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Netscape Navigator

Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had disappeared; this was due to the increased use of Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser software, because the Netscape Corporation did not sustain Netscape Navigator's technical innovation in the late 1990s. The business demise of Netscape was a central premise of Microsoft's antitrust trial, wherein the Court ruled that Microsoft's bundling of Internet Explorer with the Windows operating system was a monopolistic and illegal business practice; the decision came too late for Netscape, however, as Internet Explorer had by become the dominant web browser in Windows. The Netscape Navigator web browser was succeeded by the Netscape Communicator suite in 1997. Netscape Communicator's 4.x source code was the base for the Netscape-developed Mozilla Application Suite, renamed SeaMonkey.

Netscape's Mozilla Suite served as the base for a browser-only spinoff called Mozilla Firefox. The Netscape Navigator name returned in 2007 when AOL announced version 9 of the Netscape series of browsers, Netscape Navigator 9. On December 28, 2007, AOL canceled its development but continued supporting the web browser with security updates until March 1, 2008. AOL allows downloading of archived versions of the Netscape Navigator web browser family. AOL maintains the Netscape website as an Internet portal. Netscape Navigator was inspired by the success of the Mosaic web browser, co-written by Marc Andreessen, a part-time employee of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. After Andreessen graduated in 1993, he moved to California and there met Jim Clark, the departed founder of Silicon Graphics. Clark believed that the Mosaic browser had great commercial possibilities and provided the seed money. Soon Mosaic Communications Corporation was in business in Mountain View, with Andreessen as a vice-president.

Since the University of Illinois was unhappy with the company's use of the Mosaic name, the company changed its name to Netscape Communications and named its flagship web browser Netscape Navigator. Netscape announced in its first press release that it would make Navigator available without charge to all non-commercial users, beta versions of version 1.0 and 1.1 were indeed downloadable in November 1994 and March 1995, with the full version 1.0 available in December 1994. Netscape's initial corporate policy regarding Navigator claimed that it would make Navigator available for non-commercial use in accordance with the notion that Internet software should be distributed for free. However, within two months of that press release, Netscape reversed its policy on who could obtain and use version 1.0 by only mentioning that educational and non-profit institutions could use version 1.0 at no charge. The reversal was complete with the availability of version 1.1 beta on March 6, 1995, in which a press release states that the final 1.1 release would be available at no cost only for academic and non-profit organizational use.

Gone was the notion expressed in the first press release that Navigator would be available in the spirit of Internet software. Some security experts and cryptographers found out that all released Netscape versions had major security problems with crashing the browser with long URLs and 40 bits encryption keys; the first few releases of the product were made available in "commercial" and "evaluation" versions. The "N" evaluation versions were identical to the commercial versions; this distinction was formally dropped within a year of the initial release, the full version of the browser continued to be made available for free online, with boxed versions available on floppy disks in stores along with a period of phone support. During this era, "Internet Starter Kit" books were popular, included a floppy disk or CD containing internet software, this was a popular means of obtaining Netscape's and other browsers. Email support was free, remained so for a year or two until the volume of support requests grew too high.

During development, the Netscape browser was known by the code name Mozilla, which became the name of a Godzilla-like cartoon dragon mascot used prominently on the company's web site. The Mozilla name was used as the User-Agent in HTTP requests by the browser. Other web browsers claimed to be compatible with Netscape's extensions to HTML, therefore used the same name in their User-Agent identifiers so that web servers would send them the same pages as were sent to Netscape browsers. Mozilla is now a generic name for matters related to the open source successor to Netscape Communicator and is most identified with the browser Firefox; when the consumer Internet revolution arrived in the mid-to-late 1990s, Netscape was well positioned to take advantage of it. With a good mix of features and an attractive licensing scheme that allowed free use for non-commercial purposes, the Netscape browser soon became the de facto standard on the Windows platform. Internet service providers and computer magazine publishers helped make Navigator available.

An innovation that Netscape introduced in 1994 was the on-the-fly display of web pages, where text and graphics appeared on the screen as the web page dow

Blue Chip Stamps

Blue Chip Stamps started as a trading stamps company called "Blue Chip Stamp Co." They were a competitor of S&H Green Stamps. Blue Chip stamps were a loyalty program for customers, similar to discount cards issued by pharmacies and grocery stores in the digital era. A customer making a purchase at a participating store would be given stamps in proportion to the dollar amount of the purchase; the stamps were dispensed by machines adjacent to the cash register. The customer would paste the stamps into books; the books could be taken to a redemption center and redeemed for merchandise, such as lawn furniture, dining tables and many other items. The redemption centers did not maintain a full inventory of items but would order from a catalog on behalf of the customer; the loyalty program was funded through the overall pricing of goods in the participating retailers. With the recession of 1980, cost cutting caused the program to lose popularity, the growth of credit card transactions competed for retail margins.

As computerization developed, less-cumbersome loyalty programs were developed. These programs had lower operational costs, they did not require physical locations for redemption, the discounts were restricted to the products offered by the participating stores, i.e. the participating stores were discounting merchandise that they would keep in stock without the reward program. In 1963, the US government began an antitrust action against Blue Chip Stamp. In 1967, the parties agreed to a consent decree which led to the creation of a new company "Blue Chip Stamps". In 1975, a lawsuit filed by Blue Chip Stamps was decided by the Supreme Court in the opinion Blue Chip Stamps v. Manor Drug Stores; this ruling helped establish the precedent that only buyers or sellers of securities can file suit for damages due to deceptive practices. Berkshire Hathaway, the investment vehicle of Warren Buffett, began investing in Blue Chip Stamps in 1970. Berkshire's investment in Blue Chip went from 36.5% in 1977, to 60% in 1979, merged in a stock swap in 1983.

According to Buffett's 2006 letter to Berkshire shareholders, Blue Chip had 1970 sales of $126 million as about 60 billion "stamps were licked by savers, pasted into books, taken to Blue Chip redemption stores." He said, "When I was told that certain brothels and mortuaries gave stamps to their patrons, I felt I had found a sure thing." Sales dropped to $19.4 million in 1980 and $1.5 million in 1990. In 2006, revenues came in at $25,920. On January 3, 1972, Blue Chip obtained a controlling interest in See's Candy Shops. Blue Chip acquired 100% of See's for an overall price of $25 million. Wesco Financial Corporation was an 80.1% owned subsidiary of Blue Chip Stamps until its complete merger into Berkshire Hathaway in 2011. Trading stamps S&H Green Stamps - a direct competitor of Blue Chip Stamps. William J Kozersky Stamp Company commercial site with pictures of Blue Chip Stamps, much information

Nabil Al Busaidi

Nabil Al Busaidi, is an Omani adventurer. He was engaged in a number of feats like walking to the magnetic North Pole, a climb of Mount Vinson in Antarctica, a row across the Atlantic Ocean amongst many. Being the first Arab to accomplish some of these feats, he was voted one of the Top 100 Most Influential Arabs in the world by Arabian Business magazine in 2009, the Top 50 Influential Arabs by Middle East magazine in 2009 and 2011, remains in the Top 500 Power List in 2011 for Arabian Business magazine. A documentary about his trek to the magnetic North Pole was directed and edited by two-time Emmy Award winning director David Ward. Nabs was born in 1970 in London, United Kingdom, grew up dividing his time between the UK and the Kingdom of Bahrain, he completed his formal education at the University of Bath earning Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and Masters in Management. In 1998, he moved back to the Middle East to reside in Bahrain, he is a Project Management Professional, has completed Level 1 of the Chartered Financial Analyst, is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

Professionally, Nabs worked at a number of institutions such as Gulf International Bank, KPMG, Mizuho Bank and Gulf Air before becoming a full-time adventurer. An avid sports enthusiast, Nabs was awarded university colours for soccer and American football at Bath University, he is a PADI advanced open water scuba diver. In Bahrain, he played for Bahrain RFC, an amateur rugby team, during their 1997–2005 seasons and as a lifelong fan Liverpool F. C. he set up a Bahrain Liverpool FC Fan Club on Facebook. Nabs published a coffee table book entitled The Arab who Took on the Arctic – From Sand to Snow in 2011 and is registered with the London Speakers Bureau as a motivational speaker. An active adventurer, Nabs has undertaken the following adventures since 2009: In April 2009, he became the first Arab to walk the 650 km from Resolute Bay to the magnetic North Pole and one of less than 500 to walk to a pole. In the same year, he climbed Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895m and one of the seven summits.

In January 2010, Nabs climbed the highest mountain in Antarctica, Mount Vinson – one of the seven summits. * He became the first Arab to row over 4,600 km across the Atlantic, albeit in a team comprising 14 members, one of only 250 crews to achieve this feat and breaking the record for being the largest crew to complete the trip. Inspired by a boarding school friend Major Phil Packer, who raised more than one million pounds for charity, Nabs is working on a tour of 100 schools throughout the GCC, he is hoping to raise US$1 million for local charities

Sumaila

Sumaila is a historic town and headquarters of a Local Government Area in Kano State, Northern Nigeria. Sumaila was established as a Jobe- Fulani'Sansani' or Settlement in the 1740s. Located within the fertile plains of south eastern Kano, it provided the clan an easy migratory pathway to the grazing grounds of the savannah of eastern Hausa land. Called'Garun- Sam'ila' after one of its first settlers, it attracted little attention during the time of the Sultanate, The sharp Rise of Jobe influence in eastern Kano in the late 18th century saw the construction of a stockade and a partial fort around the town in the 1750s. Sumaila rose to prominence in the time of the Caliphate when it became the site of an epic battle that halted the advance of the cavalry when El-Kanemi encroached into the Sokoto Caliphate; when during the Reign of Emir Abdullahi Maje-Karofi, the Ningi rebellion broke out, a Ribat was constructed around the town and a permanent fulani force was stationed there to protect the southern borders of the Emirate.

During the Kano civil war or Basasa, Sumaila was a major hub for pan-Yusuf forces because of its close proximity to Takai. Serving as a frontier fortress, the British pacification campaigns affected Sumaila. In 1903, the entire Fulani military contingent of the fort under Dan-Sumaila Garba- Maje Gabas was lost in the Kano- Sokoto expedition; the Last Caliph of Sokoto, Sultan Attahiru passed through the outskirts of the town attracting there from a large followership in his pilgrimage to Burmi after the fall of the Caliphate. The fall of the Emirate witnessed a sharp decline in commerce in eastern Kano and in the 1910s, a provincial reorganization removed administration of the District's affairs to Wudil. and Sumaila was relegated to sub-borough status. In 1923 the discovery of gold reserves by a British mining expedition led to another provincial reorganization that restored District Status, political crisis however within the provinces administration and fears of the pre-federal Nigerian government being administered from Lagos and managed by non-Northerners scuttled the mining efforts.

In 1967, the collapse of the Government of Northern Nigeria again ended the administrative independence of Sumaila, this was not to be restored until the Second Nigerian Republic when a Sumailan, Abubakar Rimi was elected Governor of Kano under the People's Redemption Party. In 1983, the collapse of the PRP government saw another momentary transference of administration to Wudil. Muhammadu Abubakar Rimi - politician, governor of Kano State during the Nigerian Second Republic Abdullahi Aliyu Sumaila- politician and administrator

New South Wales F351 class locomotive

The F351 class was a class of steam locomotives built for the New South Wales Government Railways in Australia. Ordered in 1879 but the order was stopped. A follow-up order in 1882 was made, the specification for 2-4-0 tank locomotives with 5'0" diameter driving wheels made by the acting locomotive engineer Mr Scott. During his absence in England on official business this was changed by Mr T. Middelton to an 0-6-0 type with 4'0" diameter driving wheels, claiming that such locomotives would be capable of 30-33 mph in service. Despite Scott's protests, Commissioner Goodchap approved the changes and six locomotives were designed and built by Vulcan Foundry; the subsequent 0-6-0 locomotives became the R class the Z18 class. In August 1884 Mr Scott informed the commissioner that more locomotives were required with the opening of the Illawarra extension. Mr Middelton wanted more of the R, but Mr Scott recommended his original proposed design from 1881. After much hesitation by the government, Beyer and Company were asked to design and build the locomotives.

These became the F class and went into service on the Sydney suburban network in 1885-86, being numbered 351 to 362. In 1887 six more locomotives of this design were delivered by Henry Vale of Sydney. No. 366 featured in the Redfern collision of 1894. The design was similar to a number of 2-4-0 tank locomotives supplied to the Isle of Wight Central Railway from 1864. A similar locomotive was delivered to the South Australian Railways from 1884 as their P-class, their running life came to an end in 1901 as a result of the findings on the Sydenham derailment involving No. 363 and the whole class was taken out of passenger work. The F351 class were known to oscillate and rock at high speeds and were limited to 30 mph. A factor in the Sydenham derailment was the driver exceeding the official speed limit; the locomotive was believed to be doing 51 mph. The entire class was subsequently withdrawn from passenger work and allocated to various shunting and depot duties. A number of the class were modified with a heavy cast iron front buffer beam in an attempt to stabilise the front of the locomotive after 1901.

Between 1906 and 1929 ten of the class were sold to various private railway operators. All members of the class had been withdrawn from passenger work by 1914. Eleven were still on the books at this stage and were renumbered Lo.19-Lo.26. In 1924 they were renumbered in the X10 class, bearing numbers 1031-1033, 1035-1037 and 1039-1043. From 1914, members of the class still in NSWGR service were rebuilt with the same domed boilers that replaced the dome-less type supplied on the R285 class. A number of other modifications were made to the class such as replacing the leaf spring on the front axle with twin coil springs. For reasons unknown 1033 at some stage had the original parallel buffers on the rear replaced with longer bottle-shaped Turton buffers. In 1966, 1036 with withdrawn and scrapped, but during an overhaul the boiler was given to 1076 numbered R288 1804. Three of the class were still in service with the NSWGR from 1940. 1033 at Eveleigh Railway Workshops, 1036 at Junee Locomotive Depot and 1042 at Cardiff Railway Workshops.1042 was given an overhaul as late as 1970 at the age of 83 years and continued working until February 1973, only three months shy of 86 years in service and having completed 401,359 km of logged running.

1036 had accumulated the most mileage in service with 707,564 km at withdrawal. 1033 was preserved by the New South Wales Rail Transport Museum. 1042 at Maitland Steam Park, Cardiff Locomotive Workshops shunter, under restoration NSWGR steam locomotive classification

List of A-League players

This is a list of A-League players who have made 200 or more appearances in the A-League, the top level of the Australian soccer league system. Since the A-League's inception in 2005, 16 players have accrued 200 or more appearances; the first player to meet the landmark was Matt Thompson with Newcastle Jets in 2013. Thompson was overtaken by John Hutchinson of the Central Coast Mariners in 2015; the current record-holder is goalkeeper Danny Vukovic, overtaking Hutchinson in October 2015. Vukovic has made over 250 appearances. Players are listed by number of appearances. If number of appearances are equal, the players are listed alphabetically. Statistics are updated as of 14 December 2019 Current A-League players and their current clubs are shown in bold. A-League official website