Network 10 is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country; the network is owned by Ten Network Holdings, which in-turn is owned by ViacomCBS. As of 2019, Network 10 is the third rated television network and primary channel in Australia, behind the Nine Network, the Seven Network ahead of the ABC and SBS. From the introduction of TV in 1956 until 1965 there were three television networks in Australia, the National Television Network, the Australian Television Network, the public Australian Broadcasting Commission National Television Service. In the early 1960s, the Australian Government began canvassing the idea of licensing a third commercial television station in each capital city; this decision was seen by some as a way for the government to defuse growing public dissatisfaction with the dominance of imported overseas programming and the paucity of local content.
The first of these "third" licences was granted to United Telecasters Sydney was granted on 4 April 1963. Structurally, the Australian television industry was modelled on the two-tiered system, in place in Australian radio since the late 1930s. One tier consisted of a network of publicly funded television stations run by the ABC, funded by government budget allocation and by fees from television viewer licences; the second tier consisted of the commercial networks and independent stations owned by private operators, whose income came from selling advertising time. The network was launched as ATV-0 in Melbourne opened on 1 August 1964 and was owned by the Ansett transport and media group, which at the time owned one of Australia's two domestic airlines. TEN-10 in Sydney, which opened on 5 April 1965, was owned by United Telecasters Sydney Ltd, which in July that year opened TVQ-0 in Brisbane, Queensland. Opened that month was SAS-10, serving the city of Adelaide in South Australia; the new television network was dubbed the "Independent Television System" or ITS, but in 1970 adopted the title "The 0/10 Network", which reflected the names of the first two stations launched in the group, ATV and TEN.
Melbourne's ATV was the first station of the network to stage colour broadcasts in 1967, the broadcast was that of the horse races in Pakenham, Victoria, seen by network and RCA executives and invited members of the media and press. This would the first of many test colour telecasts for the station, in tribute to this event, the 0-10 Network adopted the First in Colour slogan in 1974, within months before 1 March 1975 transition to colour broadcasting. For its first five years, the 0/10 Network led a hand-to-mouth existence. By the beginning of the 1970s the network was in a precarious financial position and there were predictions that it would fail. In 1971, the 0/10 Network first aired Young Talent Time, a huge ratings success, ran for 17 years. However, the network's true financial reprise came about due to the fact that the controversial adult soap opera serial Number 96, which premiered in March 1972 on the night that "Australian TV lost its virginity"; the series broke new ground for Australian television and captured the imagination of viewers like few programs before or since.
For the next three years it was Australia's top-rating television program and, not its huge popularity attracted advertisers to Ten en masse, with the result that its revenue increased from A$1 million in 1971 to more than A$10 million in 1972. However, the pattern of ratings dominance was set, for most of the next five decades from the mid-1960s there was little deviation from the prevalent rankings, with the Nine Network in first place, the Seven Network second, 0/10 third and ABC fourth; the gradual evolution of Network Ten into its current form has its origins in the ongoing attempts by media mogul Rupert Murdoch to acquire a prized commercial television licence in Australia's largest capital city market, Sydney. This began when Murdoch's News Limited purchased the Wollongong station WIN Television in the early 1960s, around the same time he bought Festival Records. In 1977, frustrated by regulatory blocks that prevented him from expanding into the Sydney market, Murdoch sold WIN and purchased a 46% share in Ten Sydney.
In 1979, Murdoch made an unsuccessful takeover bid for the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times media group, which owned HSV-7. Although the bid failed, he gained a 50% stake in Ansett, which thus gave him control of channel 0 in Melbourne. In 1979, 0/10 first aired the soap opera Prisoner, a huge ratings success. On 20 January 1980, the 0/10 Network became known as Network Ten to reflect ATV moving from channel 0 to channel 10 – although the Brisbane station continued to broadcast as TVQ-0 until 10 September 1988 when the station changed to TVQ-10. In 1987 Adelaide's Network Ten affiliate and Seven Network affiliate negotiated to exchange affiliation rights and channel frequencies due to ownership problems. On 27 December 1987, the exchange came into effect and ADS-7, owned by the same owners as the main Network Ten stations, became ADS-10 with SAS-10 converting to SAS-7, operated by TVW-7 in Perth; when Murdoch became an American citizen in 1985 so that he could expand his media empire in the United States, Australia's media ownership laws obliged him to dispose of the flagship television stations, which were sold to The Northern Star, an offshoot of the Westfield Group con
Eiryaku was a Japanese era name after Heiji and before Ōhō. This period spanned the years from January 1160 through September 1161; the reigning emperor was Nijō-tennō. February 9, 1160 Eiryaku gannen: The new era name was created to mark an event or a number of events; the previous era ended and a new one commenced in Heiji 2, on the 10th day of the 1st month. 1160: Minamoto no Yoshitomo, was killed in a campaign to overthrow the imperial chancellor, Taira no Kiyomori. Yoshitomo's wife, Tokiwa Gozen was compelled to flee Kyoto with her three sons. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press.
Unione Sportiva Dilettantistica Novese is an Italian football club from Novi Ligure, Piedmont. The club has won the 1921–22 Italian Football Championship, but now plays in Prima Categoria. Novese is the only Italian football team that won a championship without playing a single season in Serie A nor in Serie B. Novese was founded in 1919 and entered Italian history by F. I. G. C. 1921–22 Italian Football Championship, a season when there were two competing major leagues in Italian football: the Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio and the breakaway Confederazione Calcistica Italiana, which included the big clubs of Northern Italy. The team colors are light blue. Italian Football ChampionshipWinners: 1921–22 PromozioneWinners: 1920–21, 1953–54Prima DivisioneWinners: 1941–42, 1951–52Eccellenza Piemonte-Valle d'AostaWinners: 1997–98, 2003–04Coppa Italia Dilettanti Piemonte-Valle d'AostaWinners: 2006–07Supercoppa Piemonte-Valle d'AostaWinners: 2003–04 Association football league system in Italy Official website at the Wayback Machine History of US Novese at the comune di Città di Novi Ligure website at the Wayback Machine