac Rite in its liturgy. It developed distinctive theological and ecclesiological traditions, played a major role in the history of Christianity in Asia, its schism of 1552 divided it into two patriarchates four, but by 1830 again two, one of, now the Chaldean Catholic Church, while the other split further in 1968 into the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East. The Church of the East's declaration in 424 of the independence of its head, the Patriarch of the East, preceded by nine years the 431 Council of Ephesus, which condemned Nestorius and declared that Mary, mother of Jesus, can be described as Mother of God.
Two of the accepted ecumenical councils were held earlier: the First Council of Nicea, in which a Persian bishop took part, in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381. The Church of the East accepted the teaching of these two councils, but ignored the 431 council and those that followed, seeing them as concerning only the patriarchates of the Roman Empire − Rome, Alexandria, Jerusalem − which for it were'Western". Theologically, it adopted a dyophysite doctrine that emphasised the distinctiveness of the divine and the human natures of Jesus. In the 6th century and thereafter, it expanded establishing communities in India, among the Mongols in Central Asia, in China, which became home to a thriving community under the Tang dynasty from the 7th to the 9th century. At its height, between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Church of the East was the world's largest Christian church in geographical extent, with dioceses stretching from its heartland in Upper Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea and as far afield as China, Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and India.
From its peak of geographical extent, the church entered a period of rapid decline that began in the 14th century, due to outside influences. The Chinese Ming dynasty overthrew the Mongols and ejected Christians and other foreign influences from China, many Mongols in Central Asia converted to Islam; the Muslim Turco-Mongol leader Timur nearly eradicated the remaining Christians in the Middle East. Nestorian Christianity remained confined to communities in Upper Mesopotamia and the Malabar Coast of the Indian subcontinent. In the early modern period, its schism of 1552 led to a series of internal divisions and to its branching into three separate churches: the Chaldean Catholic Church, in full communion with the Holy See, the independent Assyrian Church of the East and Ancient Church of the East. Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasises the distinction between the human and divine natures of Jesus, it was attributed to Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431, whose doctrine represented the culmination of a philosophical current developed by scholars at the School of Antioch, most notably Nestorius's mentor Theodore of Mopsuestia, stirred controversy when he publicly challenged the use of the title Theotokos for Mary, mother of Jesus, suggesting that it denied Christ's full humanity.
He argued that Jesus had two loosely joined natures, the divine Logos and the human Jesus, proposed Christotokos as a more suitable alternative title. His statements drew criticism from other prominent churchmen from Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who had a leading part in the Council of Ephesus of 431, which condemned Nestorius for heresy and deposed him as patriarch. After 431, the state authorities in the Roman Empire suppressed Nestorianism, a reason for Christians under Persian rule to favour it and so allay suspicion that their loyalty lay with the hostile Christian-ruled empire, it was in the aftermath of the later Council of Chalcedon that the Church of the East formulated a distinctive theology. The first such formulation was adopted at the Synod of Beth Lapat in 484; this was developed further in the early seventh century, when in an at first successful war against the Byzantine Empire the Sasanid Persian Empire incorporated broad territories populated by West Syrians, many of whom were supporters of Monophysitism, the theological view most opposed to Nestorianism.
These received support from Khosrow II, influenced by his wife Shirin. Drawing inspiration from Theodore of Mopsuestia, Babai the Great expounded in his Book of Union, what became the normative Christology of the Church of the East, he affirmed. As happened with the Greek terms φύσις and ὐπόστασις, these Syriac words were sometimes taken to mean something other than what was intended; the Church of the East accepted a certain fluidity of expressions, always within a dyophysite theology, but with Babai's assembly of 612, which canonically sanctioned the "two gnome in Christ" formula, a final christological distinction was created between the Church of the East and the "western" Chalcedonian Churches. The justice of imputing Nestorianism to Nestorius, whom the Church of the East venerated as a saint, is disputed. David Wilmshurst states that for centuries "the word'N
Intercession of Christ
Intercession of Christ is the Christian belief in the continued intercession of Jesus and his advocacy on behalf of humanity after he left the earth. In Christian teachings, the intercession of Christ before God relates to Jesus' anamnesis before God during the Last Supper and the continuing memorial nature of the Eucharistic offering. From the Christological perspective, the intercession of Christ is distinguished from the Intercession of the Spirit. In the first case Christ takes petitions to the Father in Heaven, in the second case the Comforter flows from Heaven toward the hearts of believers; the theological basis for the belief in the intercession of Christ is provided in the New Testament. In the Epistle to the Romans Saint Paul states: It is Christ Jesus that died, yea rather, raised from the dead, at the right hand of God, who maketh intercession for us; this intercession resonates with John 17:22 which refers to the "heavenly communion" between Christ and God the Father. The First Epistle of John states: And if any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and he is the propitiation for our sins.
In the Epistle to the Hebrews Saint Paul wrote of the "salvation to the uttermost" through the continued intercession of Christ: Wherefore he is able to save to the uttermost them that draw near unto God through him, seeing he liveth to make intercession for them. The intercession of Christ in Heaven is seen as a continuation of the prayers and petitions he performed for humanity while on earth, e.g. as in Luke 23:34: "Father, forgive them. In Pauline Christology the intercession of Christ has two components, both in the present and at the Last Judgement; this is expressed in Romans 8:33-34 in terms of "Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?" and "Who is he that condemneth?", in Hebrews 7:25 in terms of the activities of Christ as the High Priest. In Christian teachings, the intercession of Christ before God relates to Jesus' anamnesis before God during the Last Supper and the continuing memorial nature of the Eucharistic offering. In the Christology of salvation, the one time offering of Christ via his willing sacrifice at Calvary is distinguished from, but relates to his continued intercession from Heaven in his role as the High Priest, his role at the Last Judgement.
The notion of intercession by Christ as the Lamb of God relates to the imagery of the Lamb in Revelation 14:1:5 where those who are first saved "were purchased from among men" through the sacrifice of the lamb: These are they that follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were purchased from among the firstfruits unto God and unto the Lamb. From the Christological perspective, the intercession of Christ is distinguished from the Intercession of the Spirit. While 1 John 2:1 states "We have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous", John 14:16-17 includes the statement: And I will pray the Father, he shall give you another Comforter, that he may be with you for even the Spirit of truth: whom the world cannot receive; the distinction between the two forms of the advocacy can be interpreted in terms of the direction of the flow: in the first case Christ takes petitions to the Father in Heaven, in the second case the comforter flows from Heaven toward the hearts of believers.
Intercession of the Spirit Intercession of saints Session of Christ
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Nestorius was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June. His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, they were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was God; that brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, who accused him of heresy. Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 but instead found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and was subsequently removed from his see. On his own request, he retired in or near Antioch. In 435, Theodosius II sent him into exile in Upper Egypt, where he lived on until 450, strenuously defending his orthodoxy, his last major defender within the Roman Empire, Theodoret of Cyrrhus agreed to anathematize him in 451 during the Council of Chalcedon.
From on, he had no defenders within the empire, but the Church of the East never accepted his condemnation. That led to western Christians giving the name Nestorian Church to the Church of the East where his teachings were deemed Orthodox and in line with its own teachings. Nestorius is revered as among three "Greek Teachers" of the Church. Parts of the Church of the East's Eucharistic Service, known to be among the oldest in the world, is contributed to with prayers attributed to Nestorius himself; the Second Council of Constantinople of AD 553 confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas of Edessa that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without due inquiry. The discovery and publication of his Bazaar of Heracleides at the beginning of the 20th century have led to a reassessment of his theology in western scholarship, it is now agreed that his ideas were not far from those that emerged as orthodox, but the orthodoxy of his formulation of the doctrine of Christ is still controversial.
Sources place the birth of Nestorius in either 381 or 386 in the city of Germanicia in the Province of Syria, Roman Empire. He received his clerical training as a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch, he was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, he gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II, as Patriarch of Constantinople, following the 428 death of Sisinnius I. Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those that emphasized the fact that in Christ, God had been born as a man and insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos and those that rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos. "Nestorianism" refers to the doctrine that there are two distinct hypostases in the Incarnate Christ, the one Divine and the other human.
The teaching of all churches that accept the Council of Ephesus is that in the Incarnate Christ is a single hypostasis and man at once. That doctrine is known as the Hypostatic union. Nestorius's opponents charged him with detaching Christ's divinity and humanity into two persons existing in one body, thereby denying the reality of the Incarnation, it is not clear whether Nestorius taught that. Eusebius, a layman who became the bishop of the neighbouring Dorylaeum, was the first to accuse Nestorius of heresy but the most forceful opponent of Nestorius was Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria; this caused great excitement at Constantinople among the clergy, who were not well disposed to Nestorius, the stranger from Antioch. Cyril appealed to Celestine of Rome to make a decision, Celestine delegated to Cyril the job of excommunicating Nestorius if he did not change his teachings within 10 days. Nestorius had arranged with the emperor in the summer of 430 for the assembling of a council, he now hastened it, the summons had been issued to patriarchs and metropolitans on 19 November, before the pope's sentence, delivered though Cyril of Alexandria, had been served on Nestorius.
Emperor Theodosius II convoked a general church council, at Ephesus, itself a special seat for the veneration of Mary, where the Theotokos formula was popular. The Emperor and his wife supported Nestorius. Cyril took charge of the First Council of Ephesus in 431, opening debate before the long-overdue contingent of Eastern bishops from Antioch arrived; the council deposed declared him a heretic. In Nestorius' own words, When the followers of Cyril saw the vehemence of the emperor... they roused up a disturbance and discord among the people with an outcry, as though the emperor were opposed to God. And... they took with them those, separated and removed from the monasteries by reason of their lives and their strange manners and had for this reason been expelled, all who were of heretical sects and were possessed with fanaticism and with hatred against me. And one passion was in them all and pagans and all the sects, they were busying themselves that they should accept without examination the things which were done without examination against me.
Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Mariology methodically relates teachings about her to other parts of the faith, such as teachings about Jesus and grace. Christian Mariology aims to connect scripture and the teachings of the Church on Mary. In the context of social history, Mariology may be broadly defined as the study of devotion to and thinking about Mary throughout the history of Christianity. There exist a variety of Christian views on Mary ranging from the focus on the veneration of Mary in Roman Catholic Mariology to Protestant objections, with Anglican Marian theology in between; as a field of theology, in recent centuries the most substantial developments in Mariology have taken place within Roman Catholic Mariology. Eastern Orthodox concepts of Mary have been expressed in liturgy and are not subject to a central dogmatic teaching office. A significant number of Marian publications were written in the 20th century, with theologists Raimondo Spiazzi and Gabriel Roschini achieving 2500 and 900 publications respectively.
In terms of popular following, membership in Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies has grown significantly. Ecumenical differences continue to exist in substance and style but are more understood because of the existence of Mariology; the Pontifical Academy of Mary and the Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum are key Mariological centers. A wide range of views on Mary exist at multiple levels of differentiation within distinct Christian belief systems. In many cases, the views held at any point in history have continued to be challenged and transformed. Over the centuries, Roman Catholic Mariology has been shaped by varying forces ranging from sensus fidelium to Marian apparitions to the writings of the saints to reflection by theologians and papal encyclicals. Anglican Marian theology varies from the Anglo-Catholic to the more Protestant Evangelical views; the Anglican Church formally celebrates six Marian feasts, Visitation, Day of Saint Mary, Nativity of Mary, Our Lady of Walsingham and Mary's Conception.
Anglicans share some of the fundamental Marian beliefs such as divine maternity and the virgin birth of Jesus, although there is no systematic agreed upon Mariology among the diverse parts of the Anglican Communion. However, the role of Mary as a mediator is accepted by some groups of modern Anglican theologians. Eastern Orthodox theology calls Mary the Theotokos; this term emphasizes Mary's status as the mother of God incarnate in Jesus but not the mother of God from eternity. The virginal motherhood of Mary stands at the center of Orthodox Mariology, in which the title Ever Virgin is used; the Orthodox Mariological approach emphasizes the sublime holiness of Mary, her share in redemption and her role as a mediator of grace. Orthodox Marilogical thought dates as far back as Saint John Damascene who in the 8th century wrote on the mediative role of Mary and on the Dormition of the Mother of God. In the 14th century, Orthodox Mariology began to flourish among Byzantine theologians who held a cosmic view of Mariology, placing Jesus and Mary together at the center of the cosmos and saw them as the goal of world history.
More Orthodox Mariology achieved a renewal among 20th century theologians in Russia, for whom Mary is the heart of the Church and the center of creation. However, unlike the Catholic approach, Orthodox Mariology does not support the Immaculate Conception of Mary. Prior to the 20th century, Orthodox Mariology was entirely liturgical, had no systematic presentation similar to Roman Catholic Mariology. However, 20th century theologians such as Sergei Bulgakov began the development of a detailed systematic Orthodox Mariology. Bulgakov's Mariological formulation emphasizes the close link between Mary and the Holy Spirit in the mystery of the Incarnation. Protestant views on Mary vary from denomination to denomination, they focus on interpretations of Mary in the Bible, the "Apostles' Creed", the Ecumenical Council of Ephesus, in 431, which called Mary the Mother of God. While some early Protestants created Marian art and allowed limited forms of Marian veneration, Protestants today do not share the veneration of Mary practiced by Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox.
Martin Luther's views on Mary, John Calvin's views on Mary, Karl Barth's views on Mary and others have all contributed to modern Protestant views. A better mutual understanding among different Christian groups regarding their Mariology has been sought in a number of ecumenical meetings which produced common documents. Outside Christianity, the Islamic view of the Virgin Mary, known as Maryam in Arabic, is that she was an pious and chaste woman who miraculously gave birth while still a virgin to the prophet Jesus, known in Arabic as Isa. Mary is the only woman named in the Qur'an; the nineteenth chapter of the Qur'an, named after her, begins with two narrations of "miraculous birth". The First Council of Ephesus in 431 formally approved devotion to the Virgin as Theotokos, which most translated means God-bearer. Nestorians preferred Christotokos meaning "Christ-bearer" or "Mother of the Messiah" not because they denied Jesus' divinity, but because they believed that God the Son or Logos existed before time and before Mary, that Jesus took divinity from God the Father and humanity from his mother, so calling her "Mother of God" was confusing and heretical