NetBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system based on the Berkeley Software Distribution. It was the first open-source BSD descendant released after 386BSD was forked, it continues to be developed and is available for many platforms, including servers, handheld devices, embedded systems. The NetBSD project focuses on code clarity, careful design, portability across many computer architectures, its source code is permissively licensed. NetBSD was derived from the 4.3BSD-Reno release of the Berkeley Software Distribution from the Computer Systems Research Group of the University of California, via their Net/2 source code release and the 386BSD project. The NetBSD project began as a result of frustration within the 386BSD developer community with the pace and direction of the operating system's development; the four founders of the NetBSD project, Chris Demetriou, Theo de Raadt, Adam Glass, Charles Hannum, felt that a more open development model would benefit the project: one centered on portable, correct code.
They aimed to produce a multi-platform, production-quality, BSD-based operating system. The name "NetBSD" was suggested by De Raadt, based on the importance and growth of networks such as the Internet at that time, the distributed, collaborative nature of its development; the NetBSD source code repository was established on 21 March 1993 and the first official release, NetBSD 0.8, was made on 19 April 1993. This was derived from 386BSD 0.1 plus the version 0.2.2 unofficial patchkit, with several programs from the Net/2 release missing from 386BSD re-integrated, various other improvements. The first multi-platform release, NetBSD 1.0, was made in October 1994, being updated with 4.4BSD-Lite sources, it was free of all encumbered 4.3BSD Net/2 code. In 1994, for disputed reasons, one of the founders, Theo de Raadt, was removed from the project, he founded a new project, OpenBSD, from a forked version of NetBSD 1.0 near the end of 1995. In 1998, NetBSD 1.3 introduced the pkgsrc packages collection.
Until 2004, NetBSD 1.x releases were made at annual intervals, with minor "patch" releases in between. From release 2.0 onwards, NetBSD uses semantic versioning, each major NetBSD release corresponds to an incremented major version number, i.e. the major releases following 2.0 are 3.0, 4.0 and so on. The previous minor releases are now divided into two categories: x.y "stable" maintenance releases and x.y.z releases containing only security and critical fixes. As the project's motto suggests, NetBSD has been ported to a large number of 32- and 64-bit architectures; these range from VAX minicomputers to Pocket PC PDAs. As of 2019, NetBSD supports 59 hardware platforms; the kernel and userland for these platforms are all built from a central unified source-code tree managed by CVS. Unlike other kernels such as μClinux, the NetBSD kernel requires the presence of an MMU in any given target architecture. NetBSD's portability is aided by the use of hardware abstraction layer interfaces for low-level hardware access such as bus input/output or DMA.
Using this portability layer, device drivers can be split into "machine-independent" and "machine-dependent" components. This makes a single driver usable on several platforms by hiding hardware access details, reduces the work to port it to a new system; this permits a particular device driver for a PCI card to work without modifications, whether it is in a PCI slot on an IA-32, PowerPC, SPARC, or other architecture with a PCI bus. A single driver for a specific device can operate via several different buses, like ISA, PCI, or PC Card. In comparison, Linux device driver code must be reworked for each new architecture; as a consequence, in porting efforts by NetBSD and Linux developers, NetBSD has taken much less time to port to new hardware. This platform independence aids the development of embedded systems since NetBSD 1.6, when the entire toolchain of compilers, assemblers and other tools support cross-compiling. In 2005, as a demonstration of NetBSD's portability and suitability for embedded applications, Technologic Systems, a vendor of embedded systems hardware and demonstrated a NetBSD-powered kitchen toaster.
Commercial ports to embedded platforms, including the AMD Geode LX800, Freescale PowerQUICC processors, Marvell Orion, AMCC 405 family of PowerPC processors, Intel XScale IOP and IXP series, were available from and supported by Wasabi Systems. The NetBSD cross-compiling framework lets a developer build a complete NetBSD system for an architecture from a more powerful system of different architecture, including on a different operating system. Several embedded systems using NetBSD have required no additional software development other than toolchain and target rehost. NetBSD features pkgsrc, a framework for building and managing third-party application software packages; the pkgsrc collection consists of more than 20,000 packages as of October 2019. Building and installing packages such as KDE, GNOME, the Apache HTTP Server or Perl is performed through the use of a system of makefiles; this can automatically fetch the source code, patch, configure and install the package such that it can be removed again later.
An alternative to compiling from source is to use a precompiled binary package. In either case, any prerequisites/dependencies will be installed automatically by the package system, without need for manual intervention. Pkgsrc supports not only NetBSD, but several other BSD variants lik
Sylvia Hahn was a Canadian artist and head of the art department at the Royal Ontario Museum. Born on May 2, 1911 in Toronto, Sylvia Hahn was known for her “uncanny mastery of many crafts." Called a “Renaissance woman,” Hahn worked in all kinds of mediums ranging from altar paintings to metal work. She was the recipient of the Governor-General’s Medal for Achievement and she spent most of her life working at the Royal Ontario Museum as head of the art department, she created a total of eleven murals for the institution. Born to artists Gustav Hahn and Ellen Smith in Toronto, Hahn came from a creative family, her father was an instructor at the Ontario College of Art and her mother, a sculptor and painter in her own right, was his pupil. Together they had three daughters, her sister, Hilda Hahn, studied fine art and worked as an illustrator while her uncles and Paul Hahn, worked as sculptors and a musician, respectively. She trained under her father until she attended the Ontario College of Art in 1929.
After graduating from Havergal College, she attended the University of Toronto for one year before enrolling at the Ontario College of Art. Her education at the OCA resulted in a series of awards and honours, which led to her being appointed an associate of the institution upon graduation, she was offered “a job sketching artifacts for the catalogue records” of the Royal Ontario Museum by its director, Charles T. Currelly, which she accepted; when not producing art, she taught metalwork, was a judge for several craft competitions, “published books about nature studies and her beloved cats."> Hahn worked in various media and was known for her murals and wood engravings. She was a member of the Ontario Society of Artists, the Society of Canadian Painter-Etchers and Engravers, the Toronto Metal Crafts Guild, among others, her religious artworks, which include altar pieces and sculptures, can be seen in more than fifteen churches across Canada. Some of her mural work can be seen at Havergal College school for girls in Toronto and at Emmanuel College at the University of Toronto.
Ellesmere Rural is a civil parish in Shropshire, England. In 2011 this parish covered a large area to the west of the town of Ellesmere; this rural parish consists of farmland and a number of small settlements including Dudleston Heath and Welsh Frankton. In the 1610 translated edition of William Camden's Britannia, this area is described as Ellesmer a little territorie but rich and fruitfullEllesemere Rural was created in 1894 when the civil functions of the larger ancient parish of Ellesmere were abolished and divided between this parish and the town of Ellsemere, which became a separate civil parish called Ellesmere Urban. Despite several changes to the parish boundary during the twentieth century the parish population has remained stable since the 1930s. Listed buildings in Ellesmere Rural
Auriel Andrew was an Indigenous Australian country musician of the Arrernte people of Central Australia. Andrew was born in Darwin, grew up in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, leaving for Adelaide, South Australia aged 21 to pursue her music career. Auriel came from the Arrernte people in Alice Springs, her skin name was Mbitjana and her totem is the hairy caterpillar. The youngest of seven children, she started singing at the age of four, began her professional career in the late 1960s working with Chad Morgan in the Adelaide and Port Lincoln areas, appeared on live TV music broadcasts, including shows hosted by Roger Cardwell, Johnny Mack and Ernie Sigley, becoming a regular on Channel Nine's Heather McKean & Reg Lindsay Show. In 1973, she moved to Sydney, toured with Jimmy Little, performing at popular clubs and pubs around New South Wales. In the 1970s, Andrew was a regular guest on The Johnny Mac Show, The Reg Lindsay Country Hour" and The Ernie Sigley Show, her first album Truck Driving Woman was the second by an Indigenous woman in Australia.
She performed at the Sydney Opera House for the venue's grand opening, sang "Amazing Grace" in Pitjantjitjara for Pope John Paul II during his Australian tour. Auriel's well-known recordings include the country classic "Truck Drivin' Woman" and Bob Randell's "Brown Skin Baby", she performed at the Adelaide Cabaret Festival, Woodford Dreaming Festival, performed at various clubs around the Newcastle area. She appeared in the SBS documentary Buried Country: The Story of Aboriginal Country Music about Aboriginal country music, singing "Truck Driving Woman". Other Tv and film appearances include. Short film: BeDevil Play school A country practice Blue Healer's HeartLand Short film: Hush Andrew appeared in the stage show Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word and performed by English artist Christopher Green at the Adelaide Cabaret Festival in 2007, at the Beckett Theatre in Melbourne in 2011, she appeared on several Australian television programs including episodes of A Country Practice, Blue Heelers and the mini-series Heartland.
Her 2013 album Ghost Gums included new original songs about her childhood. She has taught Aboriginal culture in classrooms for 20 years, passing on her knowledge in schools in Queensland, the Northern Territory and New South Wales, in 2016 joined the cast of the stage adaptation of Clinton Walker's Buried Country, which made its premiere in her hometown of Newcastle on 20 August. At the Deadly Awards 2008, Auriel was presented a Lifetime Achievement Award for contribution to Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander music. In 2011, she was awarded the Order of Australia Medal for her work as an entertainer and contribution to her communities through charity events. Auriel Andrew died of cancer in Hunter Valley Private Hospital, New South Wales, on 2 January 2017, she was 69 years old. Truck Driving Woman Just For You Chocolate Princess Mbitjana Ghost Gums 1991 Tamworth Hands Of Fame 2005 NT Indigenous Music Awards: inducted into the hall of fame 2008 The Deadlys: Jimmy Little Lifetime Achievement Award for Contribution to Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Music Order of Australia Medal 2011 for contribution to art and education.
Auriel Andrew on IMDb
The Hebraization of surnames is the act of adopting a Hebrew surname in exchange for a diaspora name. For many diaspora Jews who migrated to the Land of Israel, taking a Hebrew surname was a way to erase remnants of their diaspora experience and to assimilate into a new shared Jewish identity with Mizrahi Jews and Palestinian Jews and as Israeli Jews; this name-change did not apply to Mizrahi Jews who came from neighboring countries such as Iran and Egypt. Mizrahis kept their surnames; this phenomenon was common among Ashkenazi Jews, because many such families only acquired permanent surnames when surnames were made compulsory by the November 12, 1787 decree by the Habsburg emperor Joseph II. Sephardi Jews from the Iberian peninsula had hereditary family names since well before the Spanish Expulsion. Few Hebrew surnames existed before Hebraization, such as Cohen and Levi. Several Hebrew surnames, such as Katz, Bogoraz and Pak are in fact Hebrew acronyms though they sound and are perceived as being of non-Jewish origin.
Hebraization began as early as the days of the First and Second Aliyot and continued after the establishment of the State of Israel. The widespread trend towards Hebraization of surnames in the days of the Yishuv and after the establishment of the State of Israel was based on the claim that a Hebrew name provided a feeling of belonging to the new state. There was the wish to distance from the lost and dead past, from the forced imposition of foreign names in the previous centuries; this process has not ended: among the thousands of Israelis who apply for legal name changes each year, many do it to adopt Hebrew names. A similar phenomenon was observed with Latvian surnames: their de-Germanization as part of the Latvian national movement during the interbellum. Among the Yishuv, there was a strong feeling of sh'lilat ha'gola, which included the exchange of Diaspora surnames for purely Hebrew ones. Part of the Zionist movement was not only Aliyah it was wanting to create an image of an Israeli Jew that would be different from the stereotypical perception of Yiddish-speaking, shtetl-living, weak Diaspora Jews, these things were a significant part of the people of the First and Second Aliyot.
Some of the immigrants of the First Aliyah Hebraized their surnames, the practice became widespread during the Second Aliyah. This process was adopted by the New Yishuv. Before the founding of the State of Israel, in 1944, the Zionist leadership and the Jewish National Council proclaimed it the "Year of naturalization and the Hebrew name". A special committee under the chairmanship of Mordechai Nemzabi, the Jewish Agency advisor on matters of civilian defense, published a booklet which contained guidelines on the creation on new Hebrew surnames. Changing a foreign surname to Hebrew Change of vocalization: Leib becomes Lev Change of consonants: Borg or Brog becomes Barak Shortening by omitting the ending: Rosenberg becomes Rosen Shortening a name with a Hebrew meaning, by omitting the foreign suffix: Yakobovitch becomes Ya'akovi Translating the foreign name into Hebrew according to the meaning: Abramovich becomes Ben AvrahamFirst names as surnames Name of a father or mother who were murdered during the Shoah, thus: Bat Miriam, Ben Moshe, Devorin Son or daughter who fell in battle: Avinoam Brother or sister who were killed or fell: Achimeir Beloved or admired biblical figure: Shaul, DavidiChange of names by names of places, plants or sites in Eretz Yisrael Places or sites: Hermoni, Gilad Plants plants of the Land of Israel: Eshel, Rotem After the Israeli Declaration of Independence, there was still the attitude that the hebraization of family names should continue, in order to get rid of names with a diaspora sound.
Hebraization of names became a typical part of the integration process for new immigrants among Ashkenazi Jews, but among Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish immigrants from Arab and Muslim lands. David Ben-Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israel, was committed to the use of the Hebrew language, he tried to convince as many people to change their surnames into "real" Hebrew ones. Ben-Gurion got Herzl Rosenblum to sign the Israeli Declaration of Independence as Herzl Vardi, his pen name, as Ben-Gurion wanted more Hebrew names on the document. Nine more of the signatories of the document would go on to Hebraize their name, as well. Ben-Gurion, in an order to the Israel Defense Forces soldiers, wrote, "It is desirable that every commanding officer should change his surname, whether German, Slavic, French or foreign in general, to a Hebrew surname, in order to be a role model for his soldiers; the Israel Defense Forces must be Hebrew in spirit, in all internal and external expressions."A binding order of the same issue was issued to the officials of the state in 1950, to those who represented
Larnaca Castle, is a castle located on the southern coast of Cyprus. It was constructed to defend the southern coast of Cyprus and the harbour town of Larnaca and was used as an artillery station, a museum. Larnaca has been inhabited since the 14th century B. C. when the Mycenaean-Achaeans Greeks founded a small town. Much the Byzantines constructed a small fort near its harbour, it is not clear when the Byzantine fort was first built but archeological research carried out around the castle suggest that initial construction started in late 12th century AD. The city gained importance during the medieval ages after the Genovese occupied the main port of the country and the need for a new port town emerged. Soon after Larnaca became one of the main ports of the Kingdom of Cyprus, the need for a castle protecting the city and the harbour emerged. Between the years 1382–98, during the reign of James I, the small Byzantine fortification located near the harbour was upgraded to a more substantial castle.
By the 18th century the castle was abandoned. In the first half of the 18th century, a famous explorer, Abbot Giovanni Mariti, recorded that the castle was in a semi-ruined state, he theorised that the castle could have been built by the Ottomans due to its Turkish style and inscriptions. Throughout British rule the castle was used as a prison where they installed a gallows to execute prisoners; the last execution took place in 1948. During the Cypriot civil war Greek Cypriots held the castle and they too used it as a prison. After the Cypriot independence the castle itself was converted into a museum, while the castle courtyard was converted into an open-air theatre, accommodating 200 people. Antiques from Early Christian and Post Byzantine Cyprus are exhibited in the western room of the museum whilst Byzantine wall paintings are exhibited in the central room and medieval pottery and weapons occupy the eastern room. Cyprus Sightseeing