Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten
The Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten is the central bank for the Netherlands Antillean guilder and administers the monetary policy of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The bank dates to 1828 making it the oldest central bank in the Americas. Prior to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in October 2010, the bank was responsible for monetary policy throughout the Netherlands Antilles; when the BES islands became subject to the central bank of the Netherlands, its present name was adopted. The bank is expected to replace the Netherlands Antillean guilder with the Caribbean guilder in the coming years. Economy of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antillean gulden De Nederlandsche Bank Central Bank of Aruba Economy of Curaçao Dutch Caribbean Securities Exchange Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean Centrale Bank van Curaçao en Sint Maarten official site
The stuiver was a pre-decimal coin used in the Netherlands. It was worth 8 duit. Twenty stuivers equalled a guilder, it circulated until the Napoleonic Wars. After the conflict, the Netherlands decimalised its guilder into 100 cents. Two stuivers equalled a dubbeltje - the ten cent coin. After the decimalisation of Dutch currency, the name "stuiver" was preserved as a nickname for the five-cent coin until the introduction of the euro; the word can still refer to the five euro cent coin, which has exactly the same diameter and colour despite being over twice the value of the older coin. The English denomination name stiver is derived from stuiver. From 1660, the Dutch East India Company began to strike copper stuiver coins for local use in Sri Lanka. At first, the coins were stamped on both sides with their denomination but from 1783, the VOC monogram and date were added; the coins were minted at Colombo, Jaffna and Trincomalee. These coins were issued till British occupation in 1796; the Five cent coin struck in the Kingdom of the Netherlands between 1818 and 2001 was called Stuiver.
The Euro five cent coin continues to be referred to as stuiver in the contemporary Netherlands. 5 Cent WWII 5 Cent 1948 Media related to Stuiver at Wikimedia Commons Obverses and reverses
Fixed exchange-rate system
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, a basket of other currencies, or another measure of value, such as gold. There are risks to using a fixed exchange rate. A fixed exchange rate is used to stabilize the value of a currency by directly fixing its value in a predetermined ratio to a different, more stable, or more internationally prevalent currency to which the value is pegged. In doing so, the exchange rate between the currency and its peg does not change based on market conditions, unlike flexible exchange regime; this makes trade and investments between the two currency areas easier and more predictable and is useful for small economies that borrow in foreign currency and in which external trade forms a large part of their GDP. A fixed exchange-rate system can be used to control the behavior of a currency, such as by limiting rates of inflation.
However, in doing so, the pegged currency is controlled by its reference value. As such, when the reference value rises or falls, it follows that the value of any currencies pegged to it will rise and fall in relation to other currencies and commodities with which the pegged currency can be traded. In other words, a pegged currency is dependent on its reference value to dictate how its current worth is defined at any given time. In addition, according to the Mundell–Fleming model, with perfect capital mobility, a fixed exchange rate prevents a government from using domestic monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic stability. In a fixed exchange-rate system, a country’s central bank uses an open market mechanism and is committed at all times to buy and/or sell its currency at a fixed price in order to maintain its pegged ratio and, the stable value of its currency in relation to the reference to which it is pegged. To maintain a desired exchange rate, the central bank during the devaluation of the domestic money, sells its foreign money in the reserves and buys back the domestic money.
This creates an artificial demand for the domestic money. In case of an undesired appreciation of the domestic money, the central bank buys back the foreign money and thus flushes the domestic money into the market for decreasing the demand and exchange rate; the central bank from its reserves provides the assets and/or the foreign currency or currencies which are needed in order to finance any imbalance of payments. In the 21st century, the currencies associated with large economies do not fix or peg exchange rates to other currencies; the last large economy to use a fixed exchange rate system was the People's Republic of China, which, in July 2005, adopted a more flexible exchange rate system, called a managed exchange rate. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism is used on a temporary basis to establish a final conversion rate against the euro from the local currencies of countries joining the Eurozone; the gold standard or gold exchange standard of fixed exchange rates prevailed from about 1870 to 1914, before which many countries followed bimetallism.
The period between the two world wars was transitory, with the Bretton Woods system emerging as the new fixed exchange rate regime in the aftermath of World War II. It was formed with an intent to rebuild war-ravaged nations after World War II through a series of currency stabilization programs and infrastructure loans; the early 1970's saw the breakdown of the system and its replacement by a mixture of fluctuating and fixed exchange rates. Timeline of the fixed exchange rate system: The earliest establishment of a gold standard was in the United Kingdom in 1821 followed by Australia in 1852 and Canada in 1853. Under this system, the external value of all currencies was denominated in terms of gold with central banks ready to buy and sell unlimited quantities of gold at the fixed price; each central bank maintained gold reserves as their official reserve asset. For example, during the “classical” gold standard period, the U. S. dollar was defined as 0.048 troy oz. of pure gold. Following the Second World War, the Bretton Woods system replaced gold with the U.
S. dollar as the official reserve asset. The regime intended to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decision-making through the International Monetary Fund; the rules of this system were set forth in the articles of agreement of the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The system was a monetary order intended to govern currency relations among sovereign states, with the 44 member countries required to establish a parity of their national currencies in terms of the U. S. dollar and to maintain exchange rates within 1% of parity by intervening in their foreign exchange markets. The U. S. dollar was the only currency strong enough to meet the rising demands for international currency transactions, so the United States agreed both to link the dollar to gold at the rate of $35 per ounce of gold and to convert dollars into gold at that price. Due to concerns about America's deteriorating payments situation and massive flight of liquid capital from the U.
S. President Richard Nixon suspended the convertibility of the dollar into gold on 15 August 1971. In December 1971, the Smithsonian Agreement paved the way for the increase in the value of the dollar price of gold from US$35.50 to US$38 an ounce. Speculation against the dollar in March 1973 led to the birth of the independent float, thus terminating the Bretton Woods system. Since March 1973, the floating exchange rate has been followed and formally recognize
The rufous-collared sparrow or Andean sparrow is an American sparrow found in a wide range of habitats near humans, from the extreme south-east of Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, on the island of Hispaniola. It is famous for its diverse vocalizations, which have been intensely studied since the 1970s by Paul Handford and Stephen C. Lougheed, Fernando Nottebohm and Pablo Luis Tubaro. Local names for this bird include the Portuguese tico-tico, the Spanish chingolo and copetón, "tufted" in Colombia and comemaíz "corn eater" in Costa Rica; the rufous-collared sparrow weighs 20 -- 25 g. The adult has a stubby grey bill and a grey head with broad black stripes on the crown sides and thinner stripes through the eye and below the cheeks; the nape and breast sides are rufous and the upperparts are black-streaked buff-brown. There are two white wing bars; the throat is white, the underparts are off-white, becoming brown on the flanks and with a black breast patch. Young birds have a duller, indistinct head pattern, with a buff ground colour.
They lack the rufous collar, have streaked underparts. There are between 29 subspecies. In general, the smaller forms occur in coastal mountains, intermediate birds in the Andes, large, forms breed on the tepuis; the largest of the tepui subspecies, Z. c. perezchincillae, has grey underparts, the rufous collar extends as a black band of freckles across the breast. This form might be separable as a distinct species, or it might just be a distinct population due to genetic bottleneck effects. In the northern and western part of its range, this abundant bird is found at altitudes of 600–4,000 m, but in the southern and eastern part it is found down to near sea level, it can be seen in any open or semi-open habitat, including cultivation, parks and scrubby second growth or cerrado. It copes well with urban and suburban environments, but is absent from the densely forested sections of the Amazon Basin, it is scarce on the Guiana Shield, occurring on some tepuis and in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana.
Explaining the presence of this species in the island of Hispaniola and absence from the rest of the Caribbean basin, may be a similar theory to the one proposed for the Hispaniolan crossbill. In that scenario, the bird's ancestors were present across the region during the much cooler climes of the last glacial period, but was left marooned in the highest Hispaniolan mountains once warming began; the rufous-collared sparrow feeds on the ground on seeds, fallen grain and spiders. It will sometimes join mixed-species feeding flocks and has been observed to pick termites from spider webs, it is seen in pairs which hold small territories, or in small flocks. Tame and approachable, it is common throughout its large range and not considered threatened by the IUCN; the breeding season is limited by food availability and rainfall. In the subtropical yungas of north-west Argentina, females begin to build nests around the end of October, when the wet season comes, but by early December most nesting activity has finished.
By contrast, 2,000 m ASL in the Andes of Pichincha Province, eggs were being incubated in December, nest-building activity recorded in March and April, suggesting extended breeding throughout the wet season. The open cup nest consists of plant material lined with fine grasses, it is constructed in matted vegetation on the ground, low in a tree or bush, or in a niche in a wall 2 m high at best but less than 0.5 m above ground. The female lays three pale greenish-blue eggs with reddish-brown blotches; the eggs measure 19–21 mm by 15–16 mm and weigh 2.6–2.8 g each. They are incubated by the female for 12–14 days, during which she spends about two-thirds of the daytime brooding or attend the nest in some other way; the male helps in feeding the chicks however. They are not voracious, as they approach fledging the parents will only feed them every 10 minutes or so. Brood parasitism, e.g. by the shiny cowbird, may occur, breeding failure due to predation is frequent during the incubation period. Predation on nestlings, on the other hand, does not seem to occur more than in similar-sized Passeroidea.
The Rufous-collared sparrow relies on its kidneys for osmoregulation and ionoregulation. It is able to tolerate a wide range of salt intake despite lacking a salt gland, however the metabolic cost in energy is too great to maintain the necessary osmoregulatory processes for an extended period of time; as a result, the Rufous-collared sparrow tends not to inhabit marine environments such as salt marshes. Under conditions of higher salt intake, the mass of the kidney and heart can increase up to 20%; this response in organ size causes an increase in basal metabolic rate by up to 30%. Kidney size is affected by the amount of water available in the environment. In arid environments, the urine is more concentrated, the kidneys tend to be smaller than in wetter environments. In association with its non-migratory behavior, its tendency to be found at a wide range of elevations, the Rufous-collared sparrow experiences significant fluctuations in temperature throughout its range each year. Strategies used to acclimate to changing seasonal temperatures include limiting the amount of evaporative water loss and increasing metabolic rate.
Total evaporative water loss increases
The bananaquit is a species of passerine bird of uncertain relation. It is tentatively placed in the tanager family, its classification is debated, it is placed in its own family: Coerebidae. It has been suggested the bananaquit should be split into three species, but this has yet to receive widespread recognition; this small, active nectarivore is found in warmer parts of the Americas, is common. The bananaquit was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Certhia flaveola, it was reclassified as the only member of the genus Coereba by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1809. Prior to 2005, the bananaquit was assigned to the monotypic family Coerebidae. Since recent studies have shed some light on the bananaquit's affinities, many authorities consider Coerebidae an obsolete taxon; the Coerebidae used to contain other nectar-eating birds from the tropical Americas, but these have since been moved. The bananaquit is part of a group that includes Darwin's finches, Loxigilla, etc.—most of which were placed in Emberizidae, but are now known to be part of the Thraupidae.
As such this species is tentatively placed in the family Thraupidae unless a study suggests more accurate placement. Its precise relations remain unresolved, so the American Ornithologists' Union classes it as a species incertae sedis, it is still unclear if any of the island subspecies should be elevated to species, but phylogenetic studies have revealed three clades: the nominate group from Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, the bahamensis group from the Bahamas and Quintana Roo, the bartholemica group from South and Central America, the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. Several taxa were not sampled, but most of these are placed in the above groups based on zoogeography alone. Exceptions are oblita and tricolor, their placement is therefore uncertain. In February 2010, the International Ornithological Congress listed bahamensis and bartholemica as proposed splits from C. flaveola. There are 41 recognized subspecies: The bananaquit is a small bird, although there is some degree of size variation across the various subspecies.
Length can range from 4 to 5 in. Weight ranges from 5.5 to 19 g. Most subspecies of the bananaquit have dark grey upperparts, black crown and sides of the head, a prominent white eyestripe, grey throat, white vent, yellow chest and rump; the sexes are alike, but juveniles are duller and have a yellow eyebrow and throat. In the subspecies bahamensis and caboti from the Bahamas and Cozumel the throat and upper chest are white or pale grey, while ferryi from La Tortuga Island has a white forehead; the subspecies laurae and melanornis from small islands off northern Venezuela are overall blackish, while the subspecies aterrima and atrata from Grenada and Saint Vincent have two plumage morphs, one "normal" and another blackish. The pink gape is very prominent in the subspecies from islands in the Caribbean Sea; the bananaquit has curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers. It sometimes pierces flowers from the side, it feeds on sweet juices by puncturing fruit with its beak, will eat small insects on occasion.
While feeding, the bananaquit must always perch. The bananaquit is known for its ability to adjust remarkably to human environments, it visits gardens and may become tame. Its nickname, the sugar bird, comes from its affinity for bowls or bird feeders stocked with granular sugar, a common method of attracting these birds; the bananaquit builds a spherical lined nest with a side entrance hole, laying up to three eggs, which are incubated by the female. It may build its nest in human-made objects, such as lampshades and garden trellises; the birds build new nests throughout the year. It is resident in tropical South America north to the Caribbean, it is found except Cuba. Birds from the Bahamas are rare visitors to Florida, it occurs in a wide range of open to semi-open habitats, including gardens and parks, but it is rare or absent in deserts, dense forests and at altitudes above 2,000 m. "Bananaquit media". Internet Bird Collection. Bananaquit Stamps at bird-stamps.org Audio recordings of the Bananaquit on Xeno-canto.
Bananaquit photo gallery at VIREO Bananaquit species account at Neotropical Birds Interactive range map of Coereba flaveola at IUCN Red List maps
Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the country was part of the Curaçao and Dependencies colony and is now formally called the Country of Curaçao. Curaçao has a population over 160,000 in an area of 444 km2 and its capital is Willemstad. Before the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of Curaçao", one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles. In the 16th and 17th centuries, sailors on long voyages would get scurvy from lack of vitamin C. According to some accounts, Portuguese sailors who were ill were left at the island now known as Curaçao; when their ship returned, they had recovered cured from scurvy after eating fruit with vitamin C. From on the Portuguese referred to this as Ilha da Curação. Another explanation is that it is derived from the Portuguese word for heart, referring to the island as a centre in trade.
An unstressed o in Continental Portuguese is pronounced, so the Portuguese word for heart, coração, is pronounced. Spanish traders took the name over as Curaçao, followed by the Dutch. Another explanation is that Curaçao was the name by which the indigenous peoples of the island identified themselves, their autonym. Early Spanish accounts support this theory, as they refer to the indigenous peoples as Indios Curaçaos, or "healing Indians". From 1525, the island was featured on Spanish maps as Curaçote and Curasaore. By the 17th century, it appeared on most maps in Portuguese as Curazao. On a map created by Hieronymus Cock in 1562 in Antwerp, the island was referred to as Qúracao; the original inhabitants of Curaçao were Arawak people. Their ancestors had migrated to the island from the mainland of South America hundreds of years before Europeans arrived, they were believed to have migrated from the Amazon Basin. The first Europeans recorded as seeing the island were members of a Spanish expedition under the leadership of Alonso de Ojeda in 1499.
The Spaniards enslaved most of the Arawak as their labour force. They sometimes forcibly relocated the survivors to other colonies. In 1634, after the Netherlands achieved independence from Spain caused by Eighty Years' War, Dutch colonists started to occupy the island. European powers were trying to establish bases in the Caribbean; the Dutch West India Company founded the capital of Willemstad on the banks of an inlet called the Schottegat. Curaçao had been ignored by colonists; the natural harbour of Willemstad proved to be an ideal spot for trade. Commerce and shipping -- and piracy -- became. In addition, in 1662, the Dutch West India Company made Curaçao a centre for the Atlantic slave trade bringing slaves here for sale elsewhere in the Caribbean and on the mainland of South America. Sephardic Jews with ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula settled here with the Dutch and in then-Dutch Brazil. In the Franco-Dutch War, Count Jean II d'Estrées planned to attack Curaçao, his fleet – 12 men of war, three fireships, two transports, a hospital ship, 12 privateers – met with disaster, losing seven men-of-war and two other ships when they struck reefs off the Las Aves archipelago.
They had made a serious navigational error, hitting the reefs on 11 May 1678, a week after setting sail from Saint Kitts. Curaçao marked the events by a day of thanksgiving, celebrated for decades into the 18th century, to commemorate the island's escape from being invaded by the French. Although a few plantations were established on the island by the Dutch, the first profitable industry established on Curaçao was salt mining; the mineral was a lucrative export at the time and was a major factor for the island being part of international commerce. Many Dutch colonists grew affluent from the slave trade, the city built impressive colonial buildings. Curaçao architecture blends Dutch and Spanish colonial styles; the wide range of historic buildings in and around Willemstad has resulted in the capital being designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Landhouses and West African style kas di pal'i maishi are scattered all over the island; some can be visited. In 1795, a major slave revolt took place under the leaders Tula Rigaud, Louis Mercier, Bastian Karpata, Pedro Wakao.
Up to 4000 slaves on the northwest section of the island revolted. More than 1,000 slaves took part in extended gunfights. After a month, the slave owners suppressed the revolt. Curaçao's proximity to South America resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands from Spain. Architectural similarities can be seen between the 19th-century parts of Willemstad and the nearby Venezuelan city of Coro in Falcón State; the latter has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Netherlands established economic ties with Viceroyalty of New Granada, which includes present-day countries of Colombia and Venezuela. In the 19th century, Curaçaoans such as Manuel Piar and Luis Brión were prominently engaged in the wars of independen
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis