The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The canton comprises the Neretva river valley area and parts of Herzegovina west of Mostar, its administrative center; the canton is split into the municipalities of Čapljina, Čitluk, Konjic, Neum, Prozor-Rama and Stolac. The canton is the only canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina with access to the sea via the municipality of Neum. Neum is a town of 2,000 citizens and the area around the city is rich with historical and archeological remains of the Illyrians, a people who lived in the Balkans for many thousands of years; the largest city in the canton and the fifth largest city in the country is Mostar. Mostar is divided between Croats and Bosniaks. Mostar is known for its old bridge, Stari Most, constructed by the area's Ottoman rulers, who brought Islam to the region. Bosnian Croat forces bombed and destroyed the bridge on November 8, 1993. Upon its destruction it had stood for 427 years and had become a symbol of a shared cultural heritage and "peaceful" co-existence.
The bridge was reconstructed in the summer of 2004. The opening ceremony was attended by several foreign delegates including Stjepan Mesić, the President of Croatia. Other notable cities in this canton are Čapljina, Jablanica and Međugorje, the most significant Marian shrine in the region. Jablanica and Konjic are notable for battles which took place there during World War II and there is a large museum in Jablanica dedicated to these battles; the Neretva river runs through the cities of Konjic, Mostar and Čapljina before it flows through Croatia and into the Adriatic Sea. There are large lakes in the canton such as the Jablanica lake located around the city Jablanica; the southern most municipality in the canton is the Neum municipality which borders the Adriatic sea and the eastern most municipality is the Ravno municipality along the border with Croatia. Of the ten cantons comprising the Federation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Herzegovina-Neretva Canton is one of two cantons, the other being the Central Bosnia Canton, nearly populated by Bosniaks and Croats.
In such cantons there are special legislative procedures for the protection of the constituent ethnic groups. Croats form a majority in the municipalities of Čapljina, Čitluk, Prozor-Rama, Ravno. Bosniaks form an absolute majority in the municipalities of Jablanica and Konjic, a relative majority in Stolac and Mostar according to the 1991 census. Page text. List of heads of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton
Međugorje, or Medjugorje, is a town located in the Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, around 25 km southwest of Mostar and close to the border of Croatia. The town is part of the municipality of Čitluk. Since 1981, it has become a popular site of Catholic pilgrimage due to Our Lady of Međugorje, an alleged series of apparitions of the Virgin Mary to six local children that are still hapenning to this day; the name Međugorje means "between mountains". At an altitude of 200 m above sea level it has a mild Mediterranean climate; the town consists of an ethnically homogeneous Croat population of 2,306. The Roman Catholic parish consists of five neighbouring villages: Međugorje, Bijakovići, Miletina and Šurmanci. To the east of Međugorje in the Neretva valley, the Serbian Orthodox Žitomislić Monastery has stood since 1566. Gravestones erected in the Middle Ages have remained to this day in the Catholic cemetery Groblje Srebrenica in the hamlet of Miletina as well as in the hamlet of Vionica.
In the area of the cemetery in Miletina, structures from the Roman era stood, whose ruins have not yet been excavated. Until 1878 part of the Ottoman Empire it became part of Austria-Hungary. In 1882 the railway line between Mostar and the Adriatic coast of Dalmatia was built, with a station in the hamlet of Šurmanci, through which the village gained access to the railway network; the Catholic parish of Sveti Jakov was erected in 1892 by the Bishop of Mostar Paškal Buconjić. The twelve-metre tall crucifix on the mountain called Križevac, completing the parish's Stations of the Cross, was completed in 1934. From 24 May 1942 until the beginning of June 1945, in Herzegovina, 66 Catholic friars of the Franciscan order were killed by the communists; some were burned in the garden before their monastery. This was the place where, some 40 years after these atrocities took place and 10 years before the Bosnian War broke out, residents began reporting apparitions in Medjugorje, which called for prayer, fasting and peace.
Since 1981, when six local children said they had seen visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Medjugorje has become an unapproved destination of Catholic pilgrimage. "Our Lady of Međugorje" is the title given to the apparition by those who believe that Mary, mother of Jesus, has been appearing from 24 June 1981 until today to six children, now adults, in Međugorje. "Most Blessed Virgin Mary", "Queen of Peace" and "Mother of God" are words the apparition has introduced herself with. The visionary Marija Lunetti claims to receive messages from the Virgin Mary on the twenty-fifth of every month, while Mirjana Soldo reports receiving messages on the second of the month; the messages attributed to Our Lady of Međugorje have a strong following among Catholics worldwide. Medjugorje has become one of the most popular pilgrimage sites for Catholics in the world and has turned into Europe's third most important apparition site, where each year more than 1 million people visit, it has been estimated that 30 million pilgrims have come to Međugorje since the reputed apparitions began in 1981.
Many have reported visual phenomena including the sun spinning in the sky or changing color and figures such as hearts and crosses around the sun. Some visitors have suffered eye damage while seeking to experience such phenomena. Jesuit Father Robert Faricy has written about his own experience of such phenomena, saying, "Yet I have seen rosaries which have changed color, I have looked directly at the sun in Medjugorje and have seen it seem to spin and turn different colors, it would be easier to report that it is just hysteria except that I would have to accuse myself of being hysterical, which I was not and am not." On August 21, 1996, Vatican Press Office spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls declared that Catholics may still travel on pilgrimage to Medjugorje and that priests may accompany them. Navarro-Valls declared: "You can not say; this has not been said, so anyone can go if they want."A Vatican commission set up by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010 to study the Međugorje question was reported on 18 January 2014 to have completed its work, the results of which it would communicate to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
Headed by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, Pope Francis commented the report as "very good" on 13 May 2017 when speaking to journalists. According to Italian media, the Ruini report divided the investigation into three main parts: the early apparitions from 24 June 1981 to 3 July 1981, the acclaimed apparitions thereafter, the pastoral situation; the commission expressed positive findings in favor of recognizing the supernatural nature of the first appearances, rejected the hypothesis of a demonic origin of the apparitions. Yet, the commission expressed that an opinion cannot be reached towards the acclaimed apparitions thereafter, despite majority of the commission recognized the positive spiritual fruits that Medjugorje has brought to pilgrims, including Pope Francis who commented the pastoral situation in Medjugorje: "The third, the core of the Ruini report, the spiritual fact, the pastoral fact. People convert. People who encounter God, change their lives.... And this spiritual and pastoral fact can’t be ignored."
On 11 February 2017, Pope Francis appointed Archbishop Henryk Hoser, S. A. C; the Bishop of Warszawa-Praga, as a Special Envoy of the Holy See to Medjugorje. By the end of 2017, Hoser had announced that the Vatican's position was in favor of organizing pilgrimages. “Today and other inst
Ploče is a town and a notable seaport in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia. Ploče is located on the Adriatic coast in Dalmatia just north of the Neretva Delta and is as such the natural seaside endpoint of most north-south routes through the central Dinaric Alps; this makes it the primary seaport used by Bosnia and Herzegovina and the endpoint of the Pan-European corridor 5C. Čeveljuša is a toponym in Ploče, located to the east of the town, on the intersection of the D8 highway and the D425. Ploče is the location of Croatia's high temperature record, measured at 42.8 °C on 4 August 1981. Ploče was named Kardeljevo after the Yugoslav politician Edvard Kardelj between 1950 and 1954 and again between 1980 and 1990; some locals call their city Ploča. The total population of Ploče is 10,135, in the following settlements: In the 2011 census, the majority of its citizens were Croats at 95.93%. The Port of Ploče was first mentioned on 6 November 1387, but the building of a larger port was done in recent modern times.
Work on the present day harbour first began in 1939 but was destroyed during World War II. It was rebuilt in 1945 and the village of Ploče grew up to 480 inhabitants in 1948. After the Adriatic road and Neretva railway lines were built to the port in the mid-1960s, the town experienced a steady growth. Bosnia and Croatia are in negotiations as regards the establishment of a "privileged economic zone" for Bosnian businesses within the Ploče port facilities, though this development is hindered by the opposition of local government, Croatian people to the concept of a partial loss of sovereignty over the port; the Bosnian government would like a concession, with sovereignty features, for at least 99 years, whereas the Croatian government only wishes to offer commercial passage through Croatian territory for Bosnian and Herzegovinian goods. This topic was a subject of lengthy negotiations; the proposed building of a bridge through Croatian territory, bypassing Neum and Bosnian territory may solve this problem for Croatia, although this proposal is being resisted by the Bosnian government.
Ploče is twinned with: Ljubljana, Slovenia Rodi Garganico Official website
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, its total population is 42,615. In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites; the prosperity of the city was based on maritime trade. In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling. After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean; the names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.
The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin. It is explained as "dubron", a Celtic name for water, akin to the toponyms Douvres and Tauber; the historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Lavusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape". A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has been proposed. Putanec gives a review of etymological suggestion, favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek, from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa found in the Greek name of Brač, Elaphousa; the classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio. According to this account, Ragusa is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum, a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century.
The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio, Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, named after a "rocky island" called Lausa, by refugees from Epidaurum, a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions. Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from parts of the city walls; the size of the old basilica indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era. Antun Ničetić, in his 1996 book Povijest dubrovačke luke, expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors, as a station halfway between the two Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles apart from each other. After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population.
In 12th and 13th centuries Dubrovnik became a oligarchic republic, benefited by becoming a commercial outpost for the rising and prosperous Serbian state, specially after the signing of a treaty with Stefan the First-Crowned. After the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice, which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. In 1240, Ragusa purchased the island of Lastovo from Stefan Uroš I king of Serbia who had rights over the island as ruler of parts of Hum. After a fire destroyed most of the city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed. By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ragusa experienced further expansion when, in 1333, Serbian emperor Stefan Dušan, sold Pelješac and Ston in exchange for cash and an annual tribute, thus the city became Slavic-speaking city at the moment when her connection with the rest of Europe, specially Italy, brought her into the full corrent of the Western Renaissance.
Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics. For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, itself the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic; this alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay" controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria-Germany