A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, relationships, biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can be used to portray a persons life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing, works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, and at times, an autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded merely as a subsection of history with a focus on an individual of historical importance. The independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century, one of the earliest of the biographers was Plutarch, and his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. covers prominent figures in the classical world. Cornelius Nepos published a work, his Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae.
Perhaps the earliest extant biography that does not contain mythological material is The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, in the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits and priests used this period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the fathers, popes. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity, one significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards and they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. And began the documentation of the lives of other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world.
By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings, the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte dArthur by Sir Thomas Malory. The book was an account of the life of the fabled King Arthur, following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives, vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early bestseller. Two other developments are noteworthy, the development of the press in the 15th century
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities is an independent public institution, located in Munich. It appoints scholars whose research has contributed considerably to the increase of knowledge within their subject, the general goal of the academy is the promotion of interdisciplinary encounters and contacts and the cooperation of representatives of different subjects. On 12 October 1758 the lawyer Johann Georg von Lori, Privy Counsellor at the College of Coinage and Mining in Munich and this led to the foundation by Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities on 28 March 1769. Count Sigmund von Haimhausen was the first president, the Academys foundation charter specifically mentions the Parnassus Boicus, an earlier learned society. Today, the Academy is still divided into two classes, but the classes are now the Class for Philosophy and History and the Class for Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. In each class, the number of members is limited to 45.
However, ordinary members at or over the age of 70 are not counted towards this limit, first president was the chairman of the Mint and Mining Commission, Count of Haimhausen. Further presidents included Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Friedrich Wilhelm von Schelling, Justus von Liebig, Ignaz von Döllinger, at present, the presidency is held by Prof. Dr. Karl-Heinz Hoffmann. For the pursuit of long-term projects, the Academy forms Commissions, at present,37 Commissions employ more than 450 persons
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot. The ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time and its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2017. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, from Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www. deutsche-biographie. de, in, BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World, Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9,2015, ed. by, serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource, German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Bavarian State Library
The Bavarian State Library in Munich is the central Landesbibliothek, i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europes most important universal libraries. With its collections currently comprising around 10.36 million books, the legal deposit law has been in force since 1663, regulating that two copies of every printed work published in Bavaria have to be submitted to the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. This law is still applicable today, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek furthermore is Europes second-largest journals library. The BSB publishes the specialist journal Bibliotheksforum Bayern and has been publishing the Bibliotheksmagazin together with the Berlin State Library since 2007 and its building is situated in the Ludwigstrasse. The reading rooms of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek are used by around 3,000 readers every day, in the general reading room, open daily from 8 AM to 12 PM, approximately 111,000 volumes, primarily reference works, are freely accessible. In the periodicals reading room around 18,000 topical issues of current periodicals are available, the departments of manuscripts and early printed books and images, music, as well as Eastern Europe and East Asia have their own reading rooms with open-access collections.
Every day approximately 1,500 volumes are collected from the repositories, in 2010, a new research reading room was opened, focusing on Historical Sciences and Bavarian History and Culture. C.10.36 million books c.130,800 manuscripts, the head office, the assistants to the directors and the public relations department are part of the directorate. The department is responsible for the budget, human resources and internal services. This department acquires all types of media, and catalogues and indexes them both formally and according to subject, the Munich Digitisation Centre is a section of the department. It handles the digitisation and online publication of the cultural heritage preserved by the Bavarian State Library and it provides one of the largest and fastest growing digital collections in Germany. The department is responsible for conservation and collection care. This division protects the media published from the year 1850 onward against damage, the user services department acts as an agent of the collections and services of the library.
The department consists of the divisions of document provision, document administration, document delivery and information-, the department of manuscripts and early printed books is responsible for the most valuable historical collections of the library. The worldwide renown of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek is founded on this precious heritage, the department has a separate reading room that is specially equipped for working with old books. This department administrates printed maps from the year 1500 up to the present, cartographic material, the image archive includes parts of the archives of Heinrich Hoffmann, Bernhard Johannes and Felicitas Timpe. The Map Collection and Image Archive have - together with the department of music -their own reading room, the Department of Music ranks among the worlds leading music libraries, due to both the quantity and quality of its historical collections and its broad acquisition profile. Its beginnings date back to the 16th century, the area of collection emphasis musicology of the German Research Foundation is overseen by this department
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Established in 1938, the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts is the supreme national institution for science and the arts. It associates scientists and artists who have been elected as its members for their achievements in the field of sciences. The president, the two vice-presidents, the general and the secretaries of its various sections are elected for a period of three years with the possibility of one further re-election. SAZU can have a maximum of 60 full and 30 associate members and it can have a maximum of 90 corresponding members from scientific institutions abroad, at present it has 85 such members. The Section of Philological and Literary Sciences has 15 full members, the Section of Natural Sciences has 12 full members, two associate members and eight corresponding members. The Section of Medical Sciences has nine members, two associate members and 11 corresponding members. And the Section of Arts has 12 full members, six members and 14 corresponding members. SAZU was established in 1938 and was initially named Academy of Sciences, on 23 January 1943, AZU breached the cultural silence.
Due to the efforts of Milan Vidmar, the epithet Slovenian was added to its name in 1943 with a decree by Leon Rupnik, the renaming was disregarded after the war. In autumn 1945, the National Government of Slovenia led by Boris Kidrič took autonomy from the Academy and again named it Academy of Sciences, the literary historian France Kidrič was elected its president, and confirmed for the second term in 1948. In 1948, it lost even more autonomy and was renamed to the Slovenian Academy of Sciences, the academy lost its members with the new act and 30 days ceased to exist. In 1949, an amendment to the act was passed that allowed for not only of scientists and artists. In this manner, Josip Broz - Tito and Edvard Kardelj became its honorary members, Boris Kidrič, Josip Vidmar and Boris Ziherl were elected members, which significantly influenced the development of the Academy. According to the Soviet scheme of development, the Institute of Physics, despite this, social sciences and classical natural history remained the dominating fields.
In 1950, there were ten institutes, one board and one committee, among them the Institute of Slovene language and this make its composition similar to the current one. SAZU joined the European Scientific Foundation in 1995
Real Academia de la Historia
The Academy was established in 1738. Since 1836 it has occupied an 18th-century building designed by the neoclassical architect Juan de Villanueva, the building, which was originally occupied by the Hieronymites, had become available as a result of the Ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizábal. As formerly the main Spanish institution for antiquaries, the Academy retains significant libraries and collections of antiquities, the keeper of antiquities is the prehistorian Martín Almagro Gorbea. It is one of the best surviving examples of Late Antique Imperial imagery, some Spanish historians have considered it an obsolete misogynist institution, that still considers history as a matter of kings and battles. However, the image has changed since Gonzalo Anes was director, in 2011 the Academy published the first 20 volumes of a dictionary of national biography, the Diccionario Biográfico Español, to which some five thousand historians contributed. The publicly funded publication has been subject of controversy for failing to achieve the standards of objectivity associated with, for example, while there was criticism of entries for some living people, the main allegations of bias concern articles relating to Francoist Spain.
A notable example is the entry on Francisco Franco, written by Luis Suárez Fernández, in contrast, the administration of the democratically elected President Negrín is described as dictatorial. Most objections came from voices on the such as the party United Left. For his part, Green party senator Joan Saura asked for publication of the dictionary to be stopped, there was a call for corrections from the Ministry of Education. The Academy announced in June 2011 that amendments would be made to the text on line and in future paper editions. In 2012, when the Minister of Education and Sport, made a statement on the subject of the dictionary, however, by 2015 with Carmen Iglesias as director, the situation had changed. In 2015 the Academy entered into an initiative in collaboration with Metro de Madrid to provide information about people who have given their names to metro stations. The Real Academia de la Historia is composed of 36 members, with Academic Correspondents covering all the provinces of Spain, the Director since 2014 has been Carmen Iglesias
Austrian Academy of Sciences
The Austrian Academy of Sciences is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the sciences and humanities in every respect and in every field, particularly in fundamental research. In 2009, the Austrian Academy of Sciences was ranked 82nd among the 300 topmost research institutions in the world, based on its internet presence, in 1713, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz suggested to establish such an Academy, inspired by the Royal Society and the Académie des Sciences. The Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien was finally established by Imperial Patent on May 14,1847, the Academy soon began extensive research. In the humanities the Academy started with researching and publishing important historical sources of Austria, Research in natural sciences covered a wide variety of topics. The 1921 federal law guaranteed the legal basis of the Academy in the newly founded First Republic of Austria, and from the mid-1960s onwards it became the countrys leading institution in the field of non-university basic research.
Among the Academys numerous publications are the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum and eco. mont – Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research, the Academy of Sciences has established more than 25 institutions. In 2012, a reorganization prompted the outsourcing of various institutions to Universities as well as mergers, the Academys institutes are split into two major divisions, one for mathematics and natural sciences and one for humanities and social sciences. During his term as president of the Academy, Prof. Werner Welzig initiated the establishment of the Galerie der Forschung, in 2005 the Gallery organised its pilot event Mapping controversies, the case of the genetically modified food, which was staged in the Alte Aula in Vienna
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition