Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
The Aónikenk people, better known by the exonym Tehuelche, are a group of indigenous peoples of Patagonia and the southern regions of Argentina and Chile. They are believed to be the basis for the Patagones described by European explorers, it is possible the stories of the early European explorers about the Patagones, a race of giants in South America, are based on the Tehuelche, because the Tehuelche were tall, taller than the average European of the time. According to the 2001 census, 4,300 Tehuelche lived in the provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz, Río Negro, an additional 1,637 in other parts of Argentina. There are now no Tehuelche tribes living in Chile, though some Tehuelche were assimilated into Mapuche groups over the years; the Tehuelche people have a history of over 14,500 years in the region, based on archeological findings. Their pre-Columbian history is divided in three main stages: a stage with large rock tools, a stage where the use of boleadoras prevailed over the peaked projectiles, a third one of complex rock tools, each one with a specific purpose.
The nomadic lifestyle of Tehuelches left scarce archeological evidence of their past. They were hunter-gatherers living as nomads. During the winters they lived in the lowlands, catching shellfish. During the spring they migrated to the central highlands of Patagonia and the Andes Mountains, where they spent the summer and early fall, hunted game. Although they developed no original pottery, they are well known for their cave paintings; the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. On March 31, 1520, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed and made contact with the Tehuelche people; the Spanish never colonized their lands, with the exception of some coastal settlements and a few missions. It took; as nomads, the Tehuelche lived with limited possessions. Their rock tools were made of obsidian or basalt, as those rocks were malleable but not so soft that they broke too easily; those rocks, could be found in only certain parts of Patagonia, so the Tehuelche had to make long journeys to renew their supplies.
The Tehuelche hunted many species in Patagonia, including whales, sea mammals, small rodents and sea birds. Both species were found at the same places, as the rheas eat the larvae that grow in the guanaco's manure. Everything from the guanaco was used by the Tehuelche: the meat and blood were used for food, the fat to grease their bodies during winter, the hide to make clothing and canopies; the Tehuelches gathered fruits that grew during the Patagonian summer. Those fruits were the only sweet foods in their diet; the Tehuelche speak Spanish and Tehuelche known as Aonekkenk, one of the Chonan languages. With the Araucanization of Patagonia, many tribes started to speak variants of Mapudungun, the Mapuche language. There is a group of people who want to have their language back and are working on a reclamation program called ¨I am not ashamed of speaking Tehuelche"; the Tehuelche people have their own flag. Inacayal Salpul Bernal, Irma. Los Tehuelche. Buenos Aires: Galerna. ISBN 978-950-556-422-4. Efram Sera-Shriar, ‘Tales from Patagonia: Phillip Parker King and Early Ethnographic Observation in British Ethnology, 1826-1830’, Studies in Travel Writing, 19, 204-223 Christine Papp: Die Tehuelche.
Ein Ethnohistorischer Beitrag zu einer jahrhundertelangen Nicht-Begegnung, A dissertation. Universitãt Wien, 2002. Native Patagonians - Contains primary sources and reference material
Francisco Pascasio Moreno was a prominent explorer and academic in Argentina, where he is referred to as Perito Moreno. Perito Moreno has been credited as one of the most influential figures in the Argentine incorporation of large parts of Patagonia and its subsequent development. Moreno was born to Juana Thwaites Madero in Buenos Aires. Raised in a traditional patrician family, he studied in local parochial schools, he shared his spare time with his father searching for artifacts and fossils and, at age 14, created a homemade museum of his extensive collections. Following graduation in 1872, he participated in the founding of the Argentine Scientific Society, he embarked on the first of the series of scientific expeditions that made him well known: a survey of Río Negro Territory uncharted country. In January 1876, he reached Lake Nahuel-Huapi in the southern Andes, on February 15, 1877, he discovered and named Lake Argentino, he explored numerous rivers in Patagonia. On March 2, he discovered and named Mount Fitz Roy, after the commander of the expedition of HMS Beagle in the 1830s.
The native people called it Chalten.' In 1880, Moreno went to France, where he spoke at a meeting of the Anthropology Society of Paris, discussing two prehistoric skulls he had unearthed in Río Negro territory. He believed one was from the Quaternary period, the other had ritual deformation in a manner similar to the skulls of the Aymara people of the Andes and Altiplano. After his return to Argentina, that year he embarked on his second major expedition to the territory of Patagonia, he was condemned to death. He escaped on March one day before the appointed execution. During this period he met the Tehuelche chief, hospitable to him. Inacayal led a resistance to the government, not surrendering until 1884. In 1882–1883 Moreno explored the Andes from Bolivia southward, in 1884–1885 he made new explorations of the territory south of the Río Negro and of Patagonia, he was appointed as chief of the Argentine exploring commission of the southern territories, member of numerous European scientific societies.
For his contributions to science, Moreno received a doctorate Honoris causa from the National University of Córdoba in 1877. He is known for his role in defending Argentine interests, he made defining surveys that led to the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Argentina. In honor to this contribution, the Argentinian glacier Perito Moreno, was named after him; these surveys and others yielded Moreno a vast collection of archaeological and anthropological data and artifacts, for which he founded an anthropological museum in Buenos Aires in 1877. In 1888, he founded the La Plata Museum of Natural History, the most important of its kind in South America; the scholar Jens Andermann has studied how Moreno's collection of artifacts at these two museums helped establish Argentine history, the government's claim to its territory. Through these scientific and cultural collections, Moreno contributed to the national mythology, he brought artifacts and materials in from remote regions to be examined and studies at the museum in the capital.
Andermann has written that such museums of natural history and anthropology "enabled and justified state control of both the natural resources and indigenous populations of Argentina." They helped develop the national narratives being shaped. Moreno served as the first Director of Museo de la Plata, guiding it until 1906; as director of La Plata Museum of Natural History Moreno sacked Florentino Ameghino in 1888 denying him entry to the museum. In 1902 Moreno was appointed Perito, in which capacity he disproved Chilean claims to the continental divide in the Southern Cone. Moreno proved that many Patagonian lakes draining to the Pacific Ocean were part of the Atlantic Ocean basin. During the quaternary glaciations, they had become dammed by moraines, which changed their outlets to drain to the west and Chilean territory. In 1903, Moreno donated some of the land given to him in order to establish the Nahuel Huapi National Park, he was appointed Assistant Director of the National Education Council in 1911 and helped secure funding for the Bernasconi Institute, a landmark primary school built in Buenos Aires.
It was constructed on land Moreno sold to Swiss Argentine industrialist Félix Bernasconi. Its archaeological and natural history museums were created in part with his extensive collections of artifacts, he established the Scouting and Guiding in Argentina, the Argentine Boy Scouts Association in 1912, joined former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt in a tour of Patagonia, he continued to oversee the La Plata Museum well after his official retirement. In years Moreno responded to political developments in South America at the time of World War I by joining the reactionary Argentine Patriotic League shortly before his death in 1919. Moreno was first interred in a La Recoleta Cemetery crypt. In 1944 his remains were reinterred at Centinela Isle in Lake Nahuel Huapi. Media related to Francisco Pascasio Moreno at Wikimedia Commons Works by Francisco Pascasio Moreno at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Francisco Moreno at Internet Archive Biography Biography His statue [http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ Zoologica Göttingen State and University Library Digitised Viaje á la Patagonia austral emprendido bajo los auspicios del gobierno nacional 1876-1877
Conquistador is a term used to refer to the knights and explorers of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes, they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries. After Columbus's discovery of the West Indies in 1492, the Spanish conquistadors, who were poor nobles from the impoverished west and south of Spain, began building up an American empire in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola as bases. Florida fell to Juan Ponce de León after 1513. From 1519 to 1521, Hernán Cortés waged a campaign against the Aztec Empire, ruled by Moctezuma II. From the territories of the Aztec Empire conquistadors expanded Spanish rule to northern Central America and parts of what is now southern and western United States. Other conquistadors took over the Inca Empire after crossing the Isthmus of Panama and sailing the Pacific to northern Peru.
As Francisco Pizarro subdued the empire in a manner similar to Cortés other conquistadores used Peru as base for conquering much of Ecuador and Chile. In Colombia and Argentina conquistadors from Peru linked up with other conquistadors arriving more directly from the Caribbean and Río de la Plata-Paraguay respectively. Conquistadors founded numerous cities many of them on locations with pre-existing pre-colonial settlements including the capitals of most Latin American countries. Besides conquests, Spanish conquistadors made significant explorations into the Amazon Jungle, the interior of North America, the Pacific Ocean. Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa and founding numerous coastal enclaves along the route. Following the discovery in 1492 by Spaniards of the New World with Christopher Columbus's first voyage there and the first circumnavigation of the world by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano in 1521, expeditions led by conquistadors in the 16th century established trading routes linking Europe with all these areas.
Human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time: from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of old-world diseases, including smallpox and typhus, led to the deaths of many indigenous inhabitants of the New World. In the 16th century 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. By the late 16th century gold and silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spain's total budget; the conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics and cavalry. Their units would specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups, their armies were composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were infantry equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically; some groups consisted of young men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties, soldiers with military training. These native forces included African slaves and Native Americans.
They not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, servants, teachers and scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves. Castilian law prohibited non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all conquistadors were Castilian. Many foreigners Hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592. German-born Nikolaus Federmann, Hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia; the Venetian Sebastiano Caboto was Sebastián Caboto, Georg von Speyer Hispanicised as Jorge de la Espira, Eusebio Francesco Chini Hispanicised as Eusebio Kino, Wenceslaus Linck was Wenceslao Linck, Ferdinand Konščak, was Fernando Consag, Amerigo Vespucci was Américo Vespucio, the Portuguese Aleixo Garcia was known as Alejo García in the Castilian army.
The origin of many people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Various occupations, such as sailors, fishermen and nobles employed different languages, so that crew and settlers of Iberian empires recorded as Galicians from Spain were using Portuguese, Catalan and Languedoc languages, which were wrongly identified. Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband. Women who travelled thus include María de Escobar, María Estrada, Marina Vélez de Ortega, Marina de la Caballería, Francisca de Valenzuela, Catalina de Salazar; some conquistadors had illegitimate children. European young men enlisted in the army. Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, theology, Latin and history, wrote letters and official documents for them. King's army officers taught military arts. An uneducated young recruit could become a military leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers based on merit. Others were born into hidalgo families, as such they were members of the Spanish nobility with some studies but without economic resources.
Some rich nobility families' members became soldiers or missionaries, but not the fi
Río Negro Province
Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. Neighboring provinces are from the south clockwise Chubut, Neuquén, Mendoza, La Pampa and Buenos Aires. To the east lies the Atlantic Ocean, its capital is Viedma. Other important cities include the ski resort town of General Roca and Cipolletti. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European explorer to visit the coasts of the provinces in 1520. Italian priest Nicolás Mascardi founded the Jesuit mission Nuestra Senora de Nahuel Huapi in 1670 at the shore of the Nahuel Huapi Lake, at the feet of the Andes range. Part of the Argentine territory called Patagonia, in 1884 it was organised into the Territorio Nacional del Río Negro and General Lorenzo Vintter was appointed as the territory's first governor, it was only in 1957. Río Negro is one of the six provinces, it is bounded to the north by the Colorado River which separates it from La Pampa Province, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the Andes and the Limay River.
The 42nd parallel south marks the southern limit of the province. With an area of 203,013 square kilometres, it is the 4th largest province by area; the climate of the province is temperate at low elevations, cold in the higher Andean peaks. The mean annual temperatures in the province are cold for its latitude owing to the marine currents to the east and higher altitude to the west. Mean annual temperatures in the province can vary, depending on distance from the sea; the northern parts of the province are the warmest, with a mean annual temperature of more than 15 °C while the coldest areas are found in the Cordillera where the mean annual temperatures are less than 10 °C. At the highest peaks, the mean annual temperature is less than freezing. Summer temperatures can exceed 40 °C although the mean January temperatures range from 20 to 24 °C. In contrast, the Andean region has milder summers with mean January temperatures of 15 °C or less, depending on the altitude. In July, mean temperatures range from 7 to 8 °C on the coast in the north to around 2 to 3 °C in the central plateau.
Relative humidity is lower in the central plateau where they average 50%. Along the coastal regions, humidity is higher with a mean annual humidity of 60% while the Andean region has the highest humidity with an average annual humidity exceeding 65% due to the lower temperatures there. In all locations, humidity is lower in the summer and higher in the winter owing to the higher temperatures in the summer; the Andes block most of the moisture from the Pacific Ocean from coming in, causing it to release most of the precipitation on its western slopes and as such, most of the province is dry, with a mean annual precipitation around 200 millimetres. Coastal areas and northern parts of the province receive a higher precipitation, where it can average above 300 millimetres a year; the Andean region receives the most precipitation with areas receiving a mean annual precipitation of 200 to 1,000 millimetres in which the precipitation gradient is strong and increases westwards. In some places, precipitation can exceed 3,000 millimetres a year.
Most of the Andean region has a rainfall pattern, Mediterranean like, similar to Central Chile in which most of the precipitation falls during the winter months and summers are dry. One dominant characteristic of the climate is the strong winds that are observed throughout the province. Summers tend to be windier than winters. Winds coming from the west and northwest are common, occurring 50% of the time. There is some tendency for the winds to come from the east on the coastal regions when sea breezes from the east can occur when westerly winds are weak, which can be felt up to 10 kilometres from the coast; the mean wind speed throughout the province varies with the northern parts having the lowest wind speeds while the highest altitude areas being the windiest. Except for the northern parts of the province, mean annual wind speeds exceed 4 metres per second. Cloud cover varies throughout the province, ranging from more than 60% in the Andean region to about 40% in the coastal areas; the central plateaus have intermediate amounts of cloud cover between these 2 regions.
As such, the Andean region is cloudier than the rest of the province. Sunshine ranges from 10–11 hours of sunshine/day in January to about 5 hours of sunshine/day to less than 3 hours of sunshine/day in July. According to the results from the 2010 census, the province has a population of 638,645 with 316,774 males and 321,871 females, it constitutes 1.6% of the total population in Argentina. This represented a 15.5% increase in the population compared to 2001 census which had 552,822 inhabitants. Amongst of all the provinces in Patagonia, it is the most populous, containing 30.4% of the total population in Patagonia. The province is home to four indigenous groups: The Tehuelches, the Puelches, the Pehuenches, the Mapuches. All of the indigenous population in the province are the Mapuches with the rest being small in number where their few descendants live in the neighbouring provinces; the Mapuches along with some of the Pehuenches lived in the western parts of the province although today, they live in the southern
Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public and to scientists. Dinosaurs show some of the most extreme variations in size of any land animal group, ranging from the tiny hummingbirds, which can weigh as little as three grams, to the extinct titanosaurs, which could weigh as much as 70 tonnes. Scientists will never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs to have existed; this is because only a tiny percentage of animals fossilize, most of these remain buried in the earth. Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare. Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork. Weight estimates for dinosaurs are much more variable than length estimates, because estimating length for extinct animals is much more done from a skeleton than estimating weight.
Estimating weight is most done with the laser scan skeleton technique that puts a "virtual" skin over it, but this is only an estimate. Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Predatory theropod dinosaurs, which occupied most terrestrial carnivore niches during the Mesozoic, most fall into the 100- to 1,000-kilogram category when sorted by estimated weight into categories based on order of magnitude, whereas recent predatory carnivoran mammals peak in the 10- to 100-kilogram category; the mode of Mesozoic dinosaur body masses is between ten metric tonnes. This contrasts with the size of Cenozoic mammals, estimated by the National Museum of Natural History as about 2 to 5 kg; the sauropods were the heaviest dinosaurs. For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, the largest were an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth.
Giant prehistoric mammals such as Paraceratherium and Palaeoloxodon were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, only modern whales surpass them in size. There are several proposed advantages for the large size of sauropods, including protection from predation, reduction of energy use, longevity, but it may be that the most important advantage was dietary. Large animals are more efficient at digestion than small animals, because food spends more time in their digestive systems; this permits them to subsist on food with lower nutritive value than smaller animals. Sauropod remains are found in rock formations interpreted as dry or seasonally dry, the ability to eat large quantities of low-nutrient browse would have been advantageous in such environments. One of the tallest and heaviest dinosaurs known from good skeletons is Giraffatitan brancai, its remains were discovered in Tanzania between 1907 and 1912. Bones from several similar-sized individuals were incorporated into the skeleton now mounted and on display at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin.
One of the longest complete dinosaurs is the 27-metre-long Diplodocus, discovered in Wyoming in the United States and displayed in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907. There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based on a small number of fragmentary fossils. Most of the largest herbivorous specimens on record were discovered in the 1970s or and include the massive titanosaur Argentinosaurus huinculensis, the largest dinosaur known from uncontroversial evidence, estimated to have been 50–96.4 metric tons and 30–39.7 m long. Some of the longest sauropods were those with exceptionally long, whip-like tails, such as the 29–33.5-metre-long Diplodocus hallorum and the 33- to 35-metre-long Supersaurus. In 2014, the fossilized remains of a unknown species of sauropod were discovered in Argentina; the titanosaur, named Patagotitan mayorum, would have been around 40m long and weighed around 77 tonnes, larger than any other found sauropod. The specimens found were remarkably complete more so than previous titanosaurs.
Research as of 2017 estimated Patagotitan to have been 37 m long It has been suggested that Patagotitan is not larger than Argentinosaurus and Puertasaurus. Tyrannosaurus was for many decades the largest best-known to the general public. Since its discovery, however, a number of other giant carnivorous dinosaurs have been described, including Spinosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus; these large theropod dinosaurs rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus in size, though more recent studies show some indication that Tyrannosaurus, although shorter, was the heavier predator. There is still no clear explanation for why these animals grew so much larger than the land predators that came before and after them; the largest extant theropod is the common ostrich, up to 2.74 metres tall and weighs between 63.5 and 145.15 kilograms. The smallest non-avialan theropod known from adult specimens may be Anchiornis huxleyi, at 110 grams in weight and 34 centimetres in length. However, some studies suggest that Anchiornis was an