Jazz Man Records
Jazz Man Records was an American record company and independent record label devoted to traditional New Orleans-style jazz. David Stuart sold it to Marili Morden and Nesuhi Ertegun; the label and its namesake – Jazz Man Record Shop, in Hollywood – were in the vanguard of an international revival of traditional jazz in the 1940s. Jazz Man Records was founded in 1941 by David Stuart, owner of the Jazz Man Record Shop in Hollywood, California; the label was an offshoot of the shop, established in 1939 as the only shop on the West Coast that specialized in used 78s for jazz collectors. Stuart was a purist, he preserved and promoted the traditional jazz music that had fallen out of favor in the late 1920s, regarded the swing music that had eclipsed it with contempt. Stuart modeled Jazz Man Records after Commodore Records, released by a comparable record shop operating in Manhattan since 1938, he adopted its style of printing the names and instrumentation of the personnel on the label. The label bore the address of the Jazz Man Record Shop, the exclusive sales outlet.
Stuart produced the first recordings by Lu Watters' Yerba Buena Jazz Band December 19–20, 1941. A second recording session with the Watters band was produced in March 1942. In June 1942 Stuart produced a historic recording session in New Orleans with Bunk Johnson, putting together a group he called Bunk Johnson's Original Superior Band. In December 1942 Jazz Man Records released four unreleased sides by Jelly Roll Morton, recorded in 1938, in partnership with Nesuhi Ertegun. Ertegun had acquired the solo piano recordings, made in Washington, D. C. while Morton was being interviewed by Alan Lomax, from a private collection in 1941. Ertegun purchased Jazz Man Records from David Stuart in late 1946. In January 1947 Jazz Man record labels were redesigned and a dark green color, matching that of Crescent Records. Ertegun retired the Crescent label. On January 15, 1952, Jazz Man Records sold its masters to Good Time Jazz Records for $5,500. Recordings were produced on the Jazz Man label through 1954; the last was an album by Joe Venuti and Tony Romano, recorded in October 1954 and released the following month.
The Jazz Man Records discography is available online from the Jazz Discography Project and is further detailed in Cary Ginell's 2010 book, Hot Jazz for Sale: Hollywood's Jazz Man Record Shop. Crescent Records 6. Marili Morden: "This is the real jazz" at Gene Deitch, Roll the Credits! 1939 Jazz Man Record Shop at The Kid Ory Archive
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C.
The Embassy of Turkey in Washington, D. C. is the diplomatic mission of the Republic of Turkey to the United States. It is located at Northwest in the Embassy Row neighborhood; the chancery is housed in a new building, inaugurated by Turkish President Süleyman Demirel on April 23, 1999. Designed by Shalom Baranes Associates, it reflects aspects of Turkish vernacular architecture while harmonizing with the styles of the Sheridan-Kalorama neighborhood; the embassy had been housed in a mansion farther south, at Sheridan Circle and 23rd Street, N. W; the building today serves as the Turkish ambassador's residence. It was built for Edward Hamlin Everett, a bottling millionaire, in 1915; the Everett House was designed by George Oakley Totten, Jr. a Washingtonian who had spent a brief period in Turkey as the official architect for Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The Turkish government purchased it four years later. On May 16, 2017, armed Turkish security forces attacked pro Kurdish protesters demonstrating on behalf of the North American Kurdish Alliance outside the ambassador's residence during a visit by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, forcing intervention by the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia.
On March 31, 2016, Turkish security forces had attacked protesters and journalists further down Embassy Row during a speech by President Erdoğan at the Brookings Institution. Münir Ertegün Feridun Erkin Suat Hayri Ürgüplü Melih Esenbel Melih Esenbel Şükrü Elekdağ Nüzhet Kandemir Baki İlkin Faruk Loğoğlu Nabi Şensoy Namık Tan Serdar Kılıç Diplomatic missions of Turkey Turkey–United States relations Turkish American Embassy of Turkey, official website wikimapia
Edward "Kid" Ory was a Louisiana French-speaking jazz trombonist and bandleader. He was born near LaPlace, Louisiana. Ory started playing music with homemade instruments in his childhood, by his teens was leading a well-regarded band in southeast Louisiana, he kept LaPlace, Louisiana, as his base of operations because of family obligations until his twenty-first birthday, when he moved his band to New Orleans. He was one of the most influential trombonists of early jazz. Ory was a banjo player during his youth, it is said that his ability to play the banjo helped him develop "tailgate", a particular style of playing the trombone with a rhythmic line underneath the trumpets and cornets; when Ory was living on Jackson Avenue, he was discovered by Buddy Bolden, playing his first new trombone, instead of an old Civil War trombone. Ory's sister said. Ory had one of the best-known bands in New Orleans in the 1910s, hiring many of the great jazz musicians of the city, including the cornetists Joe "King" Oliver, Mutt Carey, Louis Armstrong, who joined the band in 1919.
In 1919, he moved to Los Angeles—one of a number of New Orleans musicians to do so near that time—and he recorded there in 1921 with a band that included Mutt Carey, the clarinetist and pianist Dink Johnson, the string bassist Ed Garland. Garland and Carey were longtime associates who would still be playing with Ory during his 1940s comeback. While in Los Angeles and his band recorded two instrumentals, "Ory's Creole Trombone" and "Society Blues", as well as a number of songs, they were the first jazz recordings made on the West Coast by an African-American jazz band from New Orleans. His band recorded with Nordskog Records. In 1925, Ory moved to Chicago, where he was active and recording with Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Johnny Dodds, Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, many others, he mentored Benny Goodman and Charles Mingus. During the Great Depression Ory retired from music and did not play again until 1943, he ran a chicken farm in California. From 1944 to about 1961 he led one of the top New Orleans–style bands of the period.
His sidemen during this period included, In addition to Carey and Garland, the trumpeters Alvin Alcorn and Teddy Buckner. All but Buckner and Ewell were from New Orleans; the Ory band was an important force in reviving interest in New Orleans jazz, making popular 1940s radio broadcasts—among them a number of slots on The Orson Welles Almanac program. In 1944–45 the group made a series of recordings for Crescent Records, founded by Nesuhi Ertegun for the express purpose of recording Ory's band. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Ory and his group appeared at the Beverly Cavern in Los Angeles. In 1958 he played at'On the levee' on the waterfront at San Francisco. Ory retired from music in 1966 and spent his last years in Hawaii, with the assistance of Trummy Young. Ory died in Honolulu, he was buried at Culver City, California. 1950 Kid Ory and His Creole Dixieland Band 1951 At the Beverly Cavern 1953 Live at Club Hangover, Vol. 1 1953 Creole Jazz Band at Club Hangover 1954 Live at Club Hangover, Vol. 3 1954 Kid Ory's Creole Jazz Band 1954 Creole Jazz Band 1954 Kid Ory's Creole Band/Johnny Wittwer Trio 1955 Sounds of New Orleans, Vol. 9 1956 Kid Ory in Europe 1956 Kid Ory's Creole Jazz Band/This Kid's the Greatest!
1956 The Legendary Kid 1956 Favorites! 1957 The Kid from New Orleans: Ory That Is 1957 Dixieland Marching Songs 1957 Kid Ory Sings French Traditional Songs 1958 Song of the Wanderer 1959 At the Jazz Band Ball 1959 Plays W. C. Handy 1960 Dance with Kid Ory or Just Listen 1961 The Original Jazz 1961 The Storyville Nights 1968 Kid Ory Live 1978 Edward Kid Ory and His Creole Band at the Dixieland Jubilee 19?? Kid Ory The Great New Orleans Trombonist 1981 Kid Ory Plays The Blues 1990 Favorites 1992 Kid Ory at the Green Room, Vol. 1 1994 Kid Ory at the Green Room, Vol. 2 1997 Kid Ory and His Creole Band at the Dixieland Jubilee 1997 Kid Ory's Creole Jazz Band 1998 In Denmark 2000 Live at the Beverly Cavern With Red Allen 1957 Red Allen, Kid Ory & Jack Teagarden at Newport McCusker, John. "Creole Trombone: Kid Ory and the Early Years of Jazz", University Press of Mississippi, 2012 Marcus, Kenneth. Musical Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Creation of Music Culture 1880-1940 Kid Ory on redhotjazz.com Jubilee at the Internet Archive.
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well