Neuchâtel or Neuchatel is a town, a municipality, the capital of the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel on Lake Neuchâtel. The city has 34,000 inhabitants; the city is sometimes referred to by the German name Neuenburg, which has the same meaning. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire and under Prussian control from 1707 until 1848; the official language of Neuchâtel is French. Neuchâtel is a pilot of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural Cities programme; the oldest traces of humans in the municipal area are the remains of a Magdalenian hunting camp, dated to 13,000 BC. It was discovered in 1990 during construction of the A5 motorway at Monruz; the site was about 5 m below the main road. Around the fire pits carved bones were found. In addition to the flint and bone artifacts three tiny earrings from lignite were found; the earrings may have served as symbols of fertility and represent the oldest known art in Switzerland. This first camp was used by Cro-Magnons to hunt reindeer in the area.
Azilian hunters had a camp at the same site at about 11,000 BC. Since the climate had changed, their prey was now wild boar. During the 19th century, traces of some stilt houses were found in Le Cret near the red church. However, their location was not well documented and the site was lost. In 1999, during construction of the lower station of the funicular railway, which connects the railway station and university, the settlement was rediscovered, it was determined to be a Cortaillod culture village. According to dendrochronological studies, some of the piles were from 3571 BC. A Hallstatt grave was found in the forest of Les Cadolles. At Les Favarger a Gallo-Roman and at André Fontaine a small coin depot were discovered. In 1908, an excavation at the mouth of Serrière discovered Gallo-Roman baths from the 2nd and 3rd Centuries AD. One of the most important Merovingian cemeteries in the canton was discovered at Les Battieux in Serrières. In 1982, 38 graves dating from the 7th century were excavated many of which contained silver-inlaid or silver-plated belt buckles.
In Serrières at the church of Saint-Jean, the remains of a 7th-century shrine were excavated. In 1011, Rudolph III of Burgundy presented a Novum castellum or new castle on the lake shore to his wife, Irmengarde, it was long assumed that this new castle replaced an older one, but nothing about its location or design is known. At the time of this gift Neuchâtel was the center of a newly created royal court, developed to complement the other royal estates which managed western estates of the kings of Burgundy; the first counts of Neuchâtel were named shortly afterwards, in 1214 their domain was dubbed a city. For three centuries, the County of Neuchâtel flourished, in 1530, the people of Neuchâtel accepted the Reformation, their city and territory were proclaimed to be indivisible from on. Future rulers were required to seek investiture from the citizens. With increasing power and prestige, Neuchâtel was raised to the level of a principality at the beginning of the 17th century. On the death in 1707 Marie d'Orleans-Longueville, duchess de Nemours and Princess of Neuchâtel, the people had to choose her successor from among fifteen claimants.
They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people passed them over in favour of King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the Houses of Orange and Nassau. With the requisite stability assured, Neuchâtel entered its golden age, with commerce and industry and banking undergoing steady expansion. At the turn of the 19th century, the King of Prussia was defeated by Napoleon I and was forced to give up Neuchâtel in order to keep Hanover. Napoleon's field marshal, became Prince of Neuchâtel, building roads and restoring infrastructure, but never setting foot in his domain. After the fall of Napoleon, Frederick William III of Prussia reasserted his rights by proposing that Neuchâtel be linked with the other Swiss cantons. On September 12, 1814, Neuchâtel became the capital of the 21st canton, but remained a Prussian principality.
It took a bloodless revolution in the decades following for Neuchâtel to shake off its princely past and declare itself, on March 1, 1848, a republic within the Swiss Confederation. Neuchâtel has an area, as of 2009, of 18.1 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.84 km2 or 10.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9.74 km2 or 53.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.42 km2 or 35.5% is settled, 0.03 km2 or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 or 0.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 18.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.1%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 4.3%. Out of the forested land, 51.8% of the total land area is forested and 2.0% is covered with orchards or sm
Napoleon Zervas was a Greek general and resistance leader during World War II. He organized and led the National Republican Greek League, the second most significant, in terms of size and activity, resistance organization against the Axis Occupation of Greece. Zervas was born in Arta and was of Souliote origin. After finishing high school in 1910, he volunteered for the 2nd Infantry Division. During the Balkan Wars, he was promoted to the rank of first sergeant, he attended the Hellenic Army NCO School and graduated as sergeant major in 1914. Zervas was a Venizelist, in 1916 was among the first to join the venizelist Movement of National Defence in Thessaloniki, he served with distinction in many battles of the Macedonian front during World War I, being promoted to major. After the defeat of Venizelos' Liberal Party in the elections of 1920, he fled to Constantinople, he only returned to Athens in late 1922, after the Revolution of September 1922, rejoined the army. Three years after the establishment of General Theodoros Pangalos' dictatorship, he was appointed as garrison commander of the city of Athens and at the same time, took command of the Second Battalion of the Republican Guard.
These troops served as the main strongholds of Pangalos' military regime in the capital. Zervas participated in the coup d'état of 22 August 1926, led by General Georgios Kondylis, that overthrew Pangalos. Zervas, confronted Kondylis a month when the new strongman sought to disarm and dissolve the Republican Guard. Bloody battles took place in Athens between the governmental forces. After his defeat, Zervas was sentenced to life in prison. However, two years the newly established republican government of Eleftherios Venizelos, granted him amnesty and Zervas was named lieutenant colonel in retirement. In September 1941, a few months after the start of the Axis Occupation of Greece, along with other Venizelist army officers and political figures, founded the National Republican Greek League; the goals of EDES were the fight against the conquerors of Greece, the abolition of the Greek monarchy and the establishment of a republic on social-democratic principles. The two most guiding principles for Zervas was hatred of the House of Glücksburg together with an intense hatred of communism.
The party platform of EDES talked of a "republic in a socialist form", but the British historian Mark Mazower described Zervas's socialism as "only skin deep". Notably, the platform of EDES did not mention armed resistance, only after Zervas was bribed with 24, 000 gold sovereigns from an agent of the British Special Operations Executive did he agree to take to the mountains to wage guerrilla war. Obese and a hypochondriac, Zervas was reluctant to take up the arduous life of an andarte, preferring to stay in Athens; the SOE had a low opinion of Zervas's ability to lead with one agent writing bitterly of his "disregard of elementary organisation". The same report mentioned that Zervas "hopes for the best but employs a crowd of useless officers, because it would disturb the peace to fire them... As an organiser, his value is NIL". A charming man, described by those who knew him as being like a "bland and easy-going company director", Zervas was a political as opposed to a military leader. Another SOE agent wrote about Zervas that he was like: "the chairman of a provincial tramway company, boosted and kept going but always has hanging over it the shadow of radical changes to the buses in the dim future.
In the meantime, the chairman isn't doing too badly for himself, if the future isn't too rosy, he himself is well provided for". In August 1942, with his political advisor and second-in-command of EDES, Komninos Pyromaglou, he went to the mountains of Epirus, where he founded the military branch of EDES, the EOEA. Upon taking to the mountains of his native Epirus, Zervas relied upon familial connections to recruit andartes. Zervas was much a traditional guerrilla leader whose status as an archigos was based upon his charisma, his political platform was notably vague beyond its call to restore the republic. Pyromaglou summed Zervas's philosophy of EDES as: "Faith in the Leader. All from the Leader. All for the Leader." The EDES-EOEA forces were proclaimed as combatant forces of the Allied Armies by the British General Headquarters of Middle East. Zervas incorporated not only Republicans but also royalists into his movement, who saw EDES as the only acceptable alternative to EAM, the Communist-dominated rival resistance movement that had established itself over most of the country.
EOEA's activities were confined to Epirus, but Zervas had some control of Aetolia-Acarnania, in the Valtos area. In November 1942, the forces of EDES and those of ELAS, in collaboration with a small group of British and New Zealand expert saboteurs, blew up the Gorgopotamos Bridge. Afterward the success of Operation Harling, a team of SOE agents led by "Monty" Woodhouse arrived to train his forces and arrange for arms shipments; as a republican, Zervas was opposed to the government-in-exile in Cairo led by King George II, but after Woodhouse made it clear that the British were willing to increase the supply of arms if he become a royalist, on 9 March 1943, Zervas sent out a message declaring his loyalty to the king. As EDES was a republican group, Zervas's sudden conversion to monarchism shocked his followers. At the same time, Zervas warned Woodhouse of the "dark forces of Communism b
Sushma Jayadev, known professionally as Devayani, is an Indian actress who predominantly acts in Tamil, Telugu along with a few Kannada and Bengali films. She received the Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actress for her performances in the films Surya Vamsam and Bharathi and a Special Award for Kadhal Kottai, she was the leading actress from 1996 to 2003 in Tamil. She has appeared in other commercially successful films, including Ninaithen Vandhai, Nee Varuvai Ena, Friends and Azhagi as well as in the Sun TV's huge successful serial Kolangal where she win the Best Television Actress for her performance. Devayani was born in Mumbai, Maharashtra, her father Jayadev is from Mangalore and mother Lakshmi Ammal is from Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu. She has two younger brothers Mayur; the former is working as an actor and singer in the Tamil film industry, while the latter would make his acting debut in an upcoming film. She dated director Rajakumaran, with. Both their parents did not approve of their relationship, which led the couple to elope, marry on 9 April 2001.
They have two daughters and Priyanka. She is teaching at Church Park School at Anna Salai, Chennai for class four students. Devayani began her career as Koyal in the Hindi film Koyal, cancelled during its production stage, she appeared in a Bengali film Shaat Ponchomi. She acted in a Marathi film before debuting and rising to fame in Tamil cinema, her earliest films were released in the early and middle 90's including Kadhal Kottai. From 1996 to 2000, Devyani acted as heroine in over 35 films and acted alongside all the top actors such as Kamal Hassan, Ajith, Vikram, Sarath Kumar, Parthiban, she moved into supporting roles in Thenali though she still acted commercially until 2004–2005. Devayani began acting in the teleserial Kolangal as Abinaya, which has had over 1500 episodes on Sun Television, it was dubbed into Malayalam in the same name on Surya TV. She is now a teacher at Church Park Convent, Chennai, she is judging a popular reality show on Mazhavil Manorama titled Ugram Ujwalam. She has acted in some advertisements also.
1996 – Tamil Nadu State Film Special Award for Best Actress – Kaadhal Kottai 1997 – Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actress – Surya Vamsam 2000 – Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actress – Bharathi 2000 – Kalaimamani 2002 – ITFA Award for Best Supporting Actress – Azhagi 2004 – Pace Awards Best Television Actress for Kolangal 2008 – Frontrunner – Vivel Chinna Thirai Awards Best Actress for Kolangal 2010 – Nominated – Sun Kudumbam Best Actress Award for Kolangal 2010 – Kalaimamani 2011 – Big FM Tamil Entertainment Awards Most Entertaining Television Actress for Kodi Mullai 2019 - Sun Nakshatra Virudhu Devayani on IMDb