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Netherlands in World War II

Despite being neutral, the Netherlands in World War II was invaded by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940, as part of Fall Gelb. On 15 May 1940, one day after the bombing of Rotterdam, the Dutch forces surrendered; the Dutch government and the royal family saved themselves by going to London. Princess Juliana and her children moved on to Canada for additional safety; the Netherlands was placed under German occupation, which endured in some areas until the German surrender in May 1945. Active resistance was carried out by a minority; the occupiers deported the majority of the country's Jews to Nazi concentration camps. Due to the high variation in the survival rate of Jewish inhabitants among local regions in the Netherlands, scholars have questioned the validity of a single explanation at the national level. In part due to the well-organized population registers, about 70% of the country's Jewish population were killed during the conflict, a much higher percentage than comparable countries, such as Belgium and France.

In 2008, records were opened that revealed the Germans had paid a bounty to Dutch police and administration officials to locate and identify Jews, aiding in their capture. But, uniquely among all German occupied areas, the city of Amsterdam organized an industrial action to protest the persecution of its Jewish citizens. World War II occurred in four distinct phases in the European Netherlands: September 1939 to May 1940: The war breaks out with the Netherlands declaring neutrality; the country occupied. May 1940 to June 1941: An economic boom caused by orders from Germany, combined with the "velvet glove" approach from Arthur Seyss-Inquart, results in a mild occupation. June 1941 to June 1944: As the war intensifies, Germany demands higher contributions from occupied territory, resulting in a decline of living standards. Repression against the Jewish population intensifies and thousands are deported to extermination camps; the "velvet glove" approach ends. June 1944 to May 1945: Conditions deteriorate further, leading to starvation and lack of fuel.

The German occupation authorities lose control over the situation. Fanatical Nazis want to commit acts of destruction. Others try to mitigate the situation. Most of the south of the country was liberated in the second half of 1944; the rest the west and north of the country still under occupation, suffered from a famine at the end of 1944, known as the "Hunger Winter". On 5 May 1945, the whole country was liberated by the total surrender of all German forces. Dutch governments between 1929 and 1943 were dominated by Christian and center-right political parties. From 1933, the Netherlands were hit by the Great Depression, which had begun in 1929; the incumbent government of Hendrikus Colijn pursued a programme of extensive cuts to maintain the value of the Guilder, resulting in workers' riots in Amsterdam and a naval mutiny between 1933 and 1934. In 1936, the government was forced to abandon the gold standard and devalue the currency. Numerous fascist movements emerged in the Netherlands during the Great Depression era, inspired by Italian Fascism or German Nazism.

But, they never attracted enough members to be an effective mass-movement. The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands supported by the National Socialist German Workers' Party which took power in Germany in 1933, attempted to expand in 1935. Nazi-style racial ideology had limited appeal in the Netherlands. At the time of the outbreak of World War II, the NSB was declining, both in numbers of members and numbers of voters. During the interwar period the government undertook a significant increase in civil infrastructure projects and land reclamation, including the Zuiderzee Works; this resulted in the final draining of seawater from the Wieringermeerpolder, the completion of the Afsluitdijk. During World War I, the Dutch government under Pieter Cort van der Linden had managed to preserve Dutch neutrality throughout the conflict. In the inter-war period, the Netherlands had continued to pursue its "Independence Policy" after the rise to power of the Nazi Party in Germany in 1933; the conservative prime minister Colijn, who held power from 1933 until 1939, believed the Netherlands would never be able to withstand an attack by a major power.

Pragmatically, the government did not spend much on the military. Although military spending was doubled between 1938 and 1939, amid the rising international tensions, it constituted only 4% of national spending in 1939, in contrast to nearly 25% in Nazi-ruled Germany; the Dutch government believed it would be able to rely on its neutrality, or at least the informal support of foreign powers, to defend its interests in case of war. The government did begin to work on plans for the defence of the country; this included an area to the east of Amsterdam, which would be flooded. From 1939, fortified positions were constructed, including the Grebbe and Peel-Raam Lines, to protect the key cities of Dordrecht, Utrecht and Amsterdam, creating a Vesting Holland. In late 1939, with war declared between the British Empire and Nazi Germany, the German government issued a guarantee of neutrality to the Netherlands; the government mobilized the Dutch military from August 1939, reaching its full strength by April 1940.

Despite its policy of neutrality, the Netherlands was invaded on the morning of 10 May 1940, without a formal declaration of war, by German forces moving into Belgium and Luxembourg. The attackers meant to draw Allied forces away from the Ardennes and to lure British and French forces deeper into Belgium, but al

VIMA Music Awards

VIMA Awards was Asia's first independent music awards when launched in 2008. VIMA MUSIC AWARDS was formed in 2008 by Siva Chandran, Tevan Manickam and Merp Premo - 3 individuals with different backgrounds who wanted a change in the music scene not only in Malaysia but globally; the team restructured and co-founder Meera Thuraivel joined the team in 2010 to help elevate the awards platform into 3 other big brands - IndieGo Music Awards, GAMA and Bite My Music Global Awards. VIMA is under the Bite My Music Global Awards platform; the current awards was held on February 2013. VIMA was held 3 other times before. VIMA 2009, VIMA 2010 and VIMA 2012. VIMA 2011 was not held and was replaced by a charitable concert called Indie Aid Japan to raise funds for the tsunami victims of Japan in May 2011. Bite Media teamed up with Sony Music Entertainment Malaysia to release a BEST OF VIMA compilation featuring 16 of the best songs of VIMA 2013; the compilation was launched on 8 July 2013 and featured musicians such as Amanda Imani, Amirah Ali, Beat The System, Jaclyn Victor, Arvinder Raina, Poova, Roshan Jamrock, Psycho.

Unit, MeandMy PunjabiFriend, Alex Subryn, SlaP!, Abstrak Hingga Ke Bulan and Paperplane Pursuit. VIMA 2014 Grand Finals is expected to be held in the 22 March 2014 at Platinum Club@One City Subang; this time the awards will allow eligibility to both independent and mainstream acts from all labels in Southeast Asia. VIMA 2014 is expanding to include a sub-award platform called VIMA India, to recognize musicians from India, in an effort to build a bridge between Southeast Asia and India; the awards night was hosted for the 4th time by C Loco. Below are the winners of the 2013 edition award Besides the Best song categories, the other notable winners of the awards night included Poova for BEST POP ACT, Homogenic for BEST ELECTRO/DANCE ACT, Psycho.unit for BEST HIP-HOP ACT and Hevance for BEST ROCK ACT

LIP (company)

LIP is a French watch and clock company whose turmoil became emblematic of the conflicts between workers and management in France. The LIP factory, based in Besançon in eastern France, began to experience financial problems in the late 1960s and early 1970s, management decided to attempt a factory shutdown. However, after strikes and a publicized factory occupation in 1973, LIP became worker-managed. All the fired employees were rehired by March 1974, but the firm was liquidated again in the spring of 1976; this led to a new struggle, called "the social conflict of the 1970s" by the daily newspaper Libération. Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail union leader Charles Piaget led the strike; the Unified Socialist Party, which included former Radical Pierre Mendès-France, was in favor of autogestion. In 1807, the Jewish community of Besançon offered a mechanical pocket watch to Napoleon. Sixty years Emmanuel Lipman and his sons founded a clockwork workshop under the name of Comptoir Lipmann.

In 1893 it became the Société Anonyme d'Horlogerie Lipmann Frères. The firm launched the Lip stopwatch in 1896. Thereafter Lip became the brand name of the company, they built 2,500 pieces per year. The company launched the first electronic watch in 1952, called "Electronic"; the first'Electronic' models were worn by Charles de Gaulle and U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. However, in the 1960s, this specialized company began to have financial troubles. Fred Lipmann, who changed his name to Fred Lip, took the company public in 1967, Ebauches S. A. took 33% of the shares. Meanwhile, workers started organizing to improve labor conditions; this proved difficult. Charles Piaget, the son of a clockwork artisan, who began working at the factory in 1946 as a skilled worker, became a representative of the Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens trade union, he recalled that during national strikes, only 30 or 40 workers at LIP out of a total of 1200 would go on strike. Those who did strike were called in to explain themselves.

Semi-skilled workers on the assembly line were not allowed to talk or move more than 25 centimeters during their shifts. In 1964, the CFTC became a secular trade union. Piaget participated in some meetings of the ACO, joined the Union de la gauche socialiste during the Algerian War; the UGS merged with other organizations to form the Unified Socialist Party, which included Pierre Mendès-France, a popular left-wing figure, President of the Council during the Fourth Republic. During the nationwide unrest of May 1968, the workers at LIP voted to join the general strike. Fred Lip tried to smooth down the growing discontent, he spoke to the union workers of taylorism, proposed to increase the number of representatives on the comité d'entreprise, in order to have younger representatives. Although this was illegal, the union workers agreed, elections were organized. Although Fred Lip had believed this would allow him more control of the workers, in less than a year all the young representatives joined the CFTC.

Fred Lip submitted a proposal to the inspection du travail which would eliminate all of the sector of the company to which most of the union workers belonged, including Charles Piaget. However, he offered Piaget a promotion. For the next year, the workers blocked attempts to eliminate the department, opposing those who tried to move the machines out of the factory. However, Ebauches became the biggest shareholder in 1970. Ebauches fired 1,300 workers; the next year, the board of directors forced Fred Lip to resign, replacing him with Jacques Saint-Esprit. LIP built the first French quartz watches in 1973, but had to face increasing competition from the United States and Japan; the firm was forced to start liquidation formalities on April 17, 1973, leading Jacques Saint-Esprit to resign on the same day. In the following weeks, the struggles at the LIP factory drew a national audience, thus beginning one of the emblematic social conflicts of the era after May 1968; the conflict was to last several years.

In May 1973, an Action Committee, influenced by the May 1968 movement, was founded. During an extraordinary works council meeting on June 12, 1973, workers stumbled upon the management's plans to restructure and downsize, kept secret from them; the company employed 1,300 workers. At first, Charles Piaget, now an official of the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail union and active in the Unified Socialist Party, opposed a strike, preferring a slowdown, in which workers would pause for ten minutes an hour. However, the workers were angry at the secret restructuring plan and occupied the factory. On the same day, June 12, they took an inspecteur du travail as hostages; the workers wanted to exchange them for "more precise information," declared Piaget. However, around midnight, the three hostages were rescued by the CRS riot police in a violent assault. Acc

Pete Peterson

Douglas Brian "Pete" Peterson is an American politician and diplomat. He served as a United States Air Force pilot during the Vietnam War and spent over six years as a prisoner of the North Vietnamese army after his plane was shot down, he returned to Hanoi when he became the first United States Ambassador to Vietnam in 1997. He was an ambassador until July 2001. Peterson grew up in Milton and attended college at the University of Tampa, he joined the U. S. Air Force and served in the Vietnam War, where his F-4 Phantom II fighter was shot down on September 10, 1966, he spent six years in prison, a period he described as "hours and hours of boredom, spliced with moments of stark terror." He was released on March 4, 1973. After the Vietnam War, Peterson remained in the U. S. Air retired in 1981 as a colonel with 26 years of service. After retirement he established a general contracting firm in Tampa, Florida and a small computer company in Marianna, Florida, he served for 5 years on the faculty of Florida State University in Florida.

In 1990, Peterson ran as a Democrat for a seat in the United States House of Representatives in Florida's 2nd congressional district. He defeated James W. Grant, a politician who grew unpopular after switching from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party in the middle of his second term, he declined to run for a fourth term and in 1997 was asked by President Bill Clinton to become the United States's first post-war ambassador to Vietnam. One of his goals was securing an account of those still listed as missing in action from the war and so helping to resolve the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. On November 17, 2000, he was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Clinton. Since retiring as ambassador, Peterson founded The Alliance for Safe Children, TASC, which aims to lower preventable injuries to children worldwide, focuses on such issues as drowning in Asia. With his wife he started a company. Peterson is a Senior Advisor for Albright Stonebridge Group, an international strategic consulting firm.

In 1995, his first wife, had died, two weeks after his installation in Hanoi he met Vi Le, Australia's senior trade commissioner, born in Vietnam, whom he married. In 2002, he moved to Australia, so they could be closer to her family. In 2009, Peterson acquired Australian citizenship. United States Congress. "Pete Peterson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. All POW-MIA InterNetwork Appearances on C-SPAN

Apperley Bridge railway station

Apperley Bridge station is situated in Bradford on the line between Leeds and Shipley, West Yorkshire, England. It serves the district of Apperley Bridge in the north-east of the city; the station opened in 2015. A previous station with the same name was opened in a different location in 1846 but closed in 1965 as part of the Beeching Axe; the Leeds and Bradford Railway opened on 30 June 1846. At first, there were no intermediate stations. Temporary stations were provided, including Apperley Bridge, which opened some time during July 1846. A permanent structure followed about a year later, it comprised two platforms covered by an overall roof. The main building ran parallel to the railway on the south side up at road level. A principal customer was Woodhouse Grove School. About 1849, the railway agreed to purchase gas from the school to light the station; the Leeds and Bradford Railway was leased to the Midland Railway from just before its opening, an event of some importance in terms of railway politics.

It contributed to the downfall of George Hudson and helped ensure that Bradford never had a through railway. It had been thought that the Leeds and Bradford might join with the Manchester & Leeds Railway; the railway was widened to four tracks in about 1900, taking more land from Woodhouse Grove School, who used the money to build a swimming baths. The station was enlarged to four platforms, with a distinctive wooden building above at road level; the original station building was demolished when the cutting was widened to accommodate the new "fast lines" on the south side. Platform four, on the up slow line, remained the original of 1847 as there was not room to develop it; the other platforms, number 1 on the down fast line and numbers 2 and 3, the island between the up fast and down slow, were longer and higher. Steps were needed to board trains on platform 4. There were canopies above all four platforms; the station became part of the London and Scottish Railway during the Grouping of 1923, passed to the London Midland Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948.

It was transferred to the North Eastern Region in 1957 and gained ten tangerine totem signs about 1961. A goods yard operated in the angle between the Ilkley branch, it handled domestic coal until closure in June 1964. By that time the cattle dock was overgrown. A small housing estate now stands on the site; the passenger station gained an enhanced service at regular intervals, when diesel multiple units were introduced in January 1959. Just one stopping train remained steam-hauled, the 6.24 pm to Leeds, which conveyed more parcel vans than passenger stock. It continued to Derby after a lengthy pause at Leeds; the station was used by about 80 passengers a day, 80 joining and 80 alighting. With 40 stopping trains, an average of two per train, but a total usage of over 50,000 journeys a year; the original station was closed by the British Railways Board, as a result of the Beeching Axe, at about 9.30 pm on 20 March 1965. The station handled parcels by passenger train right up to the final day; the delivery area was transferred to Guiseley station.

In 1999, the Passenger Transport Executive for West Yorkshire, announced that Apperley Bridge was amongst five new or reopened stations which they wished to see achieved over the ensuing five years. One of these stations — Glasshoughton — opened in 2005. In 2009 Metro submitted a business case and designs for both Apperley Kirkstall Forge, they were to have a car park for 300 vehicles. It was projected that the station would reopen in 2012, but this was pushed back to August 2015, with main construction commencing in 2014. A planning application was submitted in December 2009 and permission to build was granted by Bradford Council in March 2010. Go-ahead for construction of both Kirkstall Forge and Apperley Bridge was given in the National Infrastructure Plan released on 29 November 2011; the original estimated completion date of August 2015 was not met, the opening was scheduled for the end of September 2015. The station was reopened on 13 December 2015. In September 2008, the West Yorkshire PTE announced that the Yorkshire & Humber Regional Transport Board had approved funding for its "rail growth programme" which includes stations at Apperley Bridge and Kirkstall Forge.

Following the Comprehensive Spending Review in Autumn 2010 the Leeds Rail Growth Package was included within the "Development" pool of schemes. Metro submitted a "Best and Final Funding Bid" in September 2011 and the schemes funding was confirmed in November 2011 as part of the National Infrastructure Plan. Final approval for both stations was given by the Department for Transport on 29 May 2014. By 2014 the documentation was corrected as the National Infrastructure Plan 2011 lists Apperley Bridge incorrectly as Appley Bridge. In July 2014, Metro announced that construction work would begin in September 2014, the station would open in 2015; the new station has bicycle rungs and a bus terminus. There is an automated ticket machine at the station entrance. Both platforms, in-line with the Disability Discrimination Act, are accessible by wheelchair via ramps. Both platforms have digital information screens. A new set of traffic lights manages traffic at the entrance to the station car park. Apperley Bridge is served by trains from Leeds to Bradford Forster Square on the Leeds-Bradford Line.

These services operate every 30 minutes each way and are operated by Northern

2016 Honduran Supercup (December)

The 2016 Honduran Supercup was a match arranged by the Honduran Liga Nacional which took place on 30 December 2016 between Juticalpa F. C. winners of the 2015–16 Honduran Cup and Club Deportivo Olimpia, winners of the 2015–16 Liga Nacional. Both Juticalpa F. C. and Club Deportivo Olimpia qualified as reigning champions of the 2015–16 season. Juticalpa defeated Real C. D. España in the Cup final with a 2–1 score. Meanwhile, Olimpia was crowned as 2015–16 Clausura champions after convincingly overcoming in the finals against C. D. Real Sociedad with a 5–2 global result; the previous match between both sides ended with a 1–2 away win to Olimpia at Estadio Juan Ramón Brevé Vargas on 2 November 2016 in a league encounter. The game started at 19:00 CST as scheduled. Club Deportivo Olimpia entered the field with their alternate uniform, while Juticalpa F. C. used their home kits. Olimpia's signed midfielder Brayan Velásquez opened the scoreboard at the 24th minute. Before the end of the first half, Olimpia's coach Héctor Vargas instructed his players to abandon the match claiming that Juticalpa was playing too violent and the referee was being too permissive.

Minutes after, Olimpia decided to resume the game. The second half started despite the first one didn't end. Adding to the controversy, referee Héctor Núñez, who had sent-off Olimpia's defender Elmer Güity in the first half, allowed Olimpia to make a substitution in the second half and let them resume the match with eleven players. Michaell Chirinos and Óscar Salas sealed the victory and gave Olimpia its 3rd Honduran Supercup. 2016–17 Honduran Liga Nacional 2017 Honduran Cup